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THE 



EDINBURGH NEW 

PHILOSOPHICAL JOUENAL. 



L * 



THE 

EDINBURGH NEW 

PHILOSOPHICAL JOURNAL, 



EXHIBITING A VIEW OF THE 



PROGRESSIVE DISCOVERIES AND IMPROVEMENTS 

I a! 

IN THE j \ A^i 



THE A 



SCIENCES AND 

£/STG< 



EDITORS. 

THOMAS ANDEBSON, M.D., F.E.S.E., 

REGIUS PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTRY, UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW; 

Sir WILLIAM JAEDINE, Bart, F.B.SS.L. and E. ; 
JOHN HUTTON BALFOUB, A.M, M.D, 

F.R.S., Sec. R.S. Edin., F.L.S., 

REGIUS KEEPER OF THE ROYAL BOTANIC GARDEN, AND PROFESSOR OF MEDICINE AND BOTANY, 
UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH. 

FOR AMERICA, 

HENEY D. BOGEBS, LL.D, Hon. F.E.S.E, F.G.S., 

STATE GEOLOGIST, PENNSYLVANIA; PROFESSOR OF NATURAL HISTORY IN THE 
UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW. 



JULY ...... OCTOBEE 1863. 



VOL. XVIII. NEW SEEIES. 



EDINBURGH : 

ADAM AND CHARLES BLACK. 

LONGMAN, BROWN, GREEN, & LONGMANS, LONDON. 

MDCCCLXIII. 




HUNTED BY NEILL AND COMPANY, EDINBURGH. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

1. On the Phenomena of the Scratched Rock Surfaces. 

By Theodore Kjerulf ; with a Notice of the Post- 
Pliocene Fossils of Southern Norway. By Dr Sars, 
Professor of Natural History, Christiania, . . 1 

2. Note on Lemania variegata of Agardh. By George 

Lawson, LL.D., Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry and 
Natural History in the Queen's University of Canada, 30 

3. Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Diatoms 

from the South Pacific. By R. K. Greville, LL.D., 
F.B.S.E., &c. (Plate I.), . . . .34 

4. On the question, Is Oxide of Arsenic, long used in a 

very small quantity, injurious to Man % By John 
Davy, M.D., F.R.SS. Lond. and Edin., . . 43 

5. Illustrations of the Significance of certain Ancient British 

Skull Forms. By Daniel Wilson, LL.D., Professor 
of History and English Literature, University College, 
Toronto, . . . . . .51 



1 CONTENTS. 

PAGR 

6. On Variation in the N amber of Fingers and Toes, and 

in the Number of Phalanges, in Man. By John 
Strutiiers, M.D., F.R.C.S., Lecturer on Anatomy 
in the Edinburgh School of Medicine. (Plate II.), . 83 

7. Extract from Report of the Royal Commission (consist- 

ing of Professor Lyon Playfair, C.B., Professor 
Huxley, and Lieut-Colonel Maxwell) on the Opera- 
tion of the Acts relating to Trawling for Herring on 
the Coasts of Scotland. . . . .112 

9. The Place and Power of Natural History in Colonisa- 
tion ; with special reference to Otago (New Zea- 
land). By W. Lauder Lindsay, M.D., F.R.S. Edin., 
F.L.S. and F.R.G.S. London, &c. (Concluded from 
last Number), . . . . .125 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES:— 

Royal Society of Edinburgh, .... 148 

Royal Physical Society of Edinburgh, . . . 159 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh, . » . .162 



SCI ENTIF1C INTELLIGENCE :— 

ZOOLOGY. 

1. Syrrhaptes paradoxus, .... 167 



CONTEXTS. Ill 



BOTANY. 



2. Botanical Collector in British Columbia, . .168 

3. Red Bark in India, . . . . .168 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

4. ftr Hector's Exploration of New Zealand, . .168 



CONTENTS, 



1. St Michael's Mount and the Phoenicians. By R. Ed- 

monds, Esq., . . . . .173 

2. Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Diatoms 

from the South Pacific. By R. K. Greville, LL.D., 
F.R.S.E., &c. Part II. (Plate IV.), . .181 

3. The. Bee-hive British Dwellings at Bosphrennis and 

Chapel Euny, near Penzance. By R. Edmonds, Esq., 
Plymouth, . . . . .187 

4. Notice of Observations by F. Cohn, Breslau, on the 

Contractile Filaments of the Stamens in Thistles. 
Communicated by Dr Alexander Dickson, . 190 

5. On Muscular Power. By H. F. Baxter, Esq., . 194 

§ 1. On the Mechanical Power of Muscles exerted 
during Muscular Contraction. § 2. On the Applica- 
tion of the Principle of Conservation of Force or 
Conservation of Energy to the explanation of Physio- 
logical Phenomena, . . . .194 



11 CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

G. Collection of the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scot- 
land. By Arthur Mitchell, A.M., M.D., Member 
of Council of the Scottish Meteorological Society, &c, 212 

7. On Revolving Storms. By Joseph John Murphy, Esq., 234 

8. Description of a Plant-house at Rockville, Blackrock, 

near Dublin. By Mr James Bewley, . .240 

9. The Great Mixed Forests of North America in Connec- 

tion with Climate. By J. B. Hurlburt, LL.D., . 244 

10. On the Colour of the Salmon. By John Davy, M.D., 

F.R.S. London and Edinburgh, &c, . . 247 

i 

11. Some Observations on the Eggs of Birds. By John 

Davy, M.D., F.B.S. London and Edinburgh, &c, . 249 

12. Description of the Fruit and Seed of Clerodendron 

Thomsonas. By Professor Balfour. (Plate V.), . 258 

13. Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature, . . 260 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES:— 

British Association, ..... 283 

Botanical Society of Edinburgh, . . . 322 



CONTENTS. ill 



SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE;— 

BOTANY. PAGE 

1. Report on the Bark and Leaves of Cinchona Succirubra 

grown in India. By J. E. Howard, Esq., . .331 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

2. Coagulation of the Blood. 3. Sir William Armstrong 
on the Consumption of Coal in Britain. 4. Bones 
in Drift. 5. Illuminating Power of the Electric 
Light, ...... 333, 334 

Publications received, ..... 335 



THE 



EDINBURGH NEW 

PHILOSOPHICAL JOURNAL. 



On the Phenomena of the Scratched Rock Surfaces. By 
Theodore Kjerulf ; with a Notice of the Post-Pliocene 
Fossils of Southern Norway. By Dr Sars, Professor of 
Natural History, Christiania.* 

[The following paper on the Boulder-clay of Norway, by 
the well-known Norwegian geologist, Kjerulf, is presented 
to our readers as likely to be interesting and instructive to 
the many students of this difficult subject, who may not 
have access to it in the original Norwegian. 

The translator thinks it proper to mention that he has 
not adhered slavishly to the original text, having thrown two 
papers of Mr Kjerulf into one, and having omitted all that 
was of merely local interest. The second diagram here given 
is not strictly the same as any one of the many supplied by 
Mr Kjerulf, but is an attempt to reproduce in small compass 
all the essential features to be gathered from the whole of 
these. The most important alteration which it presents is 
the introduction of the small heap of boulder clay, underlying 
the marl, in a somewhat more distinct shape than it bears 
in the original diagram. This change is, however, justified, 
not only in part, by the particular diagram referred to, but 
still more by many statements in the text, more especially 
in some of those more local descriptions which have been 
omitted. In all cases the translator has endeavoured to 

* Translated from the Danish, for the Edinburgh New Philosophical 
Journal, by the Kev. K. Boog Watson, F.K.S.E. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. I. JULY 1863. A 



2 Mr Theodore Kjerulf on the Phenomena 

reproduce, if not the very words, for which space was often 
wanting, yet at least always, and strictly, the views ex- 
pressed by Mr Kjerulf ; and wherever he has felt that the 
responsibility of a statement or an inference rested with 
himself, he has put it in the form of a note. — Translator. ~] 

It is well known that the surface of our mountains is in 
many places scoured, polished, striated, and bared, and that 
at times to a height of 4000 or even 5000 feet above the 
sea. All over the country such surfaces may be seen ; for as 
the country is covered with mountains, so are the mountains 
with scratches. These had attracted the attention of scien- 
tific miners in Sweden, but Sefstrom was the first to study 
them carefully. He remarked that the striae followed a 
determinate direction, and bore a relation to the course in 
which the boulders of the country had travelled. Thus the 
furrows follow a southerly direction ; and in like manner 
the porphyry blocks of Elfdal have been carried south to 
Landskab, where they now lie among totally, different for- 
mations. Hence he inferred that the direction pervading 
the entire phenomenon was one from north to south. He 
believed that the agent in all this was a flood — a vast mass 
of boulders, stones, debris, and sand swept away by water, 
which had poured across the mountains with incredible 
rapidity and force, sufficient to make the large stones slide 
over the surface of the mountains and scratch these, as a 
grain of sand will do when made to grate along under the 
finger over a marble slab ; while the smaller masses were 
ground against each other, and left piled up in the long 
backed isar of Sweden, the Kaer of our Smaalehn district. 

Sef strom's paper is found in the Kongl. Vetenskaps Akad. 
Handl, 1836. 

Hoffmann, Pusch, and Bohtlingk, suggested a different 
direction for the phenomena. They showed that the erratic 
blocks are distributed over the flat of Northern Europe in 
a great circle, of which Scandinavia and Finland form the 
centre — that in Northern Eussia, the blocks are Finnish ; 
in Poland, are mixed with Swedish ; in the Netherlands 
and Nortli Germany, are Norwegian and Swedish — that 
beyond those limits the blocks have not travelled — and that 



of the Scratched Rock Surfaces. 3 

in Finland, at the White Sea, and on the northern glacial 
ocean, the striation radiates outwards. 

If, then, there was a stream, it was not moving in any one 
direction alone, but must have had, in addition, an outward 
lateral motion along the axis of its general course ; and the 
question arose whether the motion was from one centre or 
from several. The utmost attention was now directed to the 
striations in various localities, and hundreds of observations 
were collected ; blocks were carefully tracked back to their 
original site, the weather or exposed, and the lee side of 
rocks were attentively noted, and the materials accumulated 
became enormous. These were tabulated on maps by 
Horbye and Kordam in 1857, &c. 

As to the direction of the scratches, there can be now no 
doubt ; but till this was ascertained, the question whence 
and whether the grinding down proceeded could only be 
determined from the somewhat doubtful indications of the 
"weather and lee sides" and the boulders. Now, however, 
if we examine the maps, we shall observe spots from which 
the arrow markings radiate out in different directions. 
Such spots must have been the centres of motion, and they 
lie, it will be found, in the higher districts of our mountains; 
or where, at a lower level, they occur in the form of cross 
scratches, they may indicate the successive application of 
friction in slightly different directions. 

Thus far, then, we have got; the phenomenon itself is no 
fiction, however erroneous may be the explanation of it by 
a flood. Innumerable observations with the compass have 
shown that the scratches and striations are there, that there 
must further have been various centres whence the pheno- 
mena originated, and finally, that in some places at least, 
the force has operated again and again. 

When now we consider that glacier ice, with the debris 
which it carries along with it, produces striations on the 
surface of the rocks over which it is ever, though slowly, 
advancing ; when we consider, further, that a glacier moves 
boulders either involved in the debris of the end and side 
moraines, or in the form of huge, scattered, sharp-angled 
blocks, which in one way or other have reached the surface 
of the glacier, and now share in its movements, we may 



4 Mr Theodore Kjerulf on the Phenomena 

infer that we have obtained the key to all the phenomena 
of friction which we have to explain. The comparatively 
small scale of the glacier phenomena with which we are 
acquainted, leaves, indeed, many difficulties in our way ; 
but here, fortunately, we meet with Mr Kink's valuable ob- 
servations, prosecuted during the many years of his stay on 
the west coast of Greenland, of glacier action in that 
country. From his descriptions, it is obvious that here, as 
in our own land, we have an enormous stretch of country ; 
that this country is completely covered with ice, which, on 
the west coast, is ever slowly pressing outwards to the sea, 
where it "calves;" that immense loads of these ice " calves" 
are every year floated away by currents in the same con- 
stant direction ; and finally, that this ice-cake attains a 
thickness of no less than 1000 feet. 

Here, then, all the conditions of our problem are provided 
for. Let us figure to ourselves a universal ice covering, a 
complete glaciation instead of mere individual glaciers, and 
the phenomenon of friction takes its place harmoniously 
with all the other phenomena of the glacial epoch. In the 
existing state of Greenland is the very analogy we needed 
to justify our supposition— a gigantic cake of ice slowly 
moving outwards, and with the might of its tremendous 
pressure, stripping, polishing, and striating the rocks over 
which it glides, just like a common glacier, only in so much 
greater a proportion as the ice-cake of Greenland surpasses 
any glacier of Switzerland. 

I shall endeavour to show that, in explaining the pheno- 
mena of friction, we know of no better agent than the ice- 
cake. 

In respect of the direction of the scratches inferences have 
been drawn, (1.) From the boulders or erratic blocks. (2.) 
From the so-called " lee and w T eather sides." All the ar- 
rows on the striatum maps have been laid down on the 
supposition that the blocks were moved by the same stream 
which was striating the rocks, and that all this tallies with 
the lee and weather sides which present themselves to our 
notice. Now, here it is important to observe, 

1. That the boulders in the lower districts do not indi- 
cate the direction either whence or whither of the friction. 



of the Scratched Bock Surfaces. 5 

The boulders which we usually call erratic — great, generally 
sharp-cornered blocks which easily catch the eye — have 
doubtless been moved, but not always by the same "stream" 
which scratched. There is here a confounding of quite dif- 
ferent things. These blocks in the lower districts lie on 
the top of the boulder-clay banks. How could it, then, be 
they that scratched the rocks. But it is precisely the erra- 
tic rocks which most catch the eye, lying as they do on the 
surface, large in size, sharp at their edges, and easily re- 
cognised. On the other hand who has ever broken his 
hammer on the true ' scratchers/ — the stones great and 
small — crushed, rubbed, rounded, and broken — that lie at the 
bottom of the boulder-clay banks, — these heaps of debris 
which rest immediately on the rock? 

Things are someAvhat different in the higher districts. 
There one may, indeed, more safely draw inferences from 
the erratic blocks; but there, what with the vastness of the 
field and the fewness of the observers, we know too little of 
the minute lithology to entitle us to assert that any particular 
foreign block we may meet can only have proceeded from 
one special bed. If we could do this, we could indeed 
determine the direction of the moving power ; but this we 
cannot do. Further, the blocks have been moved in various 
ways, and they cannot therefore be depended on for indi- 
cating how the arrows showing direction of motion should 
be laid down in the maps. 

2. There has been too much of rash talking about lee and 
weather sides. In some cases such phenomena really exist ; 
but such cases are rare ; and generally the gentle slope on one 
side, and the steep break on the other, which have been de- 
scribed as instances of lee and weather sides, arise simply from 
the constitution and position of the rock itself. The moun- 
tains of Eggedal, for instance, all seem to show fine examples 
of a weather side towards the north, and a lee side towards the 
south, but this arises merely from the lie of the schist strata 
which dip to the north. Similarly, the porphyry hillocks in 
Asker and Barum seem to have weather sides to the north 
and lee sides to the south ; but the cause of this is, that the 
porphyry beds dip north conformably with the underlying 
sandstone. When we are told, therefore, that the observer 



6 Mr Theodore Kjerulf on the Phenomena 

has remarked fine examples of weather sides at a distance, 
we have good ground for distrusting his conclusions. 

3. As to the marking of the arrows on the maps they 
often convey a false impression. The striations do indeed 
run towards valleys, and in a general way follow the lines 
of the valleys ; but even the mountain plateaus have their 
valleys, which do not appear in maps of the small scale 
ordinarily used ; were these marked, we should at once see 
that the friction has followed the valleys. 

4. Finally, there is this to be laid down as a first principle, 
that the mere study of the phenomena and direction by com- 
pass of the scratches, and of the often quite independent 
boulders, is not sufficient to determine whether the agent 
which produced them was a stream or a glacier. Brogniart 
has called the striations the wheel-ruts of the phenomenon ; 
but we have kept too much to the ruts, and forgotten the 
carriage and team. The loose masses, which owed their 
presence to this phenomenon, have passed unobserved. It is 
these we must study, if we are to understand the pheno- 
mena of friction ; and it is as a name for these, the clay- 
sand and masses of debris connected with the phenomena 
of friction, that the term, " the Glacial Formation" has been 
introduced. And in fact there is more to be learned from 
the study of a single example of the glacial phenomena, in 
which all the various members of the formation are ex- 
hibited, than from thousands of scratches traced by the 
compass. 

I proceed, therefore, to examine the glacial formation in 
detail as it presents itself in the district around Christiania. 

The glacial formation includes masses of debris, blocks of 
stone, varieties of clay, and layers of sand. The term gla- 
cial is applied to it, partly because the oldest fossil shells 
found in it are of arctic species, and partly because the 
debris, the scratched rock surfaces and the boulders, con- 
nected as these are together, indicate that when they were 
produced the whole country was covered with ice. The 
entire formation may be divided into an earlier and a later 
group, of which the earlier alone is strictly glacial ; but 
since the material of which the later group is composed 
w;is ;ilso originally glacial, and since the two groups are 



of the Scratched Rock Surfaces. 7 

very closely connected with one another, the name of the 
Glacial Formation may, for shortness sake, be applied to 
both. 

The older and strictly glacial group consists of, 1. Glacial 
banks and debris heaps. 2. Glacial sand and marly clay, 
with the oldest glacial shell-beds. The later and post-glacial 
group consists of, 1. Shell-clay and shell-bearing sand — 
the later post-glacial shell-beds. 2. Brick-clay and inland 
clay. 3. Sandy clay and flood sand. 

Following these is a third group of still later alluviums, 
river deltas, ' peat mosses, and river sand and gravel, all 
going on at the present day. 

I. First, then, as to the older and strictly glacial group. 
(1.) The first part of this which we have to consider is the 
glacial banks. They consist of sand mixed with clay or 
with debris in general (aur), blocks, and the so-called rolled 
stones, which, however, are not rolled but scratched stones. 
Fragments of the most varied rocks are here mixed together. 
The position of these heaps of sand debris and blocks is 
always immediately on the furrowed rock surface itself. 
These banks are present everywhere, and everywhere are 
composed of the same heterogeneous materials. On the hills, 
at an elevation of 600 or 700 feet above the sea, this is the 
only formation present. At the lower levels it only appears in 
banks (Asar, in Swedish ; Eaer, in Norwegian ; Kaims, in 
Scotch) which rise amidst flat expanses of clay and sand, or 
sometimes appear in detached hillocks. In this form, which 
belongs to these banks in the lower districts, they rise to a 
level above the sea of from 6 to 700 feet. Such lower level 
glacial banks either stretch in long-backed ridges, which 
project markedly above the clay and sand flats, or lie com- 
pletely buried in the interior of elevated sand plateaus, 
where their form and extension can in general only be in- 
ferred from the position of small lakes in their bendings, 
or from the curves which rivers and brooks, unable to cut 
through them, are compelled to follow. But the higher 
level banks, those, that is to say, which are found in the 
upper parts of the valleys and on the mountain slopes, rise 
to all elevations, even to a great height, sometimes fring- 



8 Mr Theodore Kjerulf on the Phenomena 

ing the valleys as great heaps of debris, sometimes stretch- 
ing right across, directly transverse to the course of the 
stream. 

All these masses were originally true moraines. 

It seldom happens that a good section of these banks can 
be seen; but as a rule they consist of debris (aur), with 
sand, clay, small and large stones, all irregularly heaped 
together without any trace of stratification. They rest 
directly on the surface of the rock, and are obviously the 
oldest of all the superficial deposits. 

Besides such masses as have been now described, and 
which really deserve the name of banks, smaller heaps of 
debris and blocks exist, generally lying covered up and 
hidden, or protected by some projection of the rocks. Their 
origin and composition is exactly the same as those of the 
banks, from which they differ only in being less likely to 
attract notice. These are the glacial debris heaps. 

(2.) There are also found in some places, resting imme- 
diately on the scratched surface of the rock, thin alternating 
layers of sand and clay. The sand is chiefly reddish and 
brown in colour, and sometimes preponderates decidedly over 
the clay. The sand and clay are occasionally twenty-five feet 
thick. Accumulations of big stones are at times found at 
the bottom of this deposit, in places where the form of the 
ground had afforded them shelter. Such stones are also 
scattered irregularly through the bed. This marly clay was 
formed from the destruction of Silurian limestones and 
schists. It was in all probability carried down by muddy 
rivers from the inland ice, and deposited as mud wherever 
the sea presented the necessary conditions of stillness. 
Freshly dug, this clay is always damp, often dripping with 
water. Its colour is bluish, seldom brown. Traces of a 
thin leafy or stratified structure may often be seen. Lime 
is pretty uniformly present to the extent of about two per 
cent. Exposed to the air this marly clay disintegrates more 
or less, but gets baked together again by rain. Its presence 
may generally be recognised by the thick clumps of the 
tussilago which it bears. 

Balls or knots so round as almost to seem artificial are 
found in this marl, and have been considered as concretions 



of the Scratched Ilock Surfaces. 9 

produced by the presence of a larger quantity of lime than 
usual ; but they are much more probably fragments of the 
Silurian limestones, rubbed and worn to their present shape 
during the ice period, by the same agency as broke and 
scoured and polished and crushed and rubbed all the surface 
of our rocks, and so prepared the stores of debris that form 
our boulder-clay. Such rounded lumps or balls are the dis- 
tinctive characteristic by which to recognise this marl. 

The marl often contains also extremely thin and small 
scales of mica, which glitter in the sun, — a proof how slowly 
this marly clay was deposited, and how still the water in 
which it was allowed to sink. It was only when they 
came to rest in the bosom of the deep and quiet ocean that 
the mud-laden waters which poured from the inland ice 
could part with their burden ; and in harmony with this we 
find, that the maximum height at which this marl is found 
is 450 feet above the present sea-level, a height which, as 
we shall see, corresponds exactly with that of the older 
marine shell-beds — [both facts thus pointing to the same 
conclusion, — the greater elevation of the sea in the later 
part of the glacial period, while our present boulder-clays 
were being formed in the interior of the land, and deposited 
along the shores and in the neighbouring shallows of the 
glacial ocean. — Translator .] 

Where this marl is absent, the reason will be found to 
be the absence from the neighbourhood of such Silurian 
rocks as alone supply the materials from which it is formed. 

As has been already mentioned, the marl sometimes inter- 
changes endlessly with thinner or thicker layers of glacial 
sand, and wherever it does not rest directly on the scratched 
rock below, it is only separated by glacial sand or debris. 

In general, no shells are found in the marly clay, the ice- 
cold fresh glacier water from which it was deposited being 
unfavourable to molluscan life, which would only develop 
itself in the salt water of the greater depths, or where at 
least the fresh water was largely mingled with the sea. — 
[These localities are still probably hidden from us below 
the present sea-level. We have, perhaps, instances of them 
in the Elie bank (p. 27), and the Drobak bank (p. 25). — 
Translator.] 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. XVIII. NO. 1. JULY 1863. B 



10 



Mr Theodore Kjerulf on the Phenomena 



The few shells I have met with in the marl, or in the con- 
temporary glacial sand, have been ascertained by Professor 
Sars to be either strictly arctic species, or marked by size 
and other peculiarities, with a distinctively arctic character. 

Shell-beds, however, are found, which, though not actually 
in the marl, are yet closely connected with it, both in the 
strictly glacial character of their shells, and in the range 
above the sea-level to which they ascend. These beds are 
loose heaps of entire and broken shells, sometimes without 
the addition of any other substances, sometimes mixed with 
sand and sandy clay. They are, in fact, true littoral banks. 

These shell-beds must not be confounded with the later 
shell-beds. The latter belong to the post-glacial period, 
when the sea stood at a lower elevation than before. The 
true glacial shell-beds, of which we are now speaking, lie at 
a level of from 400 to 470 feet, and belong to that earlier 
period, when the land was depressed not less than .500 or 
COO feet below the present level of the sea. They are pro- 
bably contemporaneous, or nearly so, with the glacial banks 
formerly described, and with the sands and marls which 
have been mentioned as resting directly on the furrowed 
surface of the underlying rock. 

The accompanying diagram may make this more intelli- 
gible. 

Old sea-level about 600 feet above the present. 




'ifrm^iii.l/i'illliiili'llHiiiiillMriiiiii'.ill!! !! 



i 'I! ' 



Present sea-level. 



Fie. 1. 



At the bottom is granite ; above this is (1.) Sand and 
marl, associated with the cotemporary shell beds marked-!-; 
(2.) Are the later clays ; (3.) Sand. The sand and marl 
marked (1.), and the shell beds +, belong to the earlier 
glacial period, during the latter part of which the sea-level 



of the Scratched Rock Surfaces. 11 

stood at least 600 feet higher than at present. Any shells 
of this period, at the lower levels, will he found deeply buried 
under later deposits, while at the higher levels they lie 
exposed. 

(2.) and (3.) The clays and sands, and their accompany- 
ing shell-bed marked © belong to the later period, when 
the sea-level had fallen 400 feet. The higher levels being 
by this elevation of the land protruded above the sea, the 
shell-beds already found on them were preserved from being 
buried under later deposits. None of the later shell-beds 
are therefore to be found at this elevation, but they present 
themselves at the lower levels, at or near the surface, among 
the later clays and sands. 

II. We now come to the second or post-glacial group of 
deposits, — (1.) The first member of which is the later shell- 
clay to which we adverted above. Like the marl, it is de- 
rived from disintegrated Silurian strata, but more especially 
from the clay schists of that age. When freshly dug out, it 
is generally of a bluish-grey colour, and less wet than the 
marl. It has been deposited in salt water, and very often 
contains well-preserved shells of the same species as are 
still living on our coasts. In position it is superior to the 
marl and glacial sand ; but it does not rise to so high a level 
above the sea as these, its maximum height being about 
350 feet. In general, it does not ascend above 250 or 270 
feet. This shell-clay is sometimes, though not always, 
mixed with lime. It is frequently worked for bricks. 

(2.) The brick-clay in the marine beds is identical with 
the inland clays of the higher levels, from which it only 
differs in the greater thickness and purity of the banks in 
which it presents itself. It is generally blue or brown in 
colour, and these shades sometimes alternate in clods or 
stripes. No shells are found in the brick-clay. 

In the course of the valleys this clay is found at all eleva- 
tions deposited in old lake basins ; it disappears, however, 
in proportion as we advance into the quartzose districts. 
Above the old sea-level it is very often mixed with sand, 
and contains layers, more or less thick, of fine sand. Since 
even at the lower levels it contains no shells, we must infer 



12 Mr Theodore Kjerulf on the Phenomena 

that it has been deposited from streams of fresh water. It 
overlies the shell-clay. 

(3.) Sandy clay and stratified flood sand, which alternate 
with another. The clay is generally light-grey in colour, 
and more or less mixed with fine sand, in consequence of 
which it is less plastic, and when dry does not stick to the 
tongue. The transition from sandy clay to clayey sand is 
sometimes complete. The sand is brown or grey, and the 
beds vary much in thickness. Here and there large gather- 
ings of boulder stones may be found in it, especially towards 
the top. 

The source whence this sandy clay and river sand were 
derived is the old glacial banks of the boulder-clay. It was 
from these banks that the sands and clays were washed, 
and the finer the particles the greater the distance to which 
they were removed. Hence the sand generally lies nearest 
the boulder-clay banks, while the sandy clay rests further 
off. Hence, also, we find sandy plateaus so constantly as- 
sociated with the boulder-clay banks at the lower levels ; 
for there these banks have uniformly been reached and 
washed by the sea when it stood at its former higher level. 
In Southern Norway, however, it must be remarked, that 
the distribution of the sand is especially to the south of the 
banks, a fact which seems to indicate the influence of fresh- 
watercurrents pouring out seawardfrom the land on thenorth. 

No shells are found in this sandy clay or river sand, which 
overlie the previously mentioned clays, Nos. (1) and (2). 
The height to which they rise is, at the lower levels, largely 
dependent on the original height of the nearest boulder-clay 
banks. Thus, in the more open country, they have been 
traced to elevations of from 400 to 600 feet. Up the river 
courses again they rise to any elevation, so long as the 
valley slopes exist, and the lake basins continue to present 
themselves. 

The accompanying section shows the succession of the 
various beds. They rest on the underlying granite. On 
the surface of the granite, where an angle of the rock has 
afforded shelter, is a heap of boulder-clay with boulders 1.* 

* Such heaps of boulder-clay below the marl belong to the oldest part of 
posit, and arc peculiarly interesting, as the only records of that earlier 



of the Scratched Rock Surfaces. 



13 



Overlying this, but resting generally on the rock, is the 
marl 2 of No. I. division. To this succeeds the second di- 
vision : 1. The shell-clay, &c. ; 2. The brick-clay ; 3. Sand 



.O 




3. Sand. 

2. Brick-clay. 



— ' — - a- 1. Shell-clay. 



No. II. 



Uhl 



l - i ' >;m;i i;ii 
4 1 i ! ' ! > • ■' - - ' ! . i ' i \\ 



. .mm i mm 

i • i; |li •,. f, 4 NM'i i 
i 1 !'i H'l'r niii-ii.'i'! 



2. Marl and sandy 
clay. 

1. Boulder-clay &> No. 1 
stones in shel- j 
tered corner. I 



Granite. 



lin 



Fig. 2. 



or sandy clay, on which large boulders rest loosely. Through 
these a valley has been cut, where, however, the section 
presented in its banks is as often obscured by alluvium. 

A diminution of the glacial cold, and along with this a 
great thawing of the inland ice, seems to have occurred be- 
tween the deposition of the marl with its associated shell- 
beds and the later shell-clay, for the more markedly arctic 
character of the Fauna is wanting in the latter clay. Hence 
the division of the beds into the glacial and the post-glacial 
groups. 

This shell-clay was a regular marine formation, deposited 
in a perfectly orderly and quiet state of things ; but after 
its formation there must have followed a time of floods, 
during which the many dams, forming basins and lakes in 
the valleys, were cut through, and the clay, the sand, the 



period which we possess. They were formed at the same time that the rock 
surfaces in the lower districts were striated under the general covering of 
ice. The greatest mass of the boulder- clay, however, formed during that 
period, seems to have been either thrust into the sea aud left at depths still 
below our reach, or so mixed up with the boulder-clay of a later period as to be 
undistinguishable from it. That our existing boulder-clays generally belong 
to a later period is obvious, since they are contemporary with the marls, which 
are a sea deposit, formed on the submerged land, which had previously been 
furrowed and scratched by the old ice-covering grinding over its surface, and 
leaving its detritus only in such places as were protected from the motion of 
the ice. — [Translator.'] 



14 Mr Theodore Kjerulf on the Phenomena 

debris and rolled stones of the interior, were washed further 
and further down. The striking absence of fossil shells 
in the brick-clay, and in the sandy clay and flood sand ; 
the complete identity of the brick-clay and the inland fresh- 
water clays ; the expansion of the plateaus of stratified sand 
around original banks, — all these strongly indicate such a 
flood period. 

III. In regard to the third group (p. 7), consisting of 
alluvium, peat, and other fresh-water formations, it is un- 
necessary to say more, than that their extension at certain 
points indicates that the lakes to which they owe their origin 
formerly stood at a higher level than that which they now 
occupy. 

From an examination then of the whole upper covering 
of our country, we learn that the older part of this forma- 
tion has a markedly arctic character, and that the oldest 
masses of all are moraines. We are entitled, therefore, I 
think, to conceive of Norway, at the close of the Tertiary 
period, as being in a true glacial condition. Its ice cover- 
ing had an outward movement like the present inland ice 
of Greenland. By this ice " rolled stones" and debris were 
borne outwards to the sea-shore, where large and small 
blocks of stone were floated off, and carried away on ice-floes. 
Hence originated those huge moraine masses (far too vast to 
have been produced by mere separate valley glaciers) which 
cover the whole of the flat land near the coast, and which 
may be traced on both sides of the Christiania Fjord. From 
this universal covering of moving land ice resulted the 
first great network of scorings and scratches, as well as 
the moraine masses extending out to the edge of the sea. 
Then followed a diminution of the glacial intensity. In- 
stead of a continuous covering of ice, there were separate 
glaciers, which laboured down from the various mountain 
slopes into the open valleys at their feet. All the loose 
material which lay in their way they bore off as moraines, 
either along their sides or in front, or where two valleys 
converged as medial moraines. The process of striation 
thus went on anew in all these valleys ; and in this way two 



of the Scratched Bock Surfaces. 15 

different sets of scratches, lying across one another, might 
sometimes be produced. 

In our larger valleys we find masses of debris, stones, 
and sand, lying like long terraces along the one or the 
other side, sometimes along both. These are side moraines. 
Further down, nearer the mouth of the valleys, and also 
higher up, more among the mountains themselves, the same 
masses — banks of boulder-clay — lie right across the valleys. 
These are terminal moraines, left where the glaciers pushed 
out in the lower districts towards the coast, or higher up 
among the mountains, as the last glaciers shrunk and re- 
treated. 

The glaciation ceased by a gradual melting and disap- 
pearance of the ice. During this perhaps protracted period, 
the mud-laden glacier rivers were bearing down with them 
the detritus with which they were charged, depositing it in 
the sea or in inland lakes, wherever the water was suffi- 
ciently still to allow it to sink. Hence our marine and lake 
clays. Kunning water, too, acted on the moraines, washing 
out the sand from these masses of debris, and spreading it 
around and over them. Hence the stratified upper part of 
the banks and the sand spread far out over the clay around 
the old banks. 

On the coast, where the sea received the matter thus 
brought down, shell-fish made their appearance, partly 
buried in the clay, partly in the form of entire beds. These 
beds are found up to a height of 500 feet. To this extent, 
therefore, the land must have stood at a lower elevation. 

Let us now see in what order this glacial matter has been 
sorted and heaped up by the sea : — 

At the bottom of all we find, except where they have 
been afterwards swept away, sand and rolled stones. These 
were the scratching agents. It was they which were 
dragged by the ice across the rock faces ; and if we are to de- 
duce from the blocks the direction of the friction, it is these 
blocks we must examine ; but as they are most frequently 
broken, reduced in size, and often rounded, they are gene- 
rally called not blocks but rolled stones, though the name is 
not strictly correct, and they should rather be called " scour- 
ing stones." They have not been rolled, but have mutually 



16 Mr Theodore Kjerulf on the Phenomena 

crushed one another, and, fixed in the ice like a diamond in 
a glazier's cutting-instrument, they have scored the hill side 
with scratches and furrows. 

Over these " scouring stones" and sand lie the various 
clays : — Calcareous and marl clays, in such districts as 
presented Silurian limestones and schists to supply detritus 
to the glacier rivers. Above this, shell-clay, wherever the 
height was not too great, or the streams of cold fresh-water 
too powerful to admit of molluscan life. Then follows brick- 
clay without shells, belonging probably to the time when 
the flush of water from the land was at its height. Finally, 
sand and sandy clay above all. 

Stones brought from a distance may be found here and 
there through all these layers ; but most distinctively the 
erratic blocks are found lying stranded on the top of the 
banks. (See fig. 2, p. 13). All parties are agreed that ice 
was the agent which brought down these blocks. 

When moraines had been left stretching across the val- 
leys, they would often in the upper reaches become, during 
the time of the glacier's melting, a dam for an inland lake. 
The floating particles carried along by the river would be 
deposited in such quiet basins, and hence come those inland 
clays which lie at heights above that of the marine forma- 
tion. In such lakes, just as in the sea below, ice-floes might 
drift about laden with small and large blocks, which thus 
became erratic. Even in the ice itself, far up in the in- 
terior, large temporary lakes might be formed when the ice 
was melting rapidly ; and there blocks might be drifted on 
floes in a totally different direction from that in which the 
inland ice itself was moving and tracing its furrows. This 
may serve to explain how in some places the direction in 
which the erratic blocks have journeyed does not correspond 
with that of the scratchings. 

Such phenomena, then, as we have been considering, could 
not be the work of a flood. A flood strong enough to 
furrow both hard and soft rock, and even to give their 
shape to the mountains, with their weather and lee sides — 
a flood of such incredible force could not have failed to 
sweep away before it all these loose masses of scratched 
stones and debris of sand and mud. Yet here we find them 



of the Scratched Rock Surfaces. 1 7 

set down, sometimes in the midst of a valley, sometimes 
along its edges, nay, sometimes stretching right across, with 
only a small opening cut through at one side, obviously by 
a stream quietly escaping from a lake. Nor can we see 
whence such a flood could come. The mountain tops 
would not supply it ; nor would a sea wave in any form pro- 
duce the regularity and uniformity of the phenomena, nor 
transport the boulders, nor trace the furrows. 

Neither is Sir Charles LyelFs theory of floating icebergs 
much more satisfactory. Even were the striations such as 
icebergs could produce, which is not the case, some traces of 
the sea and its inhabitants would surely have been found on 
the higher levels, depressed beneath the sea, as the land, on 
this theory, was to the extent of 4000 feet at least ; since to 
that height the scratching has been distinctly traced. Arctic 
shells are indeed found abundantly among our clays and sands, 
but never at a greater height than 600 feet above the sea. 

Further, it must be remembered that oscillations of the 
land, of such frequency and extent as this theory imagines, 
are eminently improbable in Norway, where the entire series 
of the secondary and tertiary strata are wanting, and where, 
therefore, the land has been singularly stationary. 



Shells from the Earlier and Later Beds of the Glacial For 
mation. By Dr M. Sars, Professor of Natural History, 
Christiania. 

[The only beds here examined are in the southern part 
of Norway, and even of these the author states that the 
examination is far from complete. In explanation of the 
author s headings in the following list, it must be remem- 
bered that while the beds are to be found at all elevations 
from the sea -level to a height of 500 feet, yet at the lower 
levels (up to 200 feet) such shell-beds as present themselves 
on the surface belong to a later period ; while the older beds 
must be sought either on the surface at the higher levels, 
or buried deep under the later clays and sands at the lower 
levels. But while this holds true in general, partial excep- 
tions to the rule may be expected, as in the case mentioned 

NEW SERIES.— VOL. XVIII. NO. I. JULY 1863. C 



18 Dr M. Sars on Shells from the Earlier and 

at p. 25, where a current lias probably prevented the ac- 
cumulation of later deposits. — Translator.'] 

Note. — The lists of shells are printed exactly as given by the author. 
Where his name is not the one received here, the translator has supplied the 
other with the mark syn. 

HIGHER LYING (OLDEST) SHELL BEDS. 
Killebo in Rakkestadt. Height 400 to 440 feet. 

This bed rests partly on the solid rock, partly on an inter- 
vening bed of clay four or five feet thick. 

Balanus porcatus, da Costa, Darw. B. crenatus, Brug., Darw. 
Ochthosia Stroemii (Lepas), Mull., syn. Verruca stromia. 

Serpula triquetra, L. S. vermicularis, Mull. 

Trophon clathratus (Murex), h.,syn. Fusus banffius var. major, 
Loven. Nassa reticulata (Buccinum), L. Natica nitida, 
Don. Littorinalittorea (Turbo), L. L.littoralis(Nerita),L. 
Trochus turaidus, Mont. T. magus. L. Puncturella noa- 
china (Patella), L. Lepeta caeca (Patella), Mull., syn. Propili- 
dium ancyloide. Pilidium fulvum (Patella), Miill. Anomia 
ephippium, L. A. patelliformis, L. Ostrea edulis, L. 
Pecten islandicus, Mull. Mytilus edulis, L Modiola 

modiolus(Mytilus),L. Cardium edule, L. Lucina boreal is 
(Venus), L. Venus ovata,Penn. Tapes pullastra (Venus), 
Mont. Astarte arctica, Gray. A. compressa, Mont. A. 
elliptica, Brown. Tellina proxima, Brown. Mya truncata,L. 
Saxicava pholadis (Mytilus), L., syn. S. rugosa. S. arctica 
(Mya), L. 

Skjccldalen in A remark. Height 470 feet. 

On the rock rests a layer of clay of varying thickness, in 
which are shells. Above this is the shell -bed ten feet thick, 
in the midst of which occurs a bed of clay deposited from 
water. 

Balanus porcatus, da Costa, Darw. 

Trophon clathratus (Murex), L., var. major Loven. Buc- 
cinum undatum, L. B. gibnlandicum, Chemn. Natica 
clausa, Sow. Tapes pullastra (Venus), Mont. Tellina 
proxima, Brown. Mya truncata, L., et var. Udewallensis, 
Forh. Saxicava pholadis (Mytilus), L., syn. S. rugosa. 

( Five new species since found. Names not given. — 
Translator.) 



Later Beds of the Glacial Formation. 1 9 

Skullerud in Holand. Height 450 feet. 

On the top is a layer of sand mixed with shells, below is 
a sandy clay with shells. At the bottom common sandy clay. 

Balanus porcatus, da Costa, Darw. 

Tritonium despectum (Murex), L., syn. Fusus antiquus. Tro- 
phon clathratus (Murex), L., var. major Loven. Buccinum 
grbnlandicum, Chemn. Natica clausa, Sow. Pecten islandi- 
cus, Miill. Mytilus edulis, L. Tellina solidula, L. 

(Thirteen new species since found. Names not given. — 
Translator.) 

B jorum in Asker. Height 460 feet. 

Tritonium despectum (Murex), L., syn. Fusus antiquus. Buc- 
cinum undatum, L. Natica grbnlandica, Beck. Aporrhais 
pes pelicani (Strombus), L. Littorina littorea (Turbo), L. 
Dentalium abyssorum, Sars. Pecten danicus, Chemn. 
Leda pernula (Area), Miill. Cyprina islandica (Venus), 
L. Panopaea norvegica (Mya), Spengl. 

OLDEST CLAY UNDERLYING LATER DEPOSITS. 

Brynd, near Christiania. Height 200 feet and upwards. 

The shells occur in a sandy marl, with thin layers of 
sand interspersed. 

Siplionodentalium vitreum, Sars. Area raridentata, Wood, 
var. major, Sars. Yoldia pygmaaa (Nucula), Miinst. 

Somewhat Higher. 
Pecten danicus, Chemn. 

Skibtvedt. Height 90 feet. 

Close beside the church ; on the very edge of the Eiver 
Glommen, and pretty deep below the surface of the clay- 
flat ; in beds of sand, which occur in clay beds. 

Siphonodentalium vitreum, Sars. Area raridentata, Wood, 
var. major, Sars. Leda pernula (Area), Miill. Pecten 
danicus, Chemn. 

Bakkehuus, near Christiania. 

Nassa reticulata (Buccinum), L. Cyprina islandica (Venus), L. 
Corbula nucleus, Lamk. 



20 Dr M. Sars on Shells front the Earlier and 

Lekum in Edsberg. Height 220 feet. 
Here the shell-beds are of small extent and thickness. 
They lie in the upper part of the clay flat which extends 
all around. 

Littorina littorea (Turbo), L. L. littoralis (Nerita), L. 
Mytilus edulis, L. 

Grorud near Christiania. 
In the sea-weed clay, which takes the place of the shell- 
clay. 

Tellina solidula, L. Saxicava plioladis (Mytilus), L. syn. S. 
rugosa. 

Glaeng and Sarpen. Height SO to 100 feet. 
Ostrea edulis, L. Pecten danicus, Chemn. P. opercularis 
(Ostrea), L. Cardium echinatum, L. Cyprina islandica 
(Venus) L., (often perforated by Cliona celata, Grant.) 
Astarte compressa, Mont. Tellina proxima, Brown. 

Kaholmen near Drdbak. Height 20 to 30 feet. 
Lowest clay. 
Tritonium despectum (Murex), L., syn. Fusus antiquus. Pecten 

maximus, L. Lima excavata (Ostrea), Gmel. Cyprina 

islandica (Venus) L. 
Oculina prolifera (Madrepora) L. (also in a mass of clay 20-30 

feet and upwards above the sea, south of Drobak). 

CLAY OF BOTH AGES, EARLIER AND LATER. 

Lower and Upper Foss near Christiania. 

Partly in the marl, interspersed with thin layers of sand ; 
partly in the overlying shell-clay. 

Turritella communis, llisso. Philine scabra (Bulla), Mull. 
Dentalium abyssorum, Sars. D, entalis, L. Siphono- 
dentalium vitreum, Sars. Ostrea edulis, L. Pecten islan- 
dicus, MUll. P. danicus, Chemn. P. tigrinus, Mull. P. 
sinuosus, Turt. Area raridentata, Wood, var. major, Sars. 
Nucula tenuis (Area), Mont. Leda caudata (Area), Don. 
L. pernula (Area), Mull., syn. L. oblonga. Yoldia pygma>a 
(Nucula), Munst. Cardium edule, L. C. suecicum, Reeve. 
Isocardia cor (Cardium), L. Syndosmya nitida (Mya), Mull., 
»yn. S. intermedia. Corbula nucleus, Lamk. Saxicava 
arctica (Mya), L. 



Later Beds of the Glacial Formation. 21 

(Eighteen new species since found. Those named are 
echinoderms ; Ophiura sarsii, Ctenodiscus crispatus, Tripylus 
fragilis, previously unknown in the glacial formation. — Trans.) 

LATER SHELL-BEDS, BELONGING TO THE LOWER LEVELS. 

Hovig near Christiania. Height 100 to 150 feet and upwards. 

In sand, resting directly on the rock with clay around. 

Tritonium despectum (Murex), L., syn. Fusus antiquus. Nassa 
reticulata (Buccinum), L. Cerithium reticulaturn, da Costa. 
Aporrhais pes pelieani (Strom bus), L. Littorina littorea 
(Turbo), L. L. littoralis (Nerita), L. Rissoa membranacea 
(Turbo), Ad. syn. R. labiosa Trochus cinerarius, L. 
Dentalium entalis, L. Ostrea edulis, L. Pecten varius 
(Ostrea), L. Nucula margaritacea, Lamk.. syn, N. nucleus. 
Cardium fasciatura, Mont. C. pygmasum, Don. Tapes 
decussata (Venus), L. Astarte elliptica, Brown. A. com- 
pressa (Venus), Mont. Corbula nucleus, Lamk. Saxicava 
pholadis (Mytilus), L., syn. S. rugosa. S. arctica (Mya), L. 

Heistadt near Eidanger Fjord. Height 100 to 150 feet and 
upwards 

In digging a well, shells found in the sand exactly as at 
Hovig. 

Nassa reticulata (Buccinum), L. Cerithium reticulaturn, da 
Costa. Rissoa parva, da Costa. Emarginula reticulata, 
Sow. Acmaaa virginea (Patella), Mull. Venus ovata, 
Penn. Lucina borealis (Venus), L. 

Ravnsborg near Christiania. Height 50 feet and upwards. 

In sand resting directly on the rock. 

Ostrea edulis, L. Cardium echinatum, L. Astarte com- 
pressa (Venus), Mont. Lucina borealis (Venus), L. 

Aafoss near Skien. Height 100 feet and upwards. 
At the bottom is sand and sandy clay, above this lies a 
bed of shells more than ten feet thick. 

Balanus crenatus, Brug., Darw. 

Buccinum undatum, L. Purpura lapillus (Buccinum), L. 
Natiea nitida, Don. Littorina littoralis (Nerita), L. La- 
cuna vincta (Turbo), Mont. Trochus cinerarius, L. Patella 
pellucida, L. Anomia patelliformis, L. A. aculeata, 



22 Dr M. Sars on Shells from the Earlier and 

Miill. Pecten islandicus, Mull. Cardium fasciatuin, 
Mont. Venus ovata, Penn. Tapes pullastra (Venus), 
Mont. Tellina proxima, Brown. Saxicava pholadis (My- 
tilus), L., syn. S. rugosa. Thracia villosiuscula, Macgill. 

(Twenty-seven new species found. Names not given. 
Another bed found, about 30 feet lower, containing thirty- 
two species, all now living in the neighbourhood, among 
which are Echinus drobachiens is and an Echinocyamus angu- 
losus. — Translator.) 

Loveidet near Skien. Height 120 feet and upwards. 
Shell-bed rests on the rock. 

Balanus porcatus, da Costa, Darvv. B. crenatus, Brug., Darw. 
Buccinum undatum, L. Nassa incrassata (Buccinum), 
Strom. Natica nitida, Don. Velutina laevigata (Helix), 
L. Littorina littorea (Turbo), L. L. littoralis (Nerita), L. 
Patella vulgata, L. Acmaea virginea (Patella), Mull. 
Pilidium fulvum (Patella), Miill. Dentalium abyssorum, 
Sars. Anomia ephippium, L. A. patelliformis, L. Pec- 
ten islandicus, Miill. P. striatus, Miill. P. danicus, 
Chemn. P. tigrinus, Miill. P. sinuosus, Turt., syn. P. pusio. 
Mytilus edulis, L. Leda pernula (Area), Miill. Venus 
striatula, Don. V. Ovata, Penn. Tapes pullastra (Venus), 
Mont. Astarte sulcata, da Costa. A. compressa, Mont. 
Mactra elliptica, Brown. Tellina proxima, Brown. Mya 
arenaria, L. Thracia villosiuscula, Macgill. Pholas Can- 
dida, L. 

Echinus drbbachiensis, Miill. 

Ommedalsstrand near Skien. Height 100 feet and upwards. 
Sandy clay, and line sand mixed with shell fragments, in 
all some 50 feet thick. 

Balanus porcatus, da Costa, Darw. B. crenatus. Brug., Darvv. 

Serpula triquetra, L. S. polita, Sars. 

Buccinum undatum, L. Nassa incrassata (Buccinum), Strom. 
Natica nitida, Don. Velutina laevigata (Helix), L. Lit- 
torina littorea (Turbo), L. L. littoralis (Nerita), L. 
Rissoa parva, da Costa = v. R. interr. R. striata (Turbo) 
Ad. Emarginula reticulata, Sow. Capulus hungaricus 
(Patella), L. Patella vulgata, L. Acmsea virginea (Pa- 
tella), Miill. Pilidium fulvum (Patella), Miill. Den- 
talium abyssorum, Sars. Anomia ephippium, L. A. 
patelliformis, L. Pecten islandicus, Miill. P. danicus, 
Chemn. P. tigrinus, Miill. P. striatus, Miill. P. sinuosus, 



Later Beds of the Glacial Formation. 23 

Turt., syn. P. pnsio. Mytilus edulis, L. Nucula rnarga- 
ritacea, Lamk., syn. N. nucleus. Leda pernula (Area), 
Miill., syn. L. oblonga. Cardium echinatum, L. Lucina 
borealis (Venus), L. Cyprina islandica (Venus), L. Venus 
ovata, Penn. V. striatula, Don. Astarte sulcata, da Costa. 
A. compressa, Mont. Mactra elliptica, Brown. Syndosmya 
alba (Mactra), Wood. Solen ensis, L. Saxicava pholadis 
(Mytilus), L., syn. S. rugosa. Cochlodesma prsetenue (Mya), 
Pult. Pholas crispata, L. P. Candida, L. Waldheimia 
cranium (Terebrat), Miill 
Echinus drbbachiensis, Miill. E. esculentus, Linn. 

(Twenty-one new species found. Names not given. — 
Trans.) 

Remarks — 

1. Tritonium despectum (Murex), L., syn. Fusus antiquus 
E. Forbes. — Distinctively arctic ; common in extreme north 
of Norway, Eussia, Greenland ; very rare and small at Chris- 
tiansund; Lat. 63*10, 

2. Trophon clathratus, L., syn. Fusus banffius, E. Forbes. 
— Arctic and circumpolar; diminishes in size as it goes south 
as far as Ireland. In north of Norway from 12 to 15 mm - 
in length, Greenland 24 mn \ Spitzbergen 32 mm - Fossil, fre- 
quent ; 40 mra - in length. 

3. Buccinum groelandicum, Chemn. — Arctic and circum- 
polar ; frequent in Finmark, but not further south, size 
there 53 mm - ; fossil, very frequent, and up to 67 mra * in 
length. 

4. Natica clausa, Sow. — Arctic and circumpolar, size there 
26 mm ' ; common in Finmark up to 20 mn1, ; south as far as 
Bergen, but dwarfed and rare, 4 to 5 ram- ; fossil, frequent 
and full sized, up to 30 mm - in length. 

5. Natica grcenlandica, Beck., syn. N. pusilla. — Arctic and 
circumpolar ; common in north of Norway, becoming rarer 
and smaller towards the south, reaching the coast of Britain ; 
fossil differs slighly from the common living Natica grcenlan- 
dica, but approaches the form of the full-grown specimens of 
these. 

6. Trochus magus , L. — Canaries and Mediterranean, and 
north as far as Shetland ; not living in Norway ; fossil, one 
specimen, agrees exactly with living species. 



24 Dr M. Bars on Shells from the Earlier and 

7. Siphonodentalium vitreum, Sars. — Only found in Fin- 
mark, north coast of Norway ; rare ; fossil pretty frequent 
in the oldest beds. This fact, and its present rarity, seem 
to indicate that it is dying out. 

8. Pecten islandicus, Mull. — Distinctively Arctic; ; found 
on north coast of Norway and Russia, Greenland and east 
coast of America ; goes south as far as the Christiania fjord 
and Bohuslan, but does not reach Britain ; diminishes in 
frequency and size as it comes south ; fossil frequent, agrees 
in size with the northern specimens. 

9. Lima excavata (ostrcea), J. C. Fabr. — A large species, 
well known on our west coast, and probably to be reckoned 
as Arctic, though found to the south as far as Bohuslan ; it 
lives only in the region of the deep-sea corals, at from 150 
to 300 fathoms ; fossil, in the lowest clay, also found amongst 
the innumerable dead masses of Oculina prolifera (which 
see, p. 25), at a depth below the sea of from 10 to 15 
fathoms on the Drobak bank, which must therefore have 
been elevated at least 135 fathoms, or 800 feet. 

10. Area raridentata, Wood. Pectunculoides, Scacchi. 

— Common along our whole coast ; extends south to Gib- 
raltar and even to the iEgean Sea, but in the far north 
attains a much larger size than to the south, and may there- 
fore be considered as arctic ; varies very much in form, both 
in length and depth, and in the projection of its umbo. The 
hinge teeth increase in number with age. It is both in its 
living and fossil state covered with a hairy membrane, 
though Forbes and Hanley state the contrary. Fossil, it is 
very frequent in the lowest clay, where the shells are found 
in pairs. It is so much larger than, and different from, the 
living specimens, as at first to appear specifically distinct, 
but the transitions between the two prove their identity. 
The great projection backwards of the ventral margin, and 
the great number of cardinal teeth — two respects in which 
the difference between the fossil and the living form is most 
marked — appear to be merely the effects of age and growth. 
It is a curious fact, that this species, which extends back 
into the newer Pliocene of Apulia and Sicily, and the 
Coralline Crag of England, appears there in the smaller 
form which it bears in its more southern habitats at the 



Later Beds of the Glacial Formation. 25 

present day, while the Post-pliocene specimens of the 
species, the descendants of the small Pliocene race, and the 
ancestors of the small living race, excel them both in size 
in the proportion of three to one. 

11. Astarte arctica, Gray. — Arctic and circumpolar ; 
extends south as far as Bergen, hut is there exceedingly 
rare ; does not reach Britain. (It is very rare in Britain, 
see Forbes and Hanley. — Translator.) 

12. Tapes decussata(y enus), L. — A Mediterranean species ; 
extends to England, on the south coast of which it is 
common, in Wales and Northumberland very scarce ; not 
found further north. (Forbes and Hanley speak of it as 
very rare in north Britain, but as found buried in gravel in 
Skye and Shetland. — Translator.) Fossil, found in the later 
shell-beds of the lower levels, and is as large as the largest 
Mediterranean living specimens. 

13. Panopaia nomvegica (Mya.), Spengler. — Arctic and 
circumpolar ; extends to the Cattegat and England, but 
there, as on our own coast, is exceedingly rare. Fossil, 
much more frequent than in the living state. 

14. Pholas Candida, L. — Extends from the Mediterranean 
to Scotland, and perhaps Norway. Fossil, frequent in the 
later shell -beds of the lower levels. 

15. Oculina prolifera (Madrepora) L. ; Lophella prolifera, 
Edw. and Haime. — This coral is found on our western and 
northern coast, at the vast depth of from 150 to 300 
fathoms, — never less than this, — and forms pretty large 
bush-shaped masses of 2 feet in diameter. Fossil, it is 
found in the lowest clay, and also in vast quantities on 
the shoal which lies out in the Fjord to the west of Drobak, 
and which has been already stated to be from 10 to 15 
fathoms (60 to 90 feet) deep. It cannot have been washed 
thither by a stream or tide, for it is firmly attached to the 
solid rock just as it grew ; of course, however, it is dead, 
and stripped bare of the formative polyp which could not 
survive the increased temperature of the shallower sea. 
We have thus the best possible proof of an elevation of the 
land in this upheaval of a portion of the sea-bottom, and 
that to the extent of at least 135 fathoms, or 800 feet; 
and with this evidence it is interesting further to compare 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. T. JULY 1863 D 



26 Dr M. Sars on Shells from the Earlier and 

the fact of Balanus shells being found on the solid rock by 
Brogniart at Udevalla, 200 feet above the sea ; by Lyell 14 
miles north of Kured 100 feet above the sea ; and by 
Keilhau near Hellesaa, in Aremark, 450 feet above the sea. 

The above sketch is very imperfect, scarcely any of the 
places mentioned having been satisfactorily examined by any 
zoologist; hitherto it has been geologists alone who have 
paid any attention to the subject, and they, occupied with 
many other matters, have given little time to the laborious 
task of collecting the numerous species which exist. 

On such imperfect data, therefore, it would be rash to 
generalise ; one or two inferences are however obvious. 

1. We are assured that we are really dealing with Post- 
pliocene formations, since all the organic remains which 
have been found belong without exception to living species. 

2. The fossiliferous strata of this period are distinguishable 
into two classes. The first class, both from stratigraphical 
position and organic contents, is obviously older. It includes 
those masses of shells which ascend to 470 feet above the 
level of the sea, and the deepest situated clay, which rises to 
a height of 240 feet above the sea. The second class belongs 
to a later period, and consists of the lower lying shell-beds, 
which rise to a height of 200 feet above the sea, and the 
surface clays, which rise to 350 feet above the sea. 

3. Among the fossil species of the older beds there are 
some which no longer inhabit our southern coast, but have 
their true habitat on the north coast of Norway, and some 
or all of the other arctic coasts. Such are Tritonium 
despectum (which, however, appears also in the later beds), 
Buccinum islandicum, Natica clausa, Siphonodentalium 
vitreum, Astarte arctica. 

4. Other species also present in the older beds are more 
frequent, and generally larger than those of the same species 
now inhabiting our southern coasts, and specimens rivalling 
the fossils in frequency and in size must be sought in the far 
north. Such are Trophon clathratus, Natica gramlandica, 
Pecten islandicus (which is also found in the later beds), 
Lima excavata, Area raridentata, Panopaia norvegica. 

5. Those in the later beds, on the contrary, with few 



Later Beds of the Glacial Formation. 27 

exceptions, agree perfectly with those now inhabiting our 
southern coasts. 

6. From the fossil species we may infer that in the ear- 
lier post pliocene period a more northern fauna occupied 
our southern coasts than now prevails there ; in other words, 
such a fauna as now exists only in the arctic zone. On the 
other hand, in the later period indicated by the newer beds, 
the arctic species gradually retired to the far north, and 
were replaced by the more southern forms, which now con- 
stitute so large a part of our marine fauna. 

LoveD,in his "Ofversigt af Ventensk. Akad. Forh., 1846," 
p. 254, has also arrived at a similar conclusion from an 
examination of the fossil mollusca in the neighbourhood of 
the west coast of Sweden ; with this difference, however, 
that, according to him, " the arctic species present them- 
selves at those spots which are furthest from the coast, 
while the nearer any locality is to the shore, the rarer are 
the arctic species, these being gradually replaced by more 
southern species/' Whereas, with us, mere distance from 
the coast does not afford a test of the age of a fossil, and 
the older or arctic species are found in the shell-beds at the 
greatest heights above the sea, and in the clay furthest 
below the surface, independent of distance from the coast. 
[This view is remarkably confirmed by the Elie shell-bed 
described by the Eev. Thomas Brown, F.K.S.E., in his 
paper read before the Koyal Society Edinburgh, March 2, 
1863. Translator.'] 

7. Finally, two species have been noticed, viz. Trochus 
magus (in the older beds), and Tapes decussata (in the later 
beds), and to these, perhaps, should be added Pholas 
Candida, which no longer inhabit our coasts, but are dis- 
tributed from the Mediterranean to England. In regard to 
these species, we can only conjecture that in the Post- 
pliocene epoch they reached Norway, not from England 
but from the Mediterranean, between which and the North 
Sea a communication existed to the east of the Alps. 

Nor does this fact stand alone. I have already else- 
where called attention to two other indications of such a 
connection between these seas at an earlier period, viz. — 
the well known fact that some of the characteristically 



28 Dr M. Sars on Shells from the Earlier and 

arctic species are found as fossils in Italy and Sicily (For- 
liandl. i Vid. Selsk, i Christiana, 1858, p. 78) ; and further, 
the very remarkable fact, that in both these seas perfectly 
identical species are found living which are absent on the 
intervening coasts of the Atlantic. Such are, Nephrops 
norvegicus (Cancer), L. Lotaabyssorum(Nihs.),^~ Elongata, 
Risso. L.), Sebasfes imperialis (Cuv.), and Maerourus (Lepi- 
doleprus) ccelorhynchus (Risso). To these I have recently 
(I. c. p. 86) added two shells discovered by me in the sea at 
Bergen, viz. — Cerithium vulgatum (Brug.), and Monodonta 
limbata (Phil.), which are found living in the Mediterranean, 
but on none of the intermediate coasts between that sea 
and Norway. 

To explain, then, the presence of these species in the 
Mediterranean and in Norway, with their absence from the 
intervening coast, we must, as I have already elsewhere 
remarked (see Bemairkninger over det adriatiske Havs 
Fauna, Magaz. f. Naturv. 7 B. 1853, p. 395), suppose, 
either that nature, which has so often produced analogous 
but distinct species, in localities far remote from one ano- 
ther, has in this instance, created perfectly identical species 
at two so distant points, a fact of which we have absolutely 
no other instance ; or, which is far more probable, that the 
existence of these species dates from a period — viz., the 
Post-pliocene, when towards the east a connection existed 
between the Mediterranean and the North Sea, which at a 
later period was interrupted by the elevation of the Alps. 



In a paper since communicated to the " Nyt Magazin," 
Dr Sars distinguishes the fossil- bearing beds of the glacial 
formation into four kinds, different in age and constitution. 

1. The older shell-beds, which lie at from 300 to 500 feet 
above the sea. Loose heaps of entire or broken shells, the 
bivalves seldom in pairs. The mass of shells sometimes 
pure, sometimes mixed with fine sand. 

These facts prove that such beds are of littoral origin, 
formed in bays, where their sheltered position preserved 
them from being swept away and scattered by the waves 
during the subsequent elevation of the land. That they 



Later periods of the Glacial Formation. 29 

have not been carried to their present position is obvious, 
from the frequency of the littoral Balanus, still entire, adher- 
ing to the shells and stones, and even to the rock itself. 

Further, the shells found in these masses are, without ex- 
ception, of littoral (for the most part) or laminarian species, 
the latter, as is the case on existing sea-beaches, having 
been washed up from the lower zone. Not one deep-water 
species has ever yet been found in these shell-beds- 

The arctic character of these beds is still further confirmed 
afresh by the specific nature, the numerical proportions,* and 
the actual size and shape of the shells which form them. 

The elevation of the land seems to have taken place gradu- 
ally and without violence, accompanied by a corresponding 
diminution in the arctic character of the fauna. 

2. The older clay containing shells rarely aggregated in 
any number, generally sporadically dispersed or thinly spread, 
usually entire and well preserved, and the bivalves in pairs. 

This is plainly a deep-water formation, the shells and 
Echinoderms found in it belonging to the deep-sea zone. 
Dentalium abyssorum, Yoldia pygmma, Y. lucida, Area gla- 
cialis, &c, are frequent. Siphonodentalium vitreum, Iso- 
cardia cor, &c, are rarer. Serpida polita is frequently found 
attached to the erratic blocks which abound in this clay. 
The fauna of this clay is markedly arctic. Thus Area 
glacialis lives now only in Finmark, Spitsbergen, and Mel- 
ville Island: Yoldia intermedia, discovered by Dr Sars in 
Finmark at 100 fathoms deep, and Siphonodentcdium vitreum, 
a rare Finmark species, living from 40 to 100 fathoms deep, 
and apparently approaching extinction, are much more fre- 
quent in the clay -beds. 

The evidence of the Echinoderms supports that hitherto 
obtained from molluscs alone. Ophiura Sarsii lives along the 
whole coast of Norway, at from 20 to 100 fathoms and upwards, 
but is more frequent and larger in the far north. Ctenodiscus 
crispatus, distinctively arctic, comes south to Christiansund, 
Lat. 63°*10, at from 40 to 200 fathoms Tripylus fragilis, 
peculiar to Norway, is larger and more frequent in the north, 
but comes south to Bergen at from 30 to 120 fathoms. 

* Thus Sazicava nigosa, Mya truncata, and Peden islandicus, form from 50 to 
80 per cent, of the whole shells. 



Note on Lemania variegata of Agar dh. By George Law- 
son, LL.D., Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry and Natural 
History in the Queen's University of Canada.* 

Id the first part of the second volume of Bishop Agardh's 
* Bead before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 9th April 1803. 



Dr George Lawson on Lemania variegata of Agardh. 31 

" Species Algarum," published in 1828, an alga said to have 
been found "mfluviis America borealis" was described under 
the name of Lemania variegata. Agardh's original descrip- 
tion of the plant appears, however, to have been published 
in the Stockholm Transactions in 1814, to which I have no 
means of access at the present time. The specimen upon 
which the species was founded had been given to Agardh 
by Olaf Swartz, his first master in Algology, who obtained 
it from the collector, the Eev. Dr Muhlenberg of Lancaster, 
in Pennsylvania. Not having been met with by subsequent 
observers, Lemania variegata has been looked upon as a 
long-lost plant. 

In a parcel of specimens of cryptogamic plants sent to me 
in August 1862, by Mr John Macoun of Belleville, Canada 
West, a most zealous and successful explorer, I at once recog- 
nised a Lemania, remarkable for its extremely rigid, promi- 
nently moniliform, curved filaments, attenuated towards the 
base and apex, and regularly marked throughout by alternate 
bands, dark and white, — agreeing, in fact, very well with 
Agardh's description of L. variegata. I doubt not that the 
Belleville plant is conspeciflc with that of Agardh, and it 
is probably the identical form described in the " Species 
Algarum." i 

Lemania, Bory. 

Generic character. — Fronds bristle-like, rising in clusters 
from a common adherent base, cartilaginous or corneous, 
continuously tubular, more or less nodose (brown, dull-green, 
blackish or parti-coloured), the tube-membrane composed of 
two distinct closely adherent strata of cells, those of the 
outer stratum minute, irregularly polygonal, closely united 
pavement-wise in radiating groups, those of the inner 
stratum rounded and not conformable, much larger than 
the others. Spores (so called by authors) in seriated stalked 
tufts, inside the swollen joints of the tube, and arising either 
from a central axis (according to Dr W. J. Thomson), or 
from the inner peripheral layer of cells, or from both. 

This genus is named Lemania by Bory, in honour of M. 
Lemain of Paris, " a modest naturalist not less learned in 



32 Dr George Lawson on Lemania variegata of Agardh. 

botany than in the other branches of science," embraces 
three species of aquatic algae of very remarkable aspect and 
structure, which grow attached to stones, rocks, wood, &c, 
in the bottoms of shallow, rapid, fresh-water streams. Un- 
like most fresh water algse, they have dense compact tissue, 
giving them firm consistence ; they are rich in nitrogen, and 
when burned yield ammoniacal vapours. The plant usually 
consists of a little tuft of stiff erect or curved bristle-like 
fronds, which adhere by a common discoid root to sub- 
merged objects. The minute structure of these plants has 
been illustrated very fully by authors at different times, 
from Vaillant (1727) downwards, with singularly conflicting 
results. The most recent, and perhaps most valuable con- 
tribution that has been made to the history of Lemanice, is 
the remarkably lucid description of Dr W. J. Thomson, in 
the Transactions of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 
vol. vi. page 243, to which I would refer observers as an excel- 
lent basis for further inquiry, although I have been unable 
(probably from my specimens being too matured) to con- 
firm some of Dr Thomsons results. Mr Thwaites of Ceylon 
has carefully studied the early development of the frond, 
and states that the spores at first vegetate into slender con- 
fervoid filaments, with long joints containing spirally-ar- 
ranged endochroms. The filaments constitute a sort of pro- 
thallus or pro-embryo, the initial state of the plant. After 
a time thick branchlets, the germs of the perfect and per- 
manent frond, spring from the cells of the confervoid fila- 
ment ; they are at first wholly dependent upon the cell from 
which they rise, but soon acquire rootlets at their base, and, 
rapidly elongating, grow into the densely cellular, opaque, car- 
tilaginous bristle-like tubes, so characteristic of the mature 
plant in this genus. 

L. variegata. — Fronds tufted, of simple bristle-like tubes, 
rigid, corneous, attenuated towards the base and 
apex, moniliform, with black or dark-brown swollen 
elliptical nodes, and pellucid, colourless, constricted 
internodes of equal length. 

" Hippuris fluviatilis petrcea nuda Virginiensis, Pluk. 
Phyt. tab. 193, fig. 7." (Agardh.) 



Dr George Lawson on Lemania variegata of Agardh. 33 

" Lemania variegata, Agardh, Act. Holm., 1814, tab. 

2, fig. 3." (Agardh.) 
" Lemania variegata" (Agardh), Species Algarum, 

vol. ii. page 7. 

In the bed of the Moira above Belleville, Canada West, 
on rocks, rare (August 1862), John Macoun, sp. " In fluviis 
Americse borealis. Specimina a Muhlenbergio missa com- 
municavit Swartz" (Agardh). 

The following eight forms of this extremely interesting 
genus have been described by Agardh : — 

1. L. fluviatilis == (Conferva fluviatilis lubrica setosa, Equiscti 

facie, Horse-tail River Conferva, Dillenius, Hist. Muse, 
tab. vii. fig. 47. Conferva fluviatilis, Linn., Mohr, Roth., 
&c. Polysperma fluviatilis, Vauch. Chantransia fluvia- 
tilis, DC. Lemania corallina, Bory. Nodularia fluvia- 
tilis, Lyngb.) This is the more common British species 
which I gathered in quantity in a stream on the Ochil 
Hills, near Stirling, in 1857. It has also been recorded 
as growing near Bangor (Dillenius), in Winterbourne 
Stream, Lewes (W. Borrer); at Hamsell, and at the 
waterfall at Harrison's rocks (E. Jenner) ; Aberdeen, 
abundant (Professor Dickie, M.D.) ; Ireland, frequent (D. 
Moore) ; Scandinavia, Germany, France, Corsica. 

2. j3. tuberculosa = (Nodularia fluviatilis ramosa, Lyngb.) 

Denmark. 

3. y. media = (Conferva fluviatilis, Dillw., E.B., t. 1763). 

England. 

4. d. fucina = (Lemania fucina, Bory. Chantransia dichotoma, 

DC. France, chiefly in Bretagne. 

5. s. subtilis = (Lemania subtilis, Agardh (in Act. Holm. 1814, 

t. 2, f. 4, Kiitzing.) Sweden, &c. 

6. L. torulosa — (Conferva fluviatilis nodosa Fucum agmulans, 

Sea Horse-tail-like Conferva, Dill. Hist. Muse. tab. vii. 
fig 48. Conferva torulosa, Both., Mohr., Dillw., ha. Le- 
mania incurvata, Bory.) Recorded as occurring in moun- 
tain streams near Ludlow, Salop (Dillenius), Anglesea (Rev. 
H. Davies) ; also in France, Germany, Kentucky, United 
States (Dr Short in Harvey, Nereis). 

7. ]S. usneoides = (Conferva usneoides, Wallr.) Saxony. 

8. L. variegata = (Hippuris fluviatilis petrsea nuda Virginiensis, 

Pluk.) Belleville, Canada West (J. Macoun.) United 
States, Pennsylvania'? (Muhlenberg). 

Probably L. fluv., £• subtilis, and L. torulosa, p. usneoides, 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. I. JULY 1863. E 



34 Dr George Lawson on Lemania variegata of Agardh. 

may be found, on investigation, to be well-marked species. 
The various forms deserve a careful examination, and I would 
beg to direct the attention of British botanists to the subject. 



Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Diatoms from the 
South Pacific. By R. K. Greville, LL.D., F.R.S.E., &c * 

(Plate I). * 

The diatoms described in the present communication 
were all obtained from dredgings made on various coasts in 
the South Pacific, and kindly placed in my hands by my 
obliging correspondent Dr Roberts of Sydney. Many other 
novelties, of equal interest, contained in these dredgings, 
will (D. V.) form the subject of future papers. 

Stictodesmis, nov. gen., Grev. 

Frustules elongated (sessile?), in front view linear, rec- 
tangular, with two conspicuous rows of puncta disposed in 
pairs ; side view linear, with terminal and central nodules, 
median line, and numerous transverse pervious septa. 

It is difficult to indicate the systematic position of this 
curious diatom. The transverse septa, as shown in the 
lateral view, and very elongated form, are suggestive of 
some affinity with Climacosphenia : but from that genus 
and the other, Licmophorce, it differs in the linearity of the 
frustules, and in the presence of nodules and a median line, 
as well as in the different nature of the septa themselves. 
With the Fragillarice it might be compared in its pervious 
septa, conjoined with the similarity of both ends of the 
frustule ; but Stictodesmis is not compressed in the lateral 
view ; and here also the median line and nodule, and 
position of the septa, indicate a different structure and 
different relations. The genus, in fact, cannot be referred 
to any of the families as at present constituted. 

Stictodesmis australis, n. sp., Grev. — (PI. I. figs. 1-4). 
Hah. Harvey Bay, Queensland, and at Port of France, New 
Caledonia ; in dredgings communicated by Dr Roberts of 
Sydney. 

* Head before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 14th May 1863. 



New Sen™, VolXVm.PU. 




■ 



Dr Greville on New Genera and Species of Diatoms. 35 

Frustules much elongated, from "0055" to -0100", the 
breadth scarcely more than "0004". Front view linear, 
rectangular, with two longitudinal rows of brilliant puncta 
in pairs, at some distance from the margin, the space 
between the rows and the margin very finely striated, while 
that between the rows forms a smooth, blank line. Lateral 
view linear, slightly dilated at the middle, and generally, 
also, more or less at the rounded ends, with a median line, 
and terminal and central nodules, the line being situated 
slightly nearer to one side than the other ; transverse septa 
pervious, strong, subequidistant, numerous, upwards of 
twenty in the shorter frustules, nearly double that number 
in the longest ; very fine transverse strise also cover the 
whole space. Besides the above front and lateral views, 
the valve must be noticed separately, being distinguished 
by the median line and nodules and the fine striae only, 
and is so thin and transparent that it is easily overlooked. 
The septa belong to an internal arrangement, being per- 
ceived in the front view to be placed at about a third of 
the entire breadth of the frustule from each side, or, in 
other words, from the valve. The puncta, which shine 
like brilliant points of light, are of course the sutural ter- 
minations of the septa viewed vertically. The shorter 
figures are from the Harvey Bay dredging, the long one 
from New California. 

Plagiogramma. 

Plagiogramma costatum, n. sp., Grev. — Front view with 
nearly straight sides and sharp angles ; valves lanceolate, 
with two centrical vittse ; strise costate, pervious, 10 in '001". 
Length about -0030" (figs. 5, 6). 

Hob. New Caledonia ; in a dredging communicated by Dr 
Eoberts. 

This species is well distinguished by its clear costation 
and central pair of vittee. It is by no means unfrequent in 
the dredging. 

Plagiogramma spectabile, n. sp., Grev. — Valves constricted 
in the middle, then dilated and slightly lyriform ; vittse 
numerous (about twelve), with intermediate transverse lines 
of minute puncta. Length about , 0030". (fig. 7). 



3(3 Dr Greville's Descriptions of New Genera 

Hob. New Caledonia ; in a dredging communicated by 
Dr Koberts. Very rare. 

Of this diatom I have only seen two examples ; but the 
characters are so remarkable, that there can be no doubt of 
its novelty as a species. The central constriction, it now 
appears, is not uncommon in this genus. 

Plagiogramma co7istrictum, n. sp., Grev. — Valve con- 
stricted in the middle, then suddenly dilated and lyriform, 
with terminal and central vittae ; striae moniliform, inter- 
rupted, 11 in -001", Length about -0025" (fig. 8). 

Hob. New Caledonia ; in a dredging communicated by 
Dr Eoberts. 

Allied to P. lyratum, but differing in the smaller size of 
the frustule, in the relatively much broader valve, more 
abrupt constriction, more approximated central vittae, and 
much fewer striae. 

Plagiogramma Atomus, n. sp., Grev. — Very minute; valve 
with terminal and central vittae ; the intermediate spaces 
spherically dilated ; striae few, pervious. Length, -0005" 
(fig. 9). 

Hab. Woodlark Island ; in a dredging communicated 
by Dr Koberts. 

The smallest of the genus hitherto discovered, distin- 
guished by the very deep constriction and spherical form of 
the dilated portions, each of which contains about half a 
dozen striae. 



Omphalopsis, nov. gen., Grev. 

Frustules united into a filament ; lateral view cruciform, 
with central nodule, terminal vittae, and interrupted trans- 
verse striae. 

This genus is allied on the one hand to Plagiogramma, 
on the other to Glyphodesmis. From the former it differs 
in the absence of central vittae ; from the latter, in the 
presence of terminal vittae, as well as in difference of struc- 
ture, the remarkable clathrate cellulation being wholly 
wanting. In the cruciform lateral view it resembles 
Odontidium, (?) Harrisonii of Smith, and O. speciosum of 
Bright well (both placed by Kalfs in his genus Dimere- 



and Species of Diatoms from the South Pacific. 37 

gramma), but is far removed in structure by its vittae and 
central nodule. 

Omphalopsis australis, n. sp., Grev. — (Figs. 10, 11). 

Hab. Woodlark Island ; in a dredging communicated by 
Dr Eoberts. Not unfrequent. 

Frustules varying considerably in size, but generally 
about -0022" in length, rectangular, the angles slightly 
rounded, and the striae forming a very narrow marginal 
border ; valve cruciform, about -0012" in breadth in the 
middle ; nodule large, prominent, circular ; striae 11 in 
•001", strong, submoniliform, somewhat oblique, radiating 
in the centre, where a short one usually occurs at the outer 
margin, interrupted, leaving a narrow blank median space 
which terminates at the vittae which cut off the rounded 
ends. At first sight, the large boss-like nodule and robust 
striae convey an impression that the valve may belong to 
a species of Glyphodesmis, but, as already remarked, the 
terminal vittae and different structure essentially separate it. 

Amphitetras. 

Amjphitetras parvula, n. sp., Grev. — Lateral view with the 
sides slightly convex, the angles rounded, containing a large 
pseudo-opening ; centre marked by two cruciform lines of 
cellules which intersect each other in the middle and give 
off radiating lines of minute puncta. Breadth between the 
opposite angles -0015" (fig. 12). 

Hab. — New Caledonia ; in a dredging communicated by 
Dr Eoberts. Very rare. 

Frustule very small, quadrangular, the sides very slightly 
convex, the rounded angles being formed by the pseudo- 
openings which are very conspicuous, the true margin, con- 
tinued on the inner side of the openings, strong and dark, 
outside of which the edge of the connecting zone appears 
constituting a secondary margin, which passes to the apices 
of the pseudo-openings. The internal space is equally 
divided by two lines crossing in the middle, composed of 
two contiguous rows of cellules, which are mostly visible in 
consequence of the shadow they produce, while from each 
side of these rows pass inclined lines of very minute puncta. 



38 Dr Greville's Descriptions of New Genera 

This exceedingly distinct little species is about the same 
size as A. crucifera of Kitton, and resembles it to a certain 
extent in the internal cruciform arrangement. But in the 
last-named species there are no pseudo-openings, the pro- 
duced rounded angles being simply an extension of the 
internal surface. There is a difference also in the cruciform 
appearance, which in A. crucifera is produced by the position 
and larger size of puncta, similar to those which fill up 
the rest of the space, and which do not cause the line of 
shadow above mentioned. Although the form is exceedingly 
rare, I have seen and examined several specimens. 



Amphiprora. 

Amphiprora eximia, n. sp., Grev. — Front view elongated, 
oblong, rounded at the ends, deeply constricted at the middle, 
one supplementary wing convex and widely overlapping the 
constriction, a second passing over the nodule where it is 
somewhat constricted, and within the nodule a short elevated 
longitudinal ridge. Length about '0060" (fig. 13). 

Hab. — Gurteis Straits, Queensland ; in a dredging com- 
municated by Dr Roberts. 

A singularly graceful species. Nothing can be more 
beautiful than the harmony of the various intersecting 
lines. As far as I can make them out, there are two sup- 
plementary wings, the largest very broad, arising at the 
terminal angles of the valve, and with a gentle curve over- 
lapping the constriction so much as to bring the convexity 
of the supplementary wing almost into a line with the 
widest part of the frustule. The second supplementary 
wings (if they be truly wings) also arise from the same 
point, soon curve outwards, and then, becoming constricted 
at the nodule, have a somewhat lyrate appearance. Lastly, 
there is just within the nodule a little ridge (or abortive 
wing ?) which is parallel to, and follows the curve of the 
second supplementary wing, and disappears at less than 
half way between the nodule and the ends. I have not 
been able to resolve the striae. 

Amphiprora lata, n. sp., Grev. — Front view very broad 
(breadth more than half the length), truncate at the ends, 



and Species of Diatoms from the South Pacific. 39 

with the corners very widely rounded, rather deeply and 
acutely constricted ; supplementary wing narrow, con- 
vex, not reaching the constriction ; central portion with 
faint lines or folds. Length about -0040", breadth -0028" 
(fig. 14). 

Hab. — Ourteis Straits, Queensland ; in a dredging com- 
municated by Dr Eoberts. 

It was not until I had seen a number of examples of this 
diatom that I began to regard it with any confidence. 
There can be no doubt that some of the Amphiprora^ are 
liable to considerable variation ; and the very broad, squat 
appearance of the frustules now before me made me suspect 
that they might turn out to be a variety of some large 
species. All the specimens, however, present precisely the 
same characters, and I am consequently prepared to offer it 
as a genuine species. From A. maxima of Gregory it differs 
not only in form, and in the much narrower supplementary 
wings, but very strikingly in the more truncated ends. 
The striae are readily brought out. 

Amphiprora delicatula, n. sp., Grev. — Minute, hyaline ; 
front view oblong, with rotundato- truncate ends and deep 
lateral constriction ; supplementary wing very narrow, 
slightly overlapping the nodule ; lateral view lanceolate, 
the apices, slightly produced and minutely truncate. Length 
about -0025" (figs. 15, 16). 

Hab. — Woodlark Island ; in a dredging communicated by 
Dr Eoberts. Not uncommon. 

A most delicate and graceful species, easily overlooked 
on account of its small size and hyaline character. I have 
been unable to make out the striae. 

Amphiprora f superba, n. sp., Grev. — Yery large ; front 
view elongated oblong, slightly constricted, widest part 
about half way between the ends and middle, each extremity 
gradually converging to the angle of the connecting zone, 
which is truncate ; supplementary wings rather broad, linear, 
directed inwards with two longitudinal lines between them 
and the margin. Length *0108" (fig. 17). 

Hab. — New Caledonia ; in a dredging communicated by 
Dr Eoberts. Extremely rare. 

This fine diatom may perhaps be regarded as belonging 



40 Dr Greville's Descriptions of New Genera 

doubtfully to the present genus. In some respects it is not 
unlike a gigantic Amphora ; but the position of the nodules, 
and the apparent existence of what I have called supple- 
mentary wings, are opposed to its being referred to that 
genus. There are, however, some very aberrant forms dis- 
covered by my friend the late Professor Gregory, and several 
more recently observed by myself, which render the generic 
discrimination of Amphiprora, in the absence of the valvular 
view, somewhat difficult. The panduriform outline in some 
instances disappears altogether, the constriction is occa- 
sionally scarcely perceptible, and the wing inconspicuous. 
The striae in the present diatom are transverse, 27 in '001", 
and sufficiently evident. 

Amphiprora nitida, n. sp., Grev. — Small ; front view 
panduriform, broadly rotundato-truncate at the ends, rather 
deeply and sharply constricted, margin with a row of 
minute puncta ; supplementary wings linear, forming a 
nearly straight line, which passes within the constriction ; 
another ridge-like line converging towards the middle at 
each end. Striae conspicuous. Length from "0020" to '0035" 
(fig. 18). 

Hab. — Curteis Straits, Queensland ; in a dredging com- 
municated by Dr Eoberts. 

A beautiful and apparently very distinct smal] species, 
characterised at once by the lines of the supplementary 
wings and the superficial ridges. The supplementary wing 
is linear, passing on each side from end to end in a very 
slight curve just within the nodules. At the ends it turns 
almost at a right angle to join the middle portion, and thus 
a sort of parallelogram is produced, which, when focussed 
for itself, is very striking. Another very characteristic line 
seems to be caused by an elevated ridge, commencing on 
each side at the angle of the middle portion or connecting 
zone, curves outwards until it reaches the margin of the 
supplementary wing, which it then follows for about a third 
of its length, when it leaves it and curves in a similar way 
towards the middle portion at the opposite end. The surface 
is thus much undulated, as is shown by the different direc- 
tions taken by the striae. 

Amphiprora lineata, n. sp., Grev. — Front view oblong, 



and Species of Diatoms from the South Pacific. 41 

broadly rounded at the ends, and moderately constricted at 
the middle, with a marginal row of very minute puncta ; 
surface marked with straight longitudinal lines or folds 
(about seven) ; striation obscure. Length about *0038" 
(fig. 19). 

Hab. — Woodlark Island ; in a dredging communicated by 
Dr Eoberts. Eare. 

In this species we find no distinct trace of supplementary 
wings, but in their place a few equidistant longitudinal lines 
or folds, which cannot be prominent as they cast very little 
shadow. 

Amphiprora? Clepsydra, n. sp.,Grev. — Front view oblong, 
rotundato-truncate at the ends, much, but not sharply con- 
stricted at the middle; striae coarse, forming a narrow intra- 
marginal band, and two inner ones still narrower, the two 
outermost following the curve of the margin, and converg- 
ing at the ends. Length -0034" (fig. 20). 

Hab. — Curteis Straits, Queensland ; in a dredging com- 
municated by Dr Eoberts. Very rare. 

Here, again, we have a diatom very different indeed from 
what has been regarded as typical of Amphiprora. It will 
be perceived that the system of striation is quite unlike, the 
outer band being distinctly radiate. The inner bands may 
be regarded as supplementary wings. The constriction is 
not sharp, as in most of the preceding species, but rather 
deeply concave. 

Amphiprora? paradoxa, n. sp., Grev. — Front view quad- 
rangular, with truncated ends, and rounded corners very 
slightly and gradually constricted at the middle ; supple- 
mentary wings broader than the primary ones, and also 
constricted opposite the nodule ; striae robust, moniliform. 
10 in -001". Length -0035" (fig. 21). 

Hab. — Curteis Straits, Queensland ; in a dredging com- 
municated by Dr Eoberts. 

In the robust and distinctly moniliform striae of this 
diatom we have another deviation from the ordinary struc- 
ture of Amphiprora, so strongly marked as to render it 
evident, that although it may be convenient in the mean- 
time to refer some of these forms to that genus, a re-arrange- 
ment will soon become necessary. The possession of the 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIH. NO. 1. JULY 18G3. F 



42 Dr Greville's Descriptions of New Genera 

valve might serve to show more exactly their relations ; but 
the probability of obtaining a side view of the frustule is so 
remote, that I prefer giving figures of these interesting- 
objects at once, to laying them aside for an indefinite 
period. It only requires to be understood that their posi- 
tion in the genus is provisional. There is no reason why 
the same latitude should not be allowed in the publication 
of Diatoms as in that of other plants ; and especially of 
other algae. For example, while engaged in the description 
of these Amphiprorce, the 49th Part of my friend Professor 
Harvey's admirable "Phycologia Australica" has appeared, in 
which, under Cryptonemia decipiens, he remarks, " In now 
referring it to Cryptonemia, I must be understood to do so 
provisionally, until the discovery of its fruit enable us to 
assign it its proper place in the system." This is a most 
reasonable privilege. It may be observed, with regard 
to the frustules now before me, that there is all the ap- 
pearance of a distinct wing, which becomes narrower as 
it approaches the constriction, as in the known Amphi- 
prorce. 

Amphiproraf undulata, n. sp., Grev. — Small ; front view 
quadrangular, with rounded angles, and nearly straight 
sides, and a slight, somewhat notch-like constriction ; sur- 
face rather coarsely striated, and undulated with longitudi- 
nal ridges, the two principal ones curving outwards, and 
passing just within the constriction. Length about "0030" 
(fig. 22). 

Hob. — Curteis Straits ; in a dredging communicated by 
Dr Eoberts. 

This species is as rectangular in its outline as A. pusilla 
of Gregory. The two outer prominent ridges or folds evi- 
dently occupy the place of supplementary wings, while the 
inner ones are merely undulations, sufficiently decided, 
however, to throw the striae which cross them out of focus. 
I have examined a number of examples, but have not 
succeeded in finding a valve. The latter would no doubt 
assist in determining the genus in the case of aberrant 
forms ; but I apprehend that in most instances the specific 
character will be best obtained from the front view. 



and Species of Diatoms from the South Facifc. 43 





Description of Plate I. 


Fig. 1. 


Stictodesmis australis, . 


front view. 


2. 


&3. „ 


side view. 


4. 


i) >> 


valve. 


5. 


Plagiogramma costatum, 


front view. 


6. 


jj J> 


side view. 


7. 


,, spectabile, 


side view. 


8. 


„ constrictum 


, side view. 


9. 


,, Atomus, 


side view. 


10. 


Omphalopsis australis, 


front view. 


11. 


>i >> 


side view. 


12. 


Amphiteras parvula, 


side view. 


13. 


Amphiprora eximia, 


front view. 


14. 


„ lata, 


front view. 


15. 


„ delicatula, 


front view. 


16. 


»> »j 


side view. 


17. 


,, 9 superba, 


front view. 


18. 


„ nitida, 


front view. 


19. 


„ lineata, 


front view. 


20. 


,, ? Clepsydra, 


front view. 


21. 


„ 9paradoxa, 


front view. 


22. 


„ 9undulata, . 


front view. 




All the figures are x 400 diameters. 



On the question, Is Oxide of Arsenic, long used in a very 
small quantity, injurious to Man? By John Davy, 
M.D., F.K.SS. Lond. & Edin * 

The facts which led me to propose the above question 
were the following: — In Cumberland, within a stone's cast 
of the Coast's Bailway, between Whitehaven and Broughton, 
is the little church of the parish of Whitbeck, and also the 
farm-house of Whitbeck-head, — names these derived from 
the small mountain stream which descends from Black 
Comb, and so rapidly as to be an almost white line of 
foam. The hamlet, situated at the foot of the hill, consists 
of the farm-house just mentioned, and of five cottages, each 
occupied by a family dependent for water on the rivulet, 
" the Beck," their inmates using no other. The same water 
is drunk by the cattle of the farm, and by the poultry, 
fowls, geese, and ducks ; and, as regards all, with one excep- 

* Head at the Meeting of the British Association in 1862. 



44 Dr John Davy o?i Oxide of Arsenic. 

tion, its "whole somen ess has never been called in question. 
The one exception has been in the instance of ducks, which, 
according to report, never could be reared there. 

No attempt that I am aware of was made to account for 
this exceptional effect until about two or three years ago, 
when the water was examined by Mr Arthur H. Church, 
and was found by him, it was said, to contain arsenic, — an 
alkaline arseniate, and in a determinate quantity. The first 
notice of this gentleman's results that I saw was in an 
extract from the Whitehaven Herald, in which it was stated 
that " the arsenical water is habitually used for every pur- 
pose by the inhabitants of the little village of Whitbeck, 
and with beneficial results so apparent that one might be 
justified in paradoxically characterising it as a very whole- 
some poison, the deadly elements in solution being pro- 
ductive of the most sanatory effects. " It is immediately 
added, " It is true ducks will not live if confined to Whit- 
beck ; and whilst trout abound in the neighbouring rivulets, 
no fins are ever found in this arseniated stream." Further, 
it is said, that " when the railway was being carried past 
Whitbeck, the first use of the water produced the usual 
marked effects on the throats both of the men and horses 
employed on the works. The soreness of mouth from which 
they first suffered soon however disappeared, and in the 
horses gave rise to that sleekness of coat assigned as one of 
the principal effects produced by the administration of 
minute but repeated doses of arsenic." 

This notice, which I have since found is nearly a travesty 
of Mr Church's, published in the " Chemical News" for 
August 25, 1860, exciting my curiosity, I paid a visit to the 
stream on the 27th August of last year, ascending to one of 
its sources, probably 700 feet above the level of the sea, 
where it issues from the gallery of a forsaken mine, and 
thence followed it in its descent to the village. In this its 
course, of about a mile, it was joined by other small streams, 
and by one from a lateral valley equal in size to that which 
it meets. The temperature of the water close to the mine- 
gallery was 48° at the time that the open air was 60° ; lower 
down, just before entering the village, it was 58°. I then 
collected a portion of water for examination, and had other 



Dr John Davy on Oxide of Arsenic. 45 

portions sent me ; one in October, when the stream was of 
moderate size ; another, in January, when it was lower than 
usual, after a frost of many days continuance ; and a fourth 
I collected myself when I last visited the stream, viz. on the 
3d of August of this year, when it was of its average height, 
and when the water of the mine-branch was 51°*5, and of 
the lateral branch 50 o, 5. 

Before mentioning the results of my trial of these speci- 
mens of water, I shall give a brief summary of the infor- 
mation which I obtained from the inhabitants of the village. 

The statement about the ducks was verified ; and also 
that no fish had ever been seen in the stream. Nothing 
was known of its having had any of the effects attributed 
to it when first used by the labourers and horses employed 
on the railway ; indeed, there was a positive contradiction 
given by the mother of a young family of children who had 
come to reside at the village after the line was opened. 
Nor could I learn that any of the inhabitants thought that 
any special good effect on their health was due to their 
habitual use of the water. My chief informant was Mrs 
K., a widow of about 60, of Whitbeck-head, residing in the 
farm-house, the mother of twelve children, all of whom 
were born and brought up in the same place, and had good 
health. She was not a native of the spot, but had lived 
there uninterruptedly about forty years — that is, from the 
time of her marriage ; and when I saw her she was active 
for her age, was in good health, and said she always had 
been healthy. According to her, so fruitless had been all 
her attempts to rear ducks that she had given them up as 
hopeless. Their death, she stated, was preceded by a wast- 
ing; and that, on examination after death, their stomachs 
were found " unusually crammed " or distended ; all other 
poultry doing well. 

I shall now speak of the water of the Beck. It had the 
general -character of the mountain -streams of the Lake 
District, was perfectly clear, and colourless and tasteless. Of 
the several specimens obtained, I found the specific gravity 
the same, and the same as that of distilled or rain-water. 
When evaporated to dryness the residue was very small, a 
pint yielding about -25 of a grain — and, from the different 



46 Dr John Davy on Oxide of Arsenic. 

specimens tried, not varying more than one-tenth of a grain. 
In each instance this residue was found to consist chiefly of 
common salt ; it tasted of this salt, and in solution was 
copiously precipitated by nitrate of silver. Mixed with the 
common salt was a little magnesia and lime, both probably 
in combination with sulphuric acid, as sulphate of lime and 
of magnesia, the presence of the acid being denoted by 
nitrate of barytes ; a trace, too, of oxide of arsenic was 
detected in each, and it may be inferred, in combination 
with potash, a trace of which also was obtained. The 
arsenic was detected not only by the test of the ammoni- 
aco-nitrate of silver, but also by reduction to its metallic 
state by sublimation, after mixture with ferro-cyanide of 
potassium. Of the several specimens of water tried, that 
procured in October, when the stream was about its ordinary 
size, afforded a somewhat stronger trace of the metal than 
either the earlier or later, the one in August 1861, taken 
when the stream was swollen after rain ; the other in Jan- 
uary 1862, during a frost of several days' duration, when 
probably the water was frozen at its sources, — the stream 
then lower than common. In noticing, however, the later, 
I should except the last, that taken in August last, when 
the stream was of about its average volume, and the indica- 
tions of arsenic nearly the same as those of October. In the 
instance that the trace was strongest, judging from com- 
parative experiments with oxide of arsenic, — experiments 
of reduction by sublimation, — the quantity of oxide con- 
tained in the pint was only about *008 grain, or *064 
grain to the gallon. 

Before concluding this part of my subject I may mention 
that in the second visit which I made to the stream, then 
in company with Dr Eobinson of Newcastle, we paid par- 
ticular attention to the herbage and plants growing close to 
or in the water, and were unable to observe anything in their 
appearance indicative of a noxious influence on them, with 
the exception — if it be an exception — of a single tree, a 
maple {Acer campestre), growing where its roots were 
washed by the descending stream ; of its branches many 
were dead, and such was its general aspect that it might 
well represent a poisoned tree ; yet, that it was poisoned, is 



Dr John Davy on Oxide of Arsenic. 47 

very doubtful, judging from the circumstance that its 
fructifying power was not apparently impaired, seed-vessels 
being abundant on it. At my last visit I saw sheep 
browsing on the grass that grew at the edge of the stream : 
and then I was struck not only by the variety of the kinds 
of plants, but also by the freshness and healthy appearance 
of those so near as to be in the way of being sprinkled with 
the spray of the little torrent. At the same time that I 
had the advantage of the company of Dr Eobinson, we 
sought for larvae in the sediments of a little pond, which 
had been formed as a reservoir for the purpose of working 
a mill belonging to the farm, but without success. The 
only living things we saw, and these were not in the water, 
were some small spiders, which were actively skimming its 
surface. In a portion of the sediment which I brought 
away, subjected to the microscope, I found a few remains of 
Infusoria. It may be worth mentioning, that when the 
bottom of the pond was stirred much air was disengaged. 
Dr Eobinson was so good as to have a portion of it collected 
and sent to me. I found it to be almost entirely azote ; it 
was not diminished by agitation with milk of lime, and 
hardly perceptibly by phosphorus ; nor was it inflammable. 
As the deposit had an ochrey hue, perhaps the separation of 
the oxygen, which most waters contain, was owing to the 
action of a protoxide of iron in process of conversion into 
the peroxide. 

To revert to the arsenical impregnation. If it be asked 
whence it was derived, we have not far to seek : the obvious 
inference is, that the very minute quantity of arsenic in the 
water is owing to the water flowing over mineral substances 
of w r hich arsenic is a constituent part, such as arsenical 
pyrites, which I am informed was abundant in the mine, — 
(a vein that was worked for cobalt), and is of common occur- 
rence in the side of Black Comb. Dr Eobinson, who had 
collected some specimens of it, favoured me with a portion 
of them ; and from water, in which they had been immersed 
a few hours, traces were detected of oxide of arsenic, and 
also of iron and copper ; and in confirmation, I may state, 
that when, at my last visit, I tested on the spot the two 
streams before adverted to, which by their junction form 



48 Dr John Davy on Oxide of Arsenic. 

the Beck, I found the indications of arsenic in the one, of 
about the same degree of distinctness as in the other. 

As regards the question proposed, — Is arsenic in very 
small quantity, long continued in use, injurious to man? — do 
not the results described and the experience related justify 
an answer in the negative ? To me they seem to warrant 
this conclusion, and also the conclusion equally, that no 
appreciable good effect is produced in the instance of man, 
or in that of the other animals mentioned, by its long-con- 
tinued use ; and in confirmation of this I may state, that one 
of the inhabitants of the village, a blacksmith, who on 
taking up his abode there some years ago, was subject to 
attacks of asthma, assured me that his complaint had from 
year to year been becoming worse rather than better. 

In a recent number of the Journal de Medecine et Chi- 
rurgie Pratiques,* there is a notice of a thermal spring (its 
temperature that of 106° Fahr.) in the regency of Tunis, 
called Bon-Chater, the water of which, from the analysis 
made of it by M. Guy on, contains a large proportion of 
arsenic in the state of arseniate of potash and of soda, larger 
indeed than any other yet known, being as much as four 
grains to the gallon ; and yet we are assured, that it was 
used not only by the natives with impunity, but also by M. 
Guyon and his party. 

If, then, not noxious, used as above described, is there not 
another inference to be drawn, — viz., that arsenic, especially 
in combination with either of the alkalies, is not one of those 
substances which accumulate in the system ; is, on the con- 
trary, as commonly admitted, one of those which are got rid of 
by excretion, — its elimination varying, probably, in different 
persons and in different animals as to rate, and varying, it 
may be, proportionally in the measure of its tolerance P 
Analogy seems to favour this view. The tolerance of cer- 
tain substances taken in slowly increasing doses is very 
remarkable. I was assured by the medical man under 
whose care " The Opium-Eater/' the late Mr De Quincey 
placed himself, that at the height of his indulgence he took 
half a pint of laudanum daily. The same practitioner as- 
sured me that another patient of his, a lady whom I knew. 

* Tom. xxxii. 309. 



Dr John Davy on Oxide of Arsenic. 49 

took daily two drams of solid opium, but not without injury 
to her fine mental faculties, I may mention another in- 
stance, and one more extraordinary, which came to my 
knowledge at Constantinople, of a Turk who took daily, and 
for fifteen years, two drams of solid opium, with half that 
quantity of corrosive sublimate. My informant knew the 
man well, — he was a porter at the arsenal (of which my 
friend was an official), and though in shattered health, was 
capable of his easy duties. I obtained a specimen of what 
was used as corrosive sublimate, and, testing it, found it to 
be this compound, of ordinary purity. The main motive for 
its use, he said was, that it improved — increased, the effects 
of the opium. This instance, according to the apothecaries 
in Pera, is not a solitary one of its kind ; their experience 
having taught them that the opium-eater has recourse to 
it when the narcotic has ceased to have its original effect. 

The tolerance of certain substances, in connection with 
their elimination, has not, I am disposed to think, had all 
the attention which it deserves. Why is it that individuals 
living under the same circumstances, using the same kind 
of diet and the same drinks, are some of them subject to 
gout, whilst others are free from it ? Is it not because the 
latter possess in their organisation a greater power of elimi- 
nating the causa mail — lithic acid ? Why is it that nitrate 
of silver long used, in some persons (the very few) becomes 
— that is the metal — lodged in the cutis vera, occasioning 
there its peculiar discolouring effect, whilst in the majo- 
rity, after long use, no effect of the kind is witnessed ? Is 
not the rationale of the difference the same ? 

We have had it confirmed that the water of Whitbeck 
is, in the solitary instance of the duck, injurious ; ultimately 
it would appear to be fatal. This may be owing, it may be 
conjectured, to the duck seeking its food so much more in 
water, and to a delicacy, an idiosyncrasy rendering it pecu- 
liarly susceptible of the effect of arsenic ; a peculiarity itself 
which may be connected with a feeble eliminating power, 
especially of the kidneys, its urine, like that of birds in 
general, approaching to a solid. 

A somewhat similar instance of great susceptibility of 
the effects of arsenic occurs, I believe, in the charr, one of the 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIIT. NO. I. JULY 1863. Cr 



50 Dr John Davy on Oxide of Arsenic. 

most delicate, the most sensitive of noxious influences of all 
the Salmonidae. It is an established fact, that in the two 
or three instances in the Lake District, that mines have 
been opened in the vicinity of lakes, their drainage entering 
the lakes, the charr has either entirely disappeared, as at 
Ulswater, or has become very scarce, as at Coniston-water, 
the trout, a hardier fish, remaining. I have examined the 
water flowing from the Coniston copper mines into the lake 
of the same name, and have detected in it distinct traces of 
arsenic ; and I have obtained a like result from the examin- 
ation of the water flowing into Ulswater, which receives the 
drainage of an adjoining lead mine. 

Kecently, much alarm has been felt from apprehension 
of arsenic-poisoning, owing to the great use made of some 
of its compounds, especially of Scheele's green — the cuprio- 
arseniate — in colouring paper and articles of dress. Pro- 
bably the apprehension is an exaggerated one; but yet there 
seems some foundation for it, especially in the case of 
women employed in making artificial flowers, and in that 
of ladies wearing those flowers in ball-dresses, coloured by 
the arsenic compound. If there were only a risk of injury, 
and that there certainly is in these instances, of a poisonous 
effect, ought it not to act powerfully as a prohibition to the 
further use of articles so coloured ? Even the most insen- 
sate votaries of fashion who may defend crinoline, asserting 
that, with caution, they are safe from combustion, will hardly 
venture to defend the use of a poisoned dress, from the slow 
effects of which, undermining health and spoiling beauty, 
no ordinary precautions can be effectual. 

When we reflect on the abundance of arsenical pyrites 
in most of our mining districts, and the numerous springs 
issuing from mineral strata, the water of which is used by 
the inhabitants, it may be asked how is it that arsenicated 
water is not of common occurrence, and its poisonous 
qualities well established? The answer to this, I appre- 
hend, is not difficult, resting on two facts — one, the slight 
solubility of the oxide of the metal in cold water; the other, 
its harmlessness in very minute quantities. As to the first, 
so slowly is it soluble at ordinary temperatures, that we learn, 
on good authority, it may be digested for many days with 



Professor D. Wilson on Ancient British Skull Forms. 51 

100,000 times its weight of water, and yet not be entirely 
dissolved. This, its slowness of solution, is probably owing 
to its comparatively high specific gravity, in consequence of 
which the oxide falls to the bottom, and to the strong co- 
herence of its particles, resisting its disintegration. What- 
ever the explanation may be, the property is a fortunate one 
for animal life ; for were it readily soluble, were it more 
than very slightly soluble, how direful might have been the 
results ! May we not view it as one of the many happy 
adaptations which are so common in the economy of Nature, 
and an instance of the limitation of the noxious, or its 
neutralization, or even more, of its transition into positive 
good ? this last, on the supposition that arsenic used in a 
very minute quantity may really be beneficial. 



Illustrations of the Significance of certain Ancient British 
Skull Forms. By Daniel Wilson, LL.D., Professor of 
History and English Literature, University College, 
Toronto. 

During a recent visit to Washington, I availed myself of 
the facilities afforded me by Professor Henry, the learned 
secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, to examine with 
minute care the ethnological collections preserved there, 
including those formed by the United States Exploring 
Expedition ; and especially a highly interesting collection 
of human crania. The latter includes those of Esquimaux 
and Tchuktchi, a number of compressed and greatly distorted 
Chinook and other Flathead skulls, as well as examples of 
those of other Indian tribes, both of North and South 
America ; and of Fiji, Kanaka, and other Pacific islanders. 
On my return I spent a short time in Philadelphia, chiefly 
for the purpose of renewed study of the valuable materials 
of the Mortonian collection ; and while there enjoyed the 
opportunity of examining, in company with Dr Aitken 
Meigs, a series of one hundred and twenty-five Esquimaux 
crania obtained by Dr Hayes in his Arctic journey of 1854. 

The materials for craniological investigation which such 
collections supply can scarcely be surpassed in some of their 



52 Professor D. Wilson's Illustrations of the Significance 

departments, and invite to very diverse researches by the 
illustrations they are calculated to afford. It chanced, how- 
ever, that my attention had been recently recalled to an old 
subject of speculation, relative to the possible modification 
of the forms of ancient British crania by some of the very 
causes which so materially alter those of many American 
tribes ; and this accordingly influenced me in part, in the 
notes I made of the collections both at Washington and 
Philadelphia, and will now give direction to some remarks 
bearing on the same inquiry. 

Among the most prized crania in the collection of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia is the cele- 
brated Scioto Mound skull. But though on a former visit 
I made the ancient mound crania an object of special study, 
this most remarkable example of the series was not then 
included among them ; and I now examined the original 
for the first time. The result of this examination was to 
satisfy me that the remarkable form and proportions of that 
skull are much more due to artificial influences than I had 
been led to suppose from the views published in the " Smith- 
sonian Contributions to Knowledge/'* The vertical view, 
especially, is very inaccurate. In the original it presents 
the peculiar characteristics of what I have before designated 
as the truncated form ; passing abruptly from a broad flat- 
tened occiput to its extreme parietal breadth, and then 
tapering with slight lateral swell, until it reaches its least 
breadth immediately behind the external angular process 
of the frontal bone. The occiput has been subjected to the 
flattening process to a much greater extent than is apparent 
from the drawings ; but at the same time it is accompanied 
by no corresponding affection of the frontal bone, such as 
inevitably results from the procedure of the Chinooks and 
other Flathead tribes ; among whom the desired cranial de- 
formation is effected by bandages crossing the forehead, and 
consequently modifying the frontal as much as the parietal 
and occipital bones. On this account, great as is the amount 
of flattening in this remarkable skull, it is probably due 
solely to the undesigned pressure of the cradle-board acting 

• Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley, pi xlvii. and xlviii. 



of certain Ancient British Skull Forms. 53 

on a head of remarkably brachycephalic proportions and 
great natural posterior breadth. The forehead is fully 
arched, the glabella prominent, and the whole character of 
the frontal bone is essentially different from the Indian type. 
The sutures are very much ossified, and even to some extent 
obliterated. So early as 1857, when discussing Dr Morton's 
theory of one uniform cranial type pervading the whole 
ancient and modern tribes of North and South America, 
with the single exception of the Esquimaux, I remarked, 
" I think it extremely probable that further investigation will 
tend to the conclusion that the vertical or flattened occiput, 
instead of being a typical characteristic, pertains entirely to 
the class of artificial modifications of the natural cranium 
familiar to the American ethnologist alike in the disclosures 
of ancient graves, and in the customs of widely separated 
living tribes."* 

This idea received further confirmation from noticing the 
almost invariable accompaniment of such traces of artificial 
modification, with more or less inequality in the two sides 
of the head. In the extremely transformed skulls of the 
Flathead Indians, and of the Natchez, Peruvians, and other 
ancient nations by whom the same barbarous practice was 
encouraged, the extent of this deformity is frequently such 
as to excite surprise that it could have proved compatible 
with the healthful exercise of any vital functions. But the 
aspect in which it is now purposed to review the subject of 
artificial modifications of the human cranium, in relation to 
ancient British skull forms, was suggested, in the same 
paper above referred to, when pointing out the mistaken 
idea adopted by Dr Morton, that such unsymmetrical con- 
formation, or irregularity of form, is peculiar to American 
crania. f The latter remark, I then observed, is too wide a 
generalisation. I have repeatedly noted the like unsym- 
metrical characteristics in the brachycephalic crania of 
Scottish barrows, and it has occurred to my mind, on more 
than one occasion, whether such may not furnish an indi- 
cation of some partial compression, dependent, it may be, 

* Edinburgh Philosophical Journal, n.s., vol. vii. p. 24. Canadian Journal, 
vol. ii. p. 406. 

f Crania Americana, p. 115. Types of Mankind, p. 444. 



5 1 Professor D. Wilson's Illustrations of the Significance 

on the mode of nurture in infancy, having tended, in their 
case also, if not to produce, to exaggerate the short longi- 
tudinal diameter, which constitutes one of their most re- 
markable characteristics. 

The idea thus expressed, in a paper read before the 
American Scientific Association at Montreal, as well as at 
the Dublin meeting of the British Association in 1857, was 
the result of observations made before leaving Scotland in 
1853. One chapter of the " Prehistoric Annals of Scotland" 
is devoted to a discussion as to the ethnological significance 
of the crania of Scottish tumuli ; and after its publication I 
availed myself of every favourable opportunity for adding 
to the rare materials illustrative of that interesting depart- 
ment. In pursuing such researches my attention was re- 
peatedly drawn to the unsymmetrical proportions of ancient 
brachycephalic skulls, and to their peculiar truncated form, 
accompanied, as in the mound skull of the Scioto Valley, 
by an abrupt flattening of the occiput, which I soon began 
to suspect was due to artificial causes. Since then the 
facilities derived from repeated examinations of American 
collections have familiarised me, not only with the extreme 
varieties of form of which the human head is susceptible 
under the influence of artificial compression, but also with 
the less marked changes undesignedly resulting from such 
seemingly slight causes as the constant pressure of the 
Indian cradle-board. The examination and measurement 
of several hundred specimens of American crania, as well 
as of the living head in representatives of various Indian 
tribes, have also satisfied me not only of the existence of 
dolichocephalic and brachycephalic heads as tribal or na- 
tional characteristics, but of the common occurrence of the 
same exaggerated brachycephalic form, accompanied with 
the vertical or obliquely flattened occiput, which had seemed 
to be characteristic of the crania of the Scottish tumuli. 
There are indeed ethnical differences apparent, as in the 
frontal and malar bones, but so far as the posterior region 
of the head is concerned, both appear to exhibit the same 
undesigned deformation resulting from the process of nursing 
still practised among many Indian tribes. 

The light thus thrown <>n the habits of the British 



of certain Ancient British Skull Forms. 55 

mother of prehistoric times, hy the skull-forms found in 
ancient barrows, is replete with interest, from the sugges- 
tions it furnishes of ancient customs hitherto undreamt of. 
But it has also another and higher value to the craniologist, 
from its thus showing that some, at least, of the peculiar 
forms hitherto accepted as ethnical distinctions, may be 
more correctly traced to causes operating after birth. 

The first example of this peculiar cranial conformation 
which attracted my attention, as possibly traceable to other 
causes than the inherited characteristics, or natural devia- 
tions from the typical skull-form of an extinct race, occurred 
on the opening of a stone cist at Juniper Green, near Edin- 
burgh, on the 17th of May 1851. Soon after the publica- 
tion of the " Prehistoric Annals of Scotland/' in which the 
special characteristics of the crania of the Scottish tumuli 
were first discussed, I heard of the accidental discovery of 
an ancient tomb in a garden on the Lanark road, a few miles 
to the north-west of Edinburgh, and immediately proceeded 
to the spot. The cist occupied a slightly elevated site, 
distant only a few yards from the road ; and as this had long 
been under cultivation as a garden, if any mound originally 
marked the spot it had disappeared, and no external indi- 
cation distinguished it as a place of sepulture. A shallow 
cist formed of unhewn slabs of sandstone enclosed a space 
measuring three feet eleven inches in length, by two feet 
one inch in breadth at the head, and one foot eleven inches 
at foot. The joints fitted to each other with sufficient regu- 
larity to admit of their being closed by a few stone chips 
inserted at the junction, after which they appeared to have 
been carefully cemented with wet loam or clay. The slab 
which covered the whole projected over the sides, so as 
effectually to protect the sepulchral chamber from any infil- 
tration of earth. It lay in a sandy soil, within little more 
than two feet of the surface ; but it had probably been 
covered until a comparatively recent period by a greater 
depth of earth, as its site was higher than the surround- 
ing surface, and possibly thus marked the traces of the 
nearly levelled tumulus. Slight as this elevation was it 
had proved sufficient to prevent the lodgment of water, and 
hence the cist was found perfectly free from damp. With- 



&6 Professor D. Wilson's Illustrations of the Significance 

in this a male skeleton lay on its left side. The arms ap- 
peared to have been folded over the breast, and the knees 
drawn up so as to touch the elbows. The head had been 
supported by a flat water- worn stone for its pillow ; but from 
this it had fallen to the bottom of the cist, on its being 
detached by the decomposition of the fleshy ligatures ; and, 
as is common in crania discovered under similar circum- 
stances, it had completely decayed at the part in contact 
with the ground. A portion of the left side is thus want- 
ing ; but with this exception the skull was not only nearly 
perfect when found, but the bones were solid and heavy ; and 
the whole skeleton appeared to me so well preserved as to 
have admitted of articulation. Above the right shoulder, 
a neat earthen vase had been placed, probably with food or 
drink. It contained only a little sand and black dust when 
recovered, uninjured, from the spot where it had been de- 
posited by affectionate hands many centuries before, and is 
now preserved along with the skull in the Scottish Museum 
of Antiquities. 

As the peculiar forms of certain skulls, such as are de- 
scribed by Dr Thurnam, from an Anglo-Saxon cemetery at 
Stone, in Buckinghamshire,* and another, described by me, 
from an Indian cemetery at Montreal, f as well as those of 
numerous distorted crania, from the Roman site of Uriconium 
and other ancient cemeteries, have been ascribed to posthu- 
mous compression, the precise circumstances attendant on 
the discovery of the Juniper Green cist are important, from 
the proof they afford that the body originally deposited 
within it had lain there undisturbed and entirely unaffected 
by any superincumbent pressure from the day of its inter- 
ment. Two, if not three, classes of skulls have been re- 
covered from early British graves. One with a predomi- 
nant longitudinal diameter, in the most marked examples 
differs so essentially in its elongated and narrow forehead 
and occiput from the modern dolichocephalic head, that I 
was led to assign it to a separate class under the title kum- 
becephalic.J Another has the longitudinal diameter little 

• Crania Britannica, Dec. i. p. 38. 

t Edin. Phil. Journal, n. s., vol. xvi. p. 269. 

J Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, p. 177. 



of certain Ancient British Skull Forms. 57 

in excess of the greatest parietal breadth, and is no less 
strikingly distinguished from the prevailing modern head, 
whether of Celtic or Saxon areas, by its shortness, than the 
other is by its length, when viewed either in profile or verti- 
cally. The Anglo-Saxon type of skull appears to be inter- 
mediate between those two forms, with a more symmetrical 
oval, such as is of common occurrence in modern English 
heads. 

If cranial conformation has any ethnical significance, it 
appears to me inconceivable that the two extreme forms 
above referred to can both pertain to the same race ; and 
the circumstances under which the most characteristic 
examples of the opposite types have been found, confirm 
me in the belief which I advocated when the evidence was 
much less conclusive, that the older dolichocephalic or 
kumbecephalic skull illustrates the physical characteristics 
of a race which preceded the advent of the Celtas in Britain, 
and gradually disappeared before their aggressions. As, 
however, the opposite opinion is maintained by so high an 
authority as Dr J. Barnard Davis, the comparison of the 
following measurements, illustrative of the three types of 
head, will best exhibit the amount of deviation in opposite 
directions from the intermediate form. The measurements 
are taken from those furnished in the " Crania Britannica," 
and include the longitudinal diameter, frontal, parietal, and 
occipital breadth, parietal height, and horizontal circumference. 
No. 1, like the majority of the same class, is derived from 
a megalithic chambered barrow, and has been selected by 
Dr Davis as a characteristic example of the class to which 
it belongs ;* though, according to him, that is one of 
aberrant deviations from the typical British form. No. 2, 
obtained from a barrow at Codford, in Wiltshire, has also 
been selected by Dr Davis as one of three typical British 
crania. It is of the same type as the Juniper Green skull, 
and its strongly marked characteristics are thus defined by 
him : " Its most interesting peculiarities are its small size, 
and its decidedly brachycephalic conformation. This latter 
character, which commonly appertains to the ancient British 
cranium, and even to that form which we regard as typical, 

* Proceedings of the Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia, 1857, p. 42. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVITJ. NO. I. JULY 1863. H 



58 Professor D. Wilson's Illustrations of the Significance 

is seldom met with expressed in so marked a manner/'* 
No. 3, is a skull from an Anglo-Saxon cemetery near Lit- 
lington, Sussex, one of two of which Dr Davis remarks, — 
" There is a general indication of good form in these fine 

capacious skulls, which is apparent in every aspect 

On a review of the whole series of Anglo-Saxon crania 
which have come under our notice, we are led to conclude 
that this pleasing oval, rather dolichocephalic form, may 
hest be deserving the epithet of typical among them."t All 
the three examples are male skulls : — 





L. D. 


F B. 


P B. 


O. B. 


P H. 


H. C. 


1. Uley Chambered Barrow Skull 

2. Codford Skull 


8-1 
6-8 

7-5 


47 
46 

47 


57 
57 
53 


5- 

51 
46 


51 

47 
49 


21-7 1 
20- , 
*?0 9 


3. Litlington Skull 






1 



Each of the above examples presents the features of the 
type to which it belongs with more than usual prominence, 
so that if the mean of a large series were taken, the ele- 
ments of difference between the three would be less strongly 
defined- The differences are, however, those on which 
their separate classification depends, and they thus illustrate 
the special points on which any craniological comparison 
for ethnological purposes must be based. Of the three 
skulls, the era and race of one of them (No. 3) are well de- 
termined. It is that of a Saxon, probably of the seventh 
or eighth century, of the race of the South Saxons, de- 
scended from iElla and his followers, and recovered in a 
district where the permanency of the same ethnic type is 
illustrated by its predominance among the rural population 
at the present day. Another of the selected examples 
(No. 2) is assumed by Dr Davis, probably on satisfactory 
grounds, to be an ancient British, i.e., Celtic skull. It is 
indeed a difficulty, which has still to be satisfactorily ex- 
plained, how it is, that if this brachycephalic type be the 
true British head-form, no such prevalence of the form is 
to be found, on modern Celtic areas, as in the case of Saxon 



* Crania Britannica, Dec. ii. pi. 14. 
t [bid. Deo. iv. pis. 39, 40. 



of certain Ancient British Skull Forms. 59 

Sussex connects the race of its ancient pagan and Christian 
cemeteries with the Anglo-Saxon population of the present 
day. The historical race and era with which Dr Davis 
conceives the barrow- builders of Wiltshire to be connected 
is thus indicated in the " Crania Britannica," "Kegion of the 
Belgse, Temp. Ptolemsei, a.d. 120." The Belgse of that era — 
apparently then comparatively recent intruders, and by 
some regarded as not Celtic, but Germanic — were displaced, 
if not exterminated ; but the modern Britons of Wales 
are undoubted descendants of British Celts of Ptolemy's 
age. Though mingling both Saxon and Norman with pure 
British blood, they probably preserve the native type as 
little modified by such foreign admixture as that of its sup- 
planters in the most thoroughly Saxon or Anglish districts 
of England. It is therefore a question of some importance, 
how far the extreme brachycephalic proportions of the so- 
called British type may be traceable to other than inherited 
ethnical characteristics. Meanwhile, turning from this 
supposed British skull of Eoman times to the one derived 
from Uley chambered barrow, No. 1, the most ancient of 
the series, and assuming their chronological order to be 
undisputed, as it appears to be, we find no gradation from 
an abbreviated to an elongated form, but, on the contrary, 
an extreme brachycephalic type interposed between the ovoid 
dolichocephalic Anglo-Saxon of the Christian era and the 
extreme dolichocephalic, or kumbecephalic one belonging 
to a period seemingly so remote, that Dr Thurnam, when 
rioting the recurrence of the same type in another chambered 
barrow at Littleton Drew, Wiltshire, remarked, " It is not 
necessary to admit the existence of any pre-Celtic race, as 
the skulls described may be those of Gaelic, as distinguished 
from Cymric, Celts ; or the long-headed builders of these long, 
chambered, stone barrows, may have been an intrusive people, 
who entered Britain from the south-west. Can they have 
been some ancient Iberian or Ibero-Phcenician settlers?"* 

Among the rarer crania of the Morton collection is one 
to which a peculiar interest attaches, and which may 
possibly have some significance in reference to this in- 
quiry. Its history is narrated in Dr Henry S. Paterson's 

* Crania Britannica, Dec. iii. pi. 24 (4). 



GO Professor D. Wilson's Illustrations of the Significance 

Memoir of Dr Morton. During a visit of Mr Gliddon to 
Paris in 1856, he presented a copy of the " Crania iEgyp- 
tiaca" to the celebrated oriental scholar M. Fresnel, and 
excited his interest in the labours of its author. Upwards 
of a year after he received at Philadelphia a box containing 
a skull, forwarded from Naples, but without any information 
relative to it. " It was handed over to Morton/' says Dr 
Paterson, " who at once perceived its dissimilarity to any 
in his possession. It was evidently very old, the animal 
matter having almost entirely disappeared. Day after day 
would Morton be found absorbed in its contemplation. At 
last he announced his conclusion. He had never seen a 
Phoenician skull, and he had no idea where this one came 
from, but it was what he conceived a Phoenician skull 
should be, and it could be no other."* Six months after- 
wards, Mr Gliddon received, along with other letters and 
papers forwarded to him from Naples, a slip of paper, in 
the handwriting of M. Fresnel, containing the history of 
the skull, which had been discovered by him during his 
exploration of an ancient rock-tomb at Malta. Dr Meigs 
refers to this in his catalogue of the collection, No. 1352, 
as an illustration of " the wonderful power of discrimina- 
tion, the tactus visus acquired by Dr Morton in his long and 
critical study of craniology." Such was my own impression 
on first reading it ; but I confess the longer I reflect on it, 
the more am I puzzled to guess by what classical or other 
data, or process short of absolute intuition, the ideal type 
of the Phoenician head could be determined. I suspect, 
therefore, if we had the statement in Dr Morton's own 
words, it would fall short of such an absolute craniological 
induction. The following is the sole entry made by him in 
his catalogue : "Ancient Phoenician? I received this highly 
interesting relic from M. F. Fresnel, the distinguished 
French archaeologist and traveller, with the following me- 
morandum, a.d. 1847 : — Crane provenant des caves sepul- 
chrales de Ben-Djemma, dans File de Malte. Ce crane 
parait avoir appartenu a un individu de la race qui, dans les 
temps les plus anciens, occupait la cote septentrionale de 
I \\ Clique, et les iles adjacentes." The skull is not im- 

* Memoir of Di S. G. Morton ; Types of Mankind, pi. xl. 



of certain Ancient British Skull Forms. 



61 



probably what it has been assumed to be, and it is in 
many respects a remarkable one. A. deep indentation at 
the nasal suture gives the idea of an overhanging forehead ; 
but the superciliary ridges are not prominent, and the 
peculiar character of the frontal bone is most strikingly 
apparent in the vertical view, where it is seen to retreat on 
either side almost in a straight line from the centre of the 
glabella to the external angular process of the frontal bone. 
The contour of the coronal region is described by Dr Meigs 
as " a long oval, which recalls to mind the kumbecephalic 
form of Wilson."* Whatever, indeed, be the ultimate con- 
clusion of ethnologists as to the evidences which led me to 
adopt that name to distinguish the characteristics of a pre- 
Celtic British race, the necessity appears to be acknowledged 
for some such term to distinguish the form in question from 
the ordinary dolichocephalic type. The head is narrow 
throughout, with its greatest breadth a little behind the 
coronal suture, from whence it narrows gradually towards 
front and rear. The lower jaw is large and massive, but 
with less of the prognathous development than in the 
superior maxillary. The skull is, no doubt, that of a woman. 
The nose has been prominent ; but the zygomatic arches 
are delicate, and the whole face is long, narrow, and taper- 
ing towards the chin. The parietals meet at an angle, with 
a bulging of the sagittal suture, and a slight but distinctly 
defined pyramidal form running into the frontal bone. The 
occiput is full, round, and projecting a little more on the 
left side than the right. The measurements of the skull 
are as follows : — 



Longitudinal diameter, . 








7-4 


Parietal diameter, 








51 


Frontal diameter, 








4- 


Vertical diameter, 








5-3 


Intermeatoid arch, 








12-3 


Intermastoid arch, 








15- (?) 


Intermastoid line, 








4-3 (?) 


Occipitofrontal arch, 








14-2 


Horizontal circumference, 








20-2 



* Catalogue of Human Crania in the Academy of Nat. Science of Phila- 
delphia, p. 29. 



62 " Professor D. Wilson's Illustrations of the Significance 

1 have been thus particular in describing this interest- 
ing skull, because it . furnishes some points of comparison 
with British kumbecephalic crania, bearing on the inquiry, 
whether we may not thus recover traces of the Phoenician 
explorers of the Gassiterides in the long-headed builders of 
the chambered barrows. When contrasting the wide and 
nearly virgin area with which Dr Morton had to deal, with 
that embraced in the scheme of the " Crania Britannica," I 
remarked in 1857 : — Compared with such a wide field of 
investigation, the little island home of the Saxons may 
well seem narrow ground for exploration ; but to the ethno- 
logist it is not so. There, amid the rudest traces of pri- 
meval arts, he seeks, and probably not in vain, for the 
remains of primitive European allophylise. There it is not 
improbable that both Phoenicians and early Greek navi- 
gators have left behind them evidences of their presence, 
such as he alone can discriminate.* 

Before, however, we can abandon ourselves to the temp- 
tations of so seductive a theory, — which, after all, finds 
only such support as may be deduced from a certain general 
analogy of cranial form, and derives no confirmation from 
the works of art accompanying the remains of the long- 
headed barrow-builders, — it has to be borne in remembrance 
that the question is still disputed with reference to this 
class of British dolichocephalic crania : are they examples 
of an essentially distinct type, preserving evidence of the 
characteristics of a different race, or are they mere excep- 
tional aberrant deviations from the supposed brachycephalic 
Celtic or British type ? Much stress is laid on the fact 
that the two forms of skull have occasionally been recovered 
from the same barrow ; from which it may be inferred that 
the two races to which I conceive them to have belonged, 
were for a more or less limited period contemporaneous. 
More than this I cannot regard as a legitimate induction 
from such premises, in relation to crania of such extremely 
diverse types. But this amounts to little ; for the same is 
undoubtedly true of the ancient British and the modern 
Anglo-Saxon race ; and the discovery of Celtic and Saxon 

* Canadian Journal, vol. ii. p. 445. 



of certain Ancient British Skull Forms. 63 

skulls in a common barrow or tumulus of the sixth century 
is no proof that the latter race was not preceded by many 
centuries in the occupation of the country by the Britons, 
among whom they then mingled as conquerors and sup- 
planters. But the elongated skulls are no rare and excep- 
tional forms. They have been most frequently found in 
tombs of a peculiar character, and of great antiquity. Many 
have been recovered in too imperfect a state to admit of more 
being deduced from the fragments than that these conform 
to the more perfect examples of the peculiar type. Never- 
theless the number already obtained in a sufficiently perfect 
state to admit of detailed measurement is remarkable, when 
their great age and the circumstances of their recovery are 
fully considered. Of this the following enumeration will 
afford satisfactory proof. Only two perfect crania from the 
chambered tumulus of Uley, in Gloucestershire, — of which 
the proportions of one are cited above, — have been pre- 
served. But in the later search of Mr Freeman and Dr 
Thurnam, in 1854, the fragments of eight or nine other 
skulls were recovered, and of these the latter remarks : 
" The fragments are interesting, as proving that the charac- 
ters observed in the more perfect crania were common to 
the individuals interred in this tumulus. Three or four cal- 
varia are sufficiently complete to show that in them likewise 
the length of the skulls had been great in proportion to the 
breadth."* Again, in the megalithic tumulus of Littleton 
Drew, North Wilts, at least twenty-six skeletons appear to 
have been found, from several of which imperfect crania 
were recovered, and of those Dr Thurnam remarks : " Eight 
or nine crania were sufficiently perfect for comparison. 
With one exception, in which a lengthened oval form is 
not marked, they are of the dolichocephalic class/'f So 
also the four nearly perfect skulls from West Kennet are 
described as " more or less of the lengthened oval form, 
with the occiput expanded and projecting, and presenting a 
strong contrast to skulls from the circular barrows of Wilts 
and Dorset." J To these may be added those of Stoney Little- 

* Archseol. Journal, vol. xi. p. 313. Crania Eritannica, Dec. i. pi. 5. 
t Crania Britannica, Dec iii. pi. 24 (3). 
X Tbid. Dec. v. pi. 50 (4). 



64 Professor D. Wilson's Illustrations of the Significance 

ton, Somersetshire, first pointed out by Sir E. C. Hoare ;* 
and examples from barrows in Derby, Stafford, and York- 
shire, described by Mr Thomas Bateman in his " Ten Years' 
Diggings in Celtic and Saxon Grave Hills ;" including those 
from Bolehill, Longlow, and Ringham Low, Derbyshire ; 
from the galleries of the tumulus on Five-Wells Hill, and 
from the Yorkshire barrow near Heslerton-on-the-wolds. 
Several of the above contained a number of skulls ; and of 
the last, in which fifteen human skeletons lay heaped to- 
gether, Mr Bateman remarks : " The crania that have been 
preserved are all more or less mutilated ; but about six 
remain sufficiently entire to indicate the prevailing confor- 
mation to be of the long or kumbecephalic type of Dr 
Wilson." | The crania occurring in graves of this class 
mentioned by Mr Bateman alone, exceed fifty in number, 
of which the majority are either of the elongated type, or 
too imperfect to be determined. The others include between 
thirty and forty well-determined examples, besides a greater 
number in too imperfect a state to supply more than indi- 
cations of their correspondence to the same characteristic 
form. Alongside of some of these are also found brachy- 
cephalic crania ; but in the most ancient barrows the elon- 
gated skull appears to be the predominant, and in some 
cases the sole type ; and of the examples found in Scotland, 
two have been recovered from peat bogs, and others under 
circumstances more definitely marking their great antiquity. 

The variations of cranial form are thus, it appears, no 
gradual transition, or partial modification, but an abrupt 
change from an extreme dolichocephalic to an extreme 
brachycephalic type ; which, on the intrusion of the new 
and essentially distinct Anglo-Saxon race, gives place once 
more to a dolichocephalic form of medium proportions. 

Leaving, meanwhile, the consideration of the question of 
distinct races indicated by such evidence, it will be well to 
determine first if such variations of skull-form can be traced 
to other than a transmitted ethnical source. The Juniper 
Green skull, already referred to, presents in profile, as 
shown in the full-sized view in the " Crania Britannica," 

* Archrcologia, vol. xix. p. 47. 

t Ten Years' Diggings in Celtic and Saxon Grave Hills, p. 230. 



of certain Ancient British Skull Forms. 65 

the square and compact proportions characteristic of British 
brachycephalic crania. It also exhibits, in the vertical 
outline, the truncated wedge form of the type. In the 
most strongly marked examples of this form, the vertical or 
flattened occiput is a prominent feature, accompanied gene- 
rally with parietal breadth, from which it abruptly narrows 
at the occiput. The proportions of this class of crania were 
already familiar to me before the discovery of the Juniper 
Green example ; but it had not before occurred to me to 
ascribe any of their features to other than natural causes. 
But the circumstances attending its discovery gave peculiar 
interest to whatever was characteristic in the skull and its 
accompanying relics, handled for the first time as evidences 
of the race and age of the freshly-opened cist, discovered 
almost within sight of the Scottish capital, and yet pertain- 
ing to prehistoric times. The skull was carried home in 
my hand, a distance of several miles, and its truncated out- 
line, and still more, its flattened occiput, attracted special 
attention, and gave rise to conversation with my friend 
Mr Kobert Chambers, who had accompanied me on this 
exploratory excursion. With the temptation of a novel 
discovery, I was at first disposed to recognise the traces of 
art in this abbreviated form, not only as exaggerating the 
natural characteristics, but as a- possible source of their pro- 
duction. But a comparison with examples of the true 
dolichocephalic skull, to which I had already assigned 
priority in point of time, sufficed to dispel that illusion. At 
a subsequent meeting of the Society of Antiquaries of Scot- 
land, I accompanied the presentation of the cranium and 
urn with an account of the circumstances of their discovery, 
and some remarks on the novel features noticeable in the 
skull. Unfortunately the printing of the Society's Pro- 
ceedings, which had been suspended for some time, was 
not resumed till the following season ; and no record of 
this communication was preserved beyond the title. 

Another skull in the same collection, found under some- 
what similar circumstances in a cist at Lesmurdie, Banff- 
shire, has the vertical occiput accompanied by an unusual 
parietal expansion and want of height, suggestive of the 

NEW SERIES- VOL. XVIII. NO. I. JULY 1863. I 



66 Professor D. Wilson's Illustrations of the Significance 

idea of a combined coronal and occipital compression.* A 
third Scottish skull, procured from one of a group of cists 
near Kinaldie, Aberdeenshire, also exhibits the posterior 
vertical flattening. But a more striking example than any 
of those appears in the one from Codford, South Wiltshire, 
selected above to illustrate this type.f Dr Davis remarks 
in his description of it : — " The zygomatic arches are short, 
a character which appertains to the entire calvarium, but is 
most concentrated in the parietals, to which the abruptly 
ascending portion of the occipital lends its influence. The 
widest part of the calvarium is about an inch behind, and 
as much above the auditory foramen, and when we view it 
in front we perceive it gradually to expand from the outer 
angular process of the frontal to the point now indicated." 
The entire parieto-occipital region presents in profile an 
abrupt vertical line ; but when viewed vertically it tapers 
considerably more towards the occiput than is usual in crania 
of the same class. 

The cause of the vertical occiput, as well as the oblique 
parieto-occipital flattening in this class of British crania, I 
feel no hesitation in believing to be traceable to the same 
kind of rigid cradle-board as is in constant use among many 
of the Iudian tribes of America, and which produces pre- 
cisely similar results. Its mode of operation, in effecting 
the various forms of oblique and vertical occiputs, will be 
considered, when describing some of the phenomena of com- 
pressed Indian crania ; but another feature of the Juniper 
Green skull, which is even more obvious in that from Les- 
murdie, in the same collection, is an irregularity amounting 
to a marked inequality in the development of the two sides. 
This occurs in skulls which have been altered by posthu- 
mous compression ; but the recovery of both the examples 
referred to from stone cists precludes the idea of their 
having been affected by the latter cause ; and since I was 
first led to suspect the modification of the occiput, and the 
exaggeration of the characteristic proportions of British 
brachycephalic crania by artificial means, familiarity with 
those of the Flathead Indians, as well as other ancient and 
modern artificially distorted American crania, has led me 
Crania Britanniea, Dec. ii. pi. 16. t Ibid. J>cc. ii. pi. 14. 



of certain Ancient British Skull Forms. 67 

to recognise in their parietal conformation the constant 
occurrence of the same unsymmetrical inequality. 

But besides the well-known distortions produced in many 
American crania by protracted compression purposely ap- 
plied with a view to change the form, others of a less 
marked character closely correspond to those of the British 
brachycephalic crania. The normal human head may be 
assumed to present a perfect correspondence in its two 
hemispheres ; but very slight investigation will suffice to 
convince the observer that few living examples satisfy the 
requirements of such a theoretical standard. Not only is 
inequality in the two sides frequent, but a perfectly symme- 
trical head is the exception rather than the rule. The 
plastic condition of the cranial bones in infancy, which ad- 
mits of all the strange malformations of ancient Macroce- 
phali and modern Flatheads, also renders the infant head 
liable to many undesigned changes. From minute personal 
examination I have satisfied myself of the repeated occur- 
rence of inequality in the two sides of the head, arising 
from the mother being able to suckle her child only at one 
breast, so that the head was subjected to a slight but con- 
stantly renewed pressure in the same direction. It is sur- 
prising, indeed, to how great an extent such unsymmetrical 
irregularity is found to prevail, when once the attention has 
been drawn to it The only example of the Greek head 
possessed by Dr Morton, was a cast presented to him by 
Dr Eetzius, and which, from its selection by the distin- 
guished Swedish craniologist for such a purpose, might 
reasonably be assumed to illustrate the Greek type. It is 
accordingly described by Dr J. Aitken Meigs, in his " Cranial 
Characteristics of the Eace of Man," as very much resem- 
bling that of Constantine Demetriades, a Greek native of 
Corfu, and long a teacher of the modern Greek language at 
Oxford, as engraved in Dr Prichard's Besearches. Its cranial 
characteristics are thus defined in the Catalogue of the Mor- 
tonian Collection (No. 1354) : " The calvarial region is 
well developed, the frontal line expansive and prominent, the 
facial line departs but slightly from the perpendicular." On 
recently visiting Philadelphia for the purpose of renewed 
examination of its valuable collections, I was surprised to 



68 Professor D. Wilson's Illustrations of the Significance 

find this head, instead of being either oval, or, as Blumen- 
bach describes the example selected by him, subglobular : 
presenting the truncated form, with extreme breadth at the 
parietal protuberances, and then abruptly passing to a flat- 
tened occiput. It measures 6*5 longitudinal diameter ; 5*7 
parietal diameter ; and 19 '2 horizontal circumference. But 
the most noticeable feature is the great inequality of the 
two sides, the right side is less tumid than the left, while it 
projects more to the rear, and the whole is fully as unsym- 
metrical as many American crania. Were it not that this 
feature appears to have wholly escaped Dr Morton's atten- 
tion, as he merely enters it in his catalogue as a " Cast of 
the skull of a young Greek. Professor Retzius," I should 
be tempted to suppose it had been purposely sent to him to 
illustrate the phenomena of unsymmetrical development, 
and of the influence of undesigned artificial causes on skull- 
forms. Nor was Dr Morton unobservant of such indications. 
When first noticing the probable origin of the flattened 
occiput of certain British skulls, I drew attention to the fact, 
that he had already recognised undesigned artificial com- 
pression as one source of abnormal cranial conformation, 
and accompanied its demonstration with a reference to the 
predominant unsymmetrical form in all such skulls. " This 
irregularity," he added, " chiefly consists in the greater pro- 
jection of the occiput to one side than the other," and " is 
not to be attributed to the intentional application of mecha- 
nical force." Such want of uniformity in the two sides 
of the head is much more strongly marked in Flathead 
skulls, which have been subjected to great compression. It 
is clearly traceable to the difficulty of subjecting the living 
and growing head to a perfectly uniform and equable pres- 
sure, and to the cerebral mass forcing the skull to expand 
with it in the direction of least resistance. Hence the un- 
symmetrical form accompanying the vertical occiput in the 
Lesmurdie and Juniper Green skulls, and, as I conceive also, 
in the Greek skull of Retzius. The study of the latter 
skull -form has tended strongly to confirm me in the belief, 
that the extreme abbreviated proportions of many naturally 
brachycephalic crania are due to artificial causes. Wherever 
a very noticeable inequality exists between the two sides, 



of certain Ancient British Skull Form.s. 69 

it may be ascribed with much probability to the indirect 
results of designed or accidental compression in infancy ; 
and by its frequent occurrence in any uniform aspect, may, 
quite as much as the flattened occiput, furnish a clue to 
customs or modes of nurture among the people to whom it 
pertains. 

Dr Struthers of Edinburgh has in his collection an in- 
teresting example of a modern skull, measuring 7*5 longi- 
tudinal diameter, 6'5 parietal diameter, 214 horizontal cir- 
cumference, in which the truncated form is even more 
strongly marked by the abrupt flattening, immediately be- 
hind the parietal protuberances, accompanied with inequa- 
lity in the two sides of the head. It was obtained from a 
grave-digger in Dundee, who stated it to be that of a middle- 
aged female, whom he had known during life. There was 
nothing particular about her mental development. 

I have also drawn attention in former papers to the fact 
that such peculiar forms and examples of inequality in the 
development of the two sides of the head are familiar to hat- 
manufacturers. Occasionally the eye is attracted by very 
unusual cranial forms revealed by baldness ; but the hair 
suffices generally to conceal abnormal irregularities, some 
of which, as illustrated by hatters' shapes, are extremely 
odd and fantastical. My attention was directed to this 
familiar test by a remark of the late Dr Kombst, that he 
had never been able to obtain an English-made hat that 
would fit his head. He added, that he believed such was 
the general experience of Germans, owing to the greater 
length of the English head. I subsequently found the 
shapes of a Yorkshire hatter to be shorter than some fur- 
nished me from Dublin ; while English and Anglo-Canadian 
ones are decidedly longer than those of the French Canadians 
of Lower Canada ; and I believe that comparisons of the 
shapes most in demand in different parts of the British 
Islands, and on the Continent, will supply important cranio- 
logical results. 

The novel forms thus occurring in modern heads, though 
chiefly traceable, as I believe, to artificial causes, are not 
the result of design. But the same is true of the prevalent 
vertical and obliquely flattened occiput of many ancient and 



70 Professor D. Wilson's Illustrations of the Significance 

modern American crania, as well as of the British brachio- 
cephalic class already described. Nor are such changes of 
the natural form necessarily limited to skulls of short lon- 
gitudinal diameter, in which this typical characteristic is 
exaggerated by the pressure of the cradle-board in infancy. 
Now that this source of modification begins to receive 
general recognition among craniologists, its influence is 
assumed as a probable source of the most diverse aberrant 
forms. Dr Thurnam, when referring to two skulls of dif- 
ferent shapes, recovered from the same group of British 
barrows, of " a somewhat late though pre-Roinan period," 
on Roundway Hill, North Wiltshire, thus indicates their 
contrasting characteristics, and suggests the probable source 
of such divergence from the supposed British type : " The 
general form of the cranium (plate 43) differs greatly from 
that from the adjoining barrow (plate 42). That approaches 
an acrocephalic, this a platycephalic form ; that is eminently 
brachycephalic, this more nearly of a dolichocephalic charac- 
ter. As the eye at once detects, the difference is much greater 
than would be inferred from a mere comparison of the mea- 
surements. The respective peculiarities of form in the two 
skulls may possibly be explained by supposing that both 
have been subject to artificial deformation, though of a dif- 
ferent kind, — the one appearing to have been flattened on 
the occiput, the other showing a depression immediately 
behind the coronal suture over the parietal bones, which 
seems to indicate that this part of the skull was subject to 
some habitual pressure and constriction, perhaps from the 
use of a bandage or ligature tightly bound across the head 
and tied under the chin, such as to this day is employed in 
certain parts of the west of France, producing that form of 
distortion named by Dr Gosse the sincipital, or tete bilohee"* 
The influence of the recognition of this source of change is, 
indeed, very manifest throughout the fifth Decade of the 
" Crania Britannica." An extremely brachycephalic skull of 
a youth, obtained from a barrow on Ballard Down, Isle of 
Purbeck, is described as unsymmetrical, and as affording 
" tolerably clear evidence that this form, if not always pro- 
duced, was at least liable to be exaggerated by an artificial 

* Crania Britannica, Dec. v. pi. 43. 



of certain Ancient British Skull Forms. 71 

flattening of the occiput, such as is practised by many 
American and Polynesian tribes."* In the same Decade 
another skull of the type most dissimilar to this is described 
and illustrated. It was recovered in fragments from the 
remarkable chambered barrow at West Kennet, Wiltshire, 
and its most characteristic features are thus defined by Dr 
Thurnam : — " It is decidedly dolichocephalic, narrow, and 
very flat at the sides, and realises more nearly than any we 
have yet had to figure the kumbecephalic or boat-shaped form 
described by Dr D. Wilson. The frontal region is narrow, 
moderately arched, and elevated at the vertex, but slopes 
away on each side. The parietal region is long, and marked 
by a prominent ridge or carina in the line of the sagittal 
suture, which is far advanced towards obliteration, whilst 
the other sutures are quite as perfect as usual. The occiput 
is full and prominent ; the supra-occipital ridges only mode- 
rately marked. There is a deep digastric groove, and a slight 
paroccipital process on each side. The external auditory 
openings are somewhat behind the middle of the skull, and 
very much behind a vertical line drawn from the junction 
of the coronal and sagittal sutures." Its extreme length 
and breadth are 7*7 and 5*1, and an inequality in the de- 
velopment of the two sides is obvious in the vertical view. 
As the brachycephalic skull recalls certain American and 
Polynesian forms, so such examples of the opposite type 
suggest the narrow and elongated skulls of the Australians 
and Esquimaux ; and he thus proceeds : — " The Ballard 
Down skull bears marks of artificial flattening of the occiput ; 
this calls to mind the artificial lateral flattening of the skull, 
characteristic of the ancient people called Macrocephali, or 
long-heads, of whom Hippocrates tells us, that 'while the head 
of the child is still tender, they fashion it with their hands, 
and constrain it to assume a lengthened shape by applying 
bandages and other suitable contrivances, whereby the 
spherical form of the head is destroyed, and it is made to 
increase in length." This mode of distortion is called by 
Dr Gosse the temporo-parietal, or ' tete aplatie sur les cotes' 
It appears to have been practised by various people, both of 
the ancient and modern world, and in Europe as well as the 

* Crania Britannica, Dec. v. pi. 45. 



72 Professor D. Wilson's Illustrations of the Significance 

East. The so-called Moors, or Arabs of North Africa, 
affected this form of skull ; and even in modern times, the 
women of Belgium and Hamburg are both described as 
compressing the heads of their infants into an elongate 
form. Our own observations lead at least to a presumption 
that this form of artificial distortion may have been practised 
by certain primeval British tribes, particularly those who 
buried their distinguished dead in long chambered tumuli." 
Accordingly, Dr Thurnam draws attention to the oblitera- 
tion of the sagittal suture, both in the skull in question, and 
to a still greater extent in one figured by Blumenbach, 
under the name of " Asiatic Macrocephali," and expresses 
his belief that this " has been produced by pressure or mani- 
pulations of the sides of the head in infancy, by which it 
was sought to favour the development of a lengthened form 
of skull ; to which, however, there was probably, in the 
present instance, at least, a natural and inherent tendency." 
It thus appears that a class of variations of the form of 
the human skull, which becomes more comprehensive as 
attention is directed to it, is wholly independent of con- 
genital transmitted characteristics : kumbecephalic, acro- 
cephalic, and platycephalic, unsymmetrical, truncated, or 
elongated heads, may be so common as apparently to fur- 
nish distinctive ethnical forms, and yet, after all, each may 
be traceable to artificial causes, arising from an adherence 
to certain customs and usages in the nursery. It is in this 
direction, I conceive, that the importance of the truths 
resulting from the recognition of artificial causes affecting 
the forms of British brachycephalic or other crania chiefly 
lies. The contents of early British cists and barrows prove 
that the race with whom they originated was a rude people, 
ignorant, for the most part, of the very knowledge of metals, 
or at best in the earliest rudimentary stage of metallurgic 
arts. They were, in fact, in as uncivilised a condition as 
the rudest forest Indians of America. To prove, therefore, 
that, like the Ked Indian squaw, the British allophylian or 
Celtic mother formed the cradle for her babe of a flat board, 
to which she bound it, for safety and facility of nursing, in 
the vicissitudes of her nomade life, — though interesting, 
like every other recovered glimpse of a long-forgotten past, — 



of certain Ancient British Skull Forms. 73 

is not in itself a discovery of much significance. . But it 
reminds us how essentially man, even in the most degraded 
state of wandering savage life, differs from all other animals. 
The germs of an artificial life are there. External appli- 
ances, and the conditions which we designate as domesti- 
cation in the lower animals, appear to be inseparable from 
him. The most untutored nomades subject their offspring 
to many artificial influences, such as have no analogy among 
the marvellous instinctive operations of the lower animals. 
It is not even unworthy of notice that man is the only ani- 
mal to whom a supine position is natural for repose ; and 
with him more than any other animal, when recumbent, 
the head is necessarily placed so as to throw the greatest 
pressure on the brain-case, and not on the malar or 
maxillary bones. Without, therefore, running to the ex- 
treme of Dr Morton, who denied, for the American Con- 
tinent, at least, the existence of any true dolichocephalic 
crania, or, indeed, any essential variation from one assumed 
typical form, it becomes an important point for the crani- 
ologist to determine, if possible, to what extent certain 
characteristic diversities may be relied upon as the inherited 
features of a tribe or race ; or whether they are not the 
mere result of artificial causes originating in long per- 
petuated national customs and nursery usages. If the 
latter is, indeed, the case, then they pertain to the materials 
of archaeological rather than of ethnological deduction, and 
can no longer be employed as elements of ethnical classi- 
fication. 

Every scheme of the craniologist for systematising ethni- 
cal variations of cranial configuration, and every process of 
induction pursued by the ethnologist from such data, pro- 
ceed on the assumption that such varieties in the form of 
cranium are constant within certain determinate limits, and 
originate in like natural causes with the features by which 
we distinguish one nation from another. By like means 
the comparative anatomist discriminates between the re- 
mains of the Bos primigenius, the Bos lougifrons, and other 
kindred animal remains, frequently found alongside of the 
human skeleton, in the barrow ; and, by a similar crucial 
comparison, the craniologist aims at classifying the crania 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. I. JULY 1863. K. 



74 Professor D. Wilson's Illustrations of the Significance 

of the ancient Briton, Roman, Saxon, and Scandinavian, 
apart from any aid derived from the evidence of accom- 
panying works of art. But if it be no longer disputable 
that the human head is liable to modification from external 
causes, so that one skull may have been subjected to lateral 
compression, resulting in the elongation and narrowing of 
its form; while another, under the influence of occipital 
pressure, may exhibit a consequent abbreviation in its length, 
accompanied by parietal expansion ; it becomes indispen- 
sable to determine some data whereby to eliminate this 
perturbing element before we can ascertain the actual sig- 
nificance of national skull-forms. If, for example, — as 
appears to be the case, — the crania from British graves of 
Uoman times reveal a different form from that of the mo- 
dern Celtic Briton, the cause may be an intermixture of 
races, like that which is clearly traceable among the mingled 
descendants of Celtic and Scandinavian blood in the north 
of Scotland ; but it may also be, in part or wholly, the 
mere result of a change of national customs following natu- 
rally on conquest, civilisation, and the abandonment of 
Paganism for Christianity. 

It is in this respect that the artificial causes tending to 
alter the natural conformation of the human head invite 
our special study. They appear at present purely as dis- 
turbing elements in the application of craniological tests 
of classification. It is far from improbable, however, that, 
when fully understood, they may greatly extend our means 
of classification, so that when we have traced to such causes 
certain changes in form, in which modern races are known 
to differ from their ethnical precursors, we shall be able to 
turn the present element of disturbance to account, as an 
additional confirmation of truths established by inductive 
craniology. Certain it is, however, whatever value may 
attach to the systematising of such artificial forms, that 
they are of frequent occurrence, apart altogether from such 
configuration as is clearly referrible to the application of 
mechanical pressure in infancy with that express object in 
view ; or again, as is no less obviously the result of post- 
humous compression. But though the deforming processes 
designedly practised among ancient and modern savage 



of certain Ancient British Skull Forms. 75 

nations lie beyond the direct aim of the present inquiry, 
they are calculated to throw important light on the ap- 
proximate results of undesigned compression and arrested 
development. 

Among the flathead Indian tribes of Oregon and the 
Columbia Biver, where malformation of the skull is pur- 
posely aimed at, the infant's head is tightly bound in a 
fixed position, and maintained under continuous pressure for 
months. But it is a mistake to suppose that in the ordi- 
nary use of the cradle-board the Indian pappoose is subject 
to any such extreme restraint. The objects in view are 
facility of nursing and transport, and perfect safety for the 
child. But those being secured, it is nurtured with a ten- 
derness of maternal instinct surpassing that of many savage 
nations. The infant is invariably laid on its back, but the 
head rests on a pillow or mat of moss or frayed bark, and is 
not further restrained in a fixed position than necessarily 
results from the posture in which the body is retained by 
the bandages securing it in the cradle. This fact I have 
satisfied myself of from repeated observations. But the 
consequence necessarily is, that the soft and pliant bones of 
the infant's head are subjected to a slight but constant pres- 
sure on the occiput during the whole protracted period of 
nursing, when they are peculiarly sensitive to external 
influences. Experiments have shown that at that period 
the bones specially affected by the action of the cradle- 
board are not only susceptible of changes, but liable to 
morbid affections dependent on the nature of the infant's 
food. Lehmann supposes the Craniotabes of Elsasser to be 
a form of rachitis, which affects the occipital and parietal 
bones during the period of suckling ; and Schlossberger 
ascertained by a series of analyses of such bones, that the 
63 per cent, of mineral constituents found in the normal 
occipital bones of healthy children during the first year 
diminished to 51 per cent, in the thickened and spongy 
bone.* The fluctuations in proportion of the mineral con- 
stituents of bones are considerable, and vary in the different 
bones, but in the osseous tissue they may be stated at from 

* Schlossberger. Arcli. 1. phys. Heilk. Lehmann, Physiol. Chem., vol. iii. 
p. 28. 



76 Professor D. Wilson's Illustrations of the Significance 

07 to 70 per cent. It is obvious, therefore, that under the 
peculiar physiological condition of the cranial bones during 
the period of nursing, such constant mechanical action as 
the occiput of the Indian pappoose is subjected to must be 
productive of permanent change. The child is not removed 
from the cradle-board when sucking, and is not therefore 
liable to any counteracting lateral pressure against its 
mother's breast. One effect of such continuous pressure 
must be to bring the edges of the bones together, and 
thereby to retard or arrest the growth of the bone in certain 
directions. The result of this is apparent in the premature 
ossification of the sutures of artificially deformed crania. 

At Washington I had an opportunity of minutely exa- 
mining thirty-four Flathead skulls brought home by the 
United States Exploring Expedition, some of them pre- 
senting the most diverse forms of distortion. In the ma- 
jority of those, the premature ossification of the sutures is 
apparent, and in some they are almost entirely obliterated. 
The same is no less obvious among the corresponding class 
in the collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, and especially in skulls of the Chinooks, who 
carry the process of deformation to the greatest extent. 
But I have also been struck, not only with the frequent 
occurrence of wormian bones in such altered skulls, but also 
with the distinct definition of a true supraoccipital bone. 

It is marvellous to see the extraordinary amount of dis- 
tortion to which the skull and brain may be subjected 
without seemingly affecting either health or intellect. The 
coveted deformity is produced partly by actual compression, 
and partly by the growth of the brain and skull being 
thereby limited to certain directions. Hales, the eth- 
nographer of the exploring expedition, after describing the 
process as practised among the Chinooks, remarks : " The 
appearance of the child when just released from this con- 
finement is truly hideous. The transverse diameter of the 
head above the ears is nearly twice as great as the longi- 
tudinal from the forehead to the occiput. The eyes, which 
are naturally deep set, become protruding, and appear as if 
squeezed partially out of the head."* Mr Paul Kane, in 

* Ethnography of tin; U. S. Exploring Expedition, p. 216. 



of certain Ancient British Skull Forms. 77 

describing to me the same appearance, as witnessed by him 
on the Columbia River, compared the eyes to those of a 
mouse strangled in a trap. The appearance is little less 
singular for some time after the child has been freed from 
the constricting bandages, as shown in an engraving from 
one of Mr Kane's sketches of a Chinook child seen by him 
at Fort Astoria.* In after years, the brain, as it increases, 
partially recovers its shape ; and in some of the deformed 
adult skulls, one suture gapes while all the rest are ossified, 
and occasionally a fracture or false suture remains open. 
An adult skull, of the same extremely deformed shape, 
among those brought home by the Exploring Expedition, 
illustrates the great extent to which the brain may be sub- 
jected to compression and malformation without affecting 
the intellect. It is that of a Nasqually chief, procured 
from his canoe-bier in Washington Territory. (No. 4549.) 
The internal capacity, and consequent volume of brain, is 
95 cubic inches. The head is compressed into a flattened 
disc, with the forehead receding in a straight line from the 
nasal suture to the crown of the head, while the larnb- 
doidal suture is on the same plane with the foramen mag- 
num. The sutures are nearly all completely ossified, and 
the teeth ground quite flat, as is common with many of the 
tribes in the same region, and especially with the Walla- 
walla Indians on the Columbia Eiver, who live chiefly on 
salmon dried in the sun, and invariably impregnated with 
the sand which abounds in the barren waste they occupy. 
I assume the unimpaired intellect of the Nasqually chief 
from his rank. The Flathead tribes are in the constant 
habit of making slaves of the round-headed Indians ; but 
no slave is allowed to flatten or otherwise modify the form 
of her child's head, that being the badge of Flathead aris- 
tocracy. As this has been systematically pursued since 
ever the tribes of the Pacific coast were brought under the 
notice of Europeans, it is obvious that if such superinduced 
deformity developed any general tendency to cerebral dis- 
ease, or materially affected the intellect, the result would 
be apparent in the degeneracy or extirpation of the Flat- 
head tribes. But so far is this from being the case, that 

* Prehistoric Man, vol. ii. p. 320. 



78 Professor D. Wilson's Illustratio7is of the Significance 

they are described by traders and voyagers as acute and 
intelligent. They are, moreover, an object of dread to 
neighbouring tribes who retain the normal form of head, 
and look on the latter with contempt, as thus bearing the 
hereditary badge of slaves. 

The child born to such strange honours is laid, soon after 
its birth, upon the cradle-board, an oblong piece of wood, 
sometimes slightly hollowed, and with a cross-board pro- 
jecting beyond the head to protect it from injury. A small 
pad of leather, stuffed with moss or frayed cedar bark, is 
placed on the forehead and tightly fastened on either side 
to the board, and this is rarely loosed until its final removal 
before the end of the first year. The skull has then re- 
ceived a form which is only slightly modified during the 
subsequent growth of the brain. But the very same kind 
of cradle is in use among all the Indian tribes. It is 
indeed varied as to its ornamental adjuncts and non- 
essential details ; but practically it resolves itself, in every 
case, into a straight board to which the infant is bound ; 
and as it is retained in a recumbent position, the pres- 
sure of its own weight, during the period when, as has been 
shown, the occipital and parietal bones are peculiarly soft 
and compressible, is made to act constantly in one direction. 
This I assume to have been the cause of the vertical or 
otherwise flattened occiput in the ancient British brachy- 
cephalic crania. The same cause must tend to increase the 
characteristic shortness in the longitudinal diameter, and 
to shorten the zygoma, with probably also some tendency 
to make the arch bulge out in its effort at subsequent full 
growth, and so to widen the face, 

Dr J. Barnard Davis has applied the term " parieto- 
occipital flatness," where the results of artificial compres- 
sion in certain British skulls extend over the parietals with 
the upper portion of the occipital ; and he appears to re- 
gard this as something essentially distinct from the vertical 
occiput. But it is a form of common occurrence in Indian 
skulls, and is in reality the most inartificial of all the results 
of the undesigned pressure of the cradle-board. Tin's will 
})e understood by a very simple experiment. If the observer 
lie down on the floor, without a pillow, and then ascertain 



of certain Ancient British Skull Forms. 79 

what part of the back of the head touches the ground, he 
will find that it is the portion of the occiput immediately 
above the lambdoidal suture, and not the occiptal bone. 
When the Indian mother places a sufficiently high pillow 
for her infant, the tendency of the constant pressure will be 
to produce the vertical occiput ; but where, as is more 
frequently the case, the board has a mere cover of moss or 
soft leather, then the result will be just such an oblique 
parietal flattening as is shown on a British skull from 
the remarkable tumulus near Littleton Drew, Wiltshire, 
figured in the " Crania Britannica," Decade iii., plate 24. 

But there are other sources of modification of the human 
skull in infancy, even more common than the cradle-board. 
More than one of the predominant head-forms in Normandy 
and Belgium are now traced to artificial changes, and by 
many apparently trifling and unheeded causes, consequent 
on national customs, nursing usages, or the caprices of dress 
and fashion, the form of the head may be modified in the 
nursery. The constant laying of the infant to rest on its 
side, the pressure in the same direction in nursing it, along 
with the fashion of cap, hat, or wrappage, may all influence 
the shape of head among civilised nations, and in certain cases 
tend as much to exaggerate the naturally dolichocephalic 
skull, as the Indian cradle -board increases the short diameter 
of the opposite type. Such artificial cranial forms as that 
designated by M. Foville the Tete annulaire, may have pre- 
dominated for many centuries throughout certain rural dis- 
tricts of France, solely from the unreasoning conformity 
with which the rustic nurse adhered to the traditional or 
prescriptive bandages to which he ascribes that distortion. 
All experience shows that such usages are among the least 
eradicable, and long survive the shock of revolutions that 
change dynasties and efface more important national char- 
acteristics. 

But now that attention has been directed to the subject 
of undesigned changes thus effected on the human head, 
its full bearings begin to be appreciated ; and there is even, 
perhaps, a danger that more may be ascribed to them than is 
legitimate. Such was undoubtedly the effect on Dr Morton's 
mind from his familiarity with the results of artificial de- 



80 Professor D. Wilson's Illustrations of the Significance 

formation on American crania ; and were we to follow his 
example, we should be tempted to designate all the extreme 
varieties of the elongated dolichocephalic, acrocephalic, and 
brachycephalic skulls of British barrows, as mere modi- 
fications of the same ethnical form. In his latest recorded 
opinions, when commenting on some of the abnormal forms 
of Peruvian crania, he remarks : " I at first found it difficult 
to conceive that the original rounded skull of the Indian 
could be changed into this fantastic form, and was led to 
suppose that the latter was an artificial elongation of a head 
remarkable for its length and narrowness. I even supposed 
that the long-headed Peruvians were a more ancient people 
than the Inca tribes, and distinguished from them by their 
cranial configuration. In this opinion I was mistaken. 
Abundant means of observation and comparison have since 
convinced me that all these variously-formed heads were 
originally of the same shape, which is characteristic of the 
aboriginal race from Cape Horn to Canada, and that art 
alone has caused the diversities among them."* The re- 
peated opportunities I have enjoyed of examining the Mor- 
tonian and other American collections, have satisfied me of 
the occurrence of both dolichocephalic and brachycephalic 
crania, not only as the characteristics of distinct tribes, but 
also among the contents of the same Peruvian cemeteries, — 
not as examples of extreme latitudes of form in a common 
race, but as the results of the admixture either of con- 
quering and subject races, or of distinct classes of nobles 
and serfs, most generally resulting from the predominance 
of conquerors, f Among the Peruvians the elongated cranium 
pertained to the dominant race, and some of the results of 
later researches in primitive British cemeteries, and espe- 
cially the disclosures of the remarkable class of chambered 
barrows, seem to point to an analogous condition of races. 
That the Uley and West Kennet skulls may have been 
laterally compressed, while the Codford barrow and other 
brachycephalic skulls have been affected in the opposite 
direction, appears equally probable. But such artificial in- 
fluences only very partially account for the great diversity 

* Physical Type of the American Indian. Schoolcraft, p. 326. 
t Prehistoric Man, vol. ii. p. 220. 



of certain Ancient British Skull Forms. 81 

of type ; and no such causes, even if brought to bear in 
infancy, could possibly convert the one into the other form. 

But as the cranial forms, both of the Old and New World, 
betray evidences of modification by such artificial means ; 
so also we find in ancient Africa a diverse form of head, to 
which art may have contributed, solely by leaving it more 
than usually free from all extraneous influences. Such at 
least is the conclusion suggested to my mind from the 
examination of a considerable number of Egyptian skulls. 
Among familiar relics of domestic usages of the ancient 
Egyptians is the pillow designed for the neck, and not the 
head, to rest upon. Such pillows are found of miniature 
sizes, indicating that the Egyptian passed from earliest in- 
fancy without his head being subjected even to so slight a 
pressure as the pillow, while he rested recumbent. The 
Egyptian skull is long, with great breadth and fulness in 
the posterior region. In its prominent, rounded parieto- 
occipital conformation, an equally striking contrast is pre- 
sented to the British brachy cephalic skull with truncated 
occiput, and to the opposite extreme characteristic of the 
primitive dolichocephalic skull ; though exceptional ex- 
amples are not rare. This characteristic did not escape Dr 
Morton's observant eye, and is repeatedly indicated in the 
" Crania iEgyptiaca" under the designation "tumid occiput." 
It also appears to me, after careful examination of the 
fine collection formed by him, and now in the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, that the Egyptian crania 
are generally characterised by considerable symmetrical 
uniformity, as was to be anticipated, if there is any truth in 
the idea of undesigned artificial compression and deformation 
resulting from such simple causes as the mode of nurture in 
infancy. 

The heads of the Fiji Islanders supply a means of testing 
the same cause, operating on a brachycephalic form of 
cranium ; as most of the islanders of the Fiji group employ 
a neck-pillow nearly similar to that of the ancient Egyptians, 
and with the same purpose in view, that of preserving their 
elaborately dressed hair from dishevelment. In their case, 
judging from an example in the collection of the Royal 
College of Surgeons of London, the occipital region is 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. I. JULY 1863. L 



82 Professor D. Wilson's Illustrations of the Significance 

broad, and presents in profile a uniform, rounded conforma- 
tion passing almost imperceptibly into the coronal region. 
Indeed the broad, well rounded occiput is considered by the 
Fijian s a great beauty. The bearing of this, however, in 
relation to the present argument, depends on whether or 
not the Fiji neck-pillow is used in infancy. From the un- 
reasoning uniformity of adherence to any national custom, 
common to all rude people, it is probable that the same 
pillow is used for the infant and the adult as among the 
Egyptians ; but I have failed to obtain definite informa- 
tion on this point. In one male Fiji skull brought home 
by the United States Exploring Expedition (No. 4581), 
the occiput exhibits the characteristic full, rounded form, 
with a large and well-defined supra-occipital bone. But 
in another skull in the same collection that of Yeindovi, 
Chief of Kantavu, who was taken prisoner by the U. S. 
ship Peacock in 1840, and died at New York in 1842, 
the occiput, though full, is slightly vertical. The occi- 
pital development of the Fiji cranium is the more in- 
teresting as we are now familiar with the fact that the arti- 
ficially flattened occiput i3 of common occurrence among 
the islanders of the Pacific Ocean. " In the Malay race," 
says Dr Pickering, " a more marked peculiarity, and one 
very generally observable, is the elevated occiput, and its 
slight projection beyond the line of the neck. The Mon- 
golian traits are heightened artificially in the Chinooks, but 
it is less generally known that a slight pressure is often 
applied to the occiput by the Polynesians, in conformity 
with the Malay standard."* Dr Nott, in describing the 
skull of a Kanaka of the Sandwich Islands who died at the 
Marine Hospital at Mobile, mentions his being struck by its 
singular occipital formation ; and this he learned was due to 
an artificial flattening which the islander had stated to his 
medical attendants in the hospital was habitually practised 
in his family.! According to Dr Davis, it is'traceable to 
so simple a cause as the Kanaka mothers habit of supporting 
the head of her nursling in the palm of her hand. J What- 
ever be the cause, the fact is now well established. The 

* Pickering's Races of Man, p. 45. f Types of Mankind, p. 436. 

| Crania Britannica, Dec. III. pi. 24 (4). 



EdutT Nmr Phil Journal . 



Fifc.l. L. 



n 



a 







Fife 6 d 




Nov Series, Vol. XV/IT. FIJI. 



Flg.l. R. 




fc-3 



W.H .M'Twluu, Liti 



of certain Ancient British Skull Forms. 83 

occipital flattening is clearly defined in at least three of the 
Kanaka skulls in the Mortonian Collection ; No. 1300, a 
male native of the Sandwich Islands, aged about forty ; 
No. 1308, apparently that of a woman, from the same 
locality ; and in No. 695, a girl of Oahu, of probably twelve 
years of age, which is markedly unsymmetrical, and with the 
flattening on the left side of the parietal and occipital bones. 
The Washington Collection includes fourteen Kanaka skulls ; 
besides others from various islands of the Pacific, among 
which several examples of the same artificial formation 
occur: e.g., No. 4587, a large male skull, distorted and 
unsymmetrical ; and No. 4367, female ? from an ancient 
cemetery at Wftiluka, Mani, in which the flattened occiput 
is very obvious. 

The traces of purposed deformation of the head among 
the islanders of the Pacific have an additional interest in its 
relation to one possible source of South American population 
by oceanic migration, suggested by philological and other 
independent evidence. But for our present purpose, the 
peculiar value of those modified skulls lies in the disclosures 
of influences operating alike undesignedly, and with a well- 
defined purpose, in producing the very same cranial con- 
formation among races occupying the British Islands in 
ages long anterior to earliest history ; and among the savage 
tribes of America and the simple islanders of the Pacific in 
the present day. They illustrate with even greater force 
than the rude implements of flint and stone found in early 
British graves, the exceedingly primitive condition of the 
British Islanders of prehistoric times. 



On Variation in the Number of Fingers and Toes, and 
in the Number of Phalanges, in Man. By John Struthers, 
M.D., F.E.C.S., Lecturer on Anatomy in the Edinburgh 
School of Medicine. (Plate II.) 

At the present time when the subject of variation is 
attracting so much attention, the following illustrations 
will, perhaps, be read with additional interest. I have 
arranged the cases of increase in the number of digits into 



84 Dr John Struthers on Variation in the Number 

two groups, those which illustrate original variation, and 
those which illustrate the phenomena of hereditary trans- 
mission. The cases of variation in the number of the pha- 
langes are given separately, as belonging to a different order 
of variation. In regard to those cases for which I am in- 
indebted to the kindness of various medical friends, whose 
names will appear, I may mention that they have been 
most carefully described to me in reply to a series of in- 
quiries relating both to the anatomical condition and the 
hereditary history, and that what is stated may be relied on 
both for accuracy and for all possible completeness. A few 
remarks are added at the end on some of the points in 
variation and inheritance which the cases illustrate, and on 
the special point of the absence of a bone in the thumb 
and great toe, as compared w T ith the other digits. 



PART I.— VARIATION IN THE NUMBER OF DIGITS. 

Section 1.— INCREASE IN THE NUMBER. 

Group 1. — Cases which could not be traced to have Hereditary 

Origin. 

l t Case of Six Digits in three members of a family, occurring 
Symmetrically. 

In this family of seven children, one of the daughters was born 
with six digits on each foot, and two of the sons with six digits on 
each foot and on each hand. I am indebted to the kindness of Dr 
John Alexander Smith for a full account of the case, and for afford- 
ing me the opportunity of seeing the persons who are the subjects 
of the variety. 

(a.) M , female, set. 22, Edinburgh, was born with a 



Explanation of Plate II. 



Fig. 1. R. and L. Hands of J . Case 1. From a photograph. 

Fig. 2. Feet of J . Case 1. From a photograph. 

Fig. 3. Feet of C , younger brother to the last— Case 1. From a 

photograph. 

Fig. 4. Hand of G S . Case 14. From a sketch. 

Fig. 6. Hand of J M . Case 24. From a cast. 

Fig. 6. Hand of J J . Case 26. From a photograph. 



of Fingers and Toes, and of the Phalanges, in Man. 85 

sixth toe on the outer side of each foot. That on the right foot, 
being loosely attached, was removed by the surgeon a fortnight 
after birth, and the cicatrix is visible. The sixth toe on the left 
foot is fully equal in size to the fifth, and is supported on the fifth 
metatarsal bone. The hands are normal. 

(6.) The elder brother, J , set. 19, has six fingers on 

each hand and six toes on each foot. The additional digits are 
placed on the outer side of the limb. Figs. 1 and 2 are taken from 
photographs of the hands and feet. Each sixth finger diverges 
considerably, reaches to a little beyond the joint between the proxi- 
mal and middle phalanges of the fifth finger, and contains two 
phalanges, the proximal 1J, the distal J inch in length, the distal 
phalanx being somewhat longer on the left hand. The fifth and 
sixth fingers rest on one metacarpal bone, which broadens consider- 
ably in its distal third, where it is first grooved and then deeply 
notched, so that the bifurcated ends are as wide apart as the other 
knuckles. The left sixth finger looks shorter than the right, owing 
to the metacarpal head which supports it being farther back. The 
other fingers have the usual proportionate length. Each sixth 
finger moves with strength and quite as independently as the other 
fingers, without the others being held, and there is no tendency to 
move the fifth when he moves the sixth. The flexor and extensor 
tendons are, therefore, separate up to the muscles. 

The sixth toe is well formed on each foot, lying parallel in the 
series. The fifth is of normal size, and the sixth rather larger 
than it, although, from commencing farther back, it does not pro- 
ject so much as the fifth. The fifth metatarsal broadens and then 
bifurcates to support the fifth and sixth toes, the bifurcation being 
greatest on the right side. Although it is not very easy to make 
this out, the sixth toe appears to have only two phalanges on 
each foot. The fifth and sixth toes are slightly webbed, but less 
so than the second and third, which are, as is common, webbed for 
^ to i of an inch. 

(c.) The younger brother, C , eet. 10, was born with 

twenty-four digits, like his brother. The toes, as seen in fig. 3, 
also from a photograph, exactly resemble those of the elder brother 
(fig. 2), making allowance for the latter having corns. I can make 
out three phalanges in all the lesser toes except the sixth, which 
appears to have but two. The fifth metatarsal bones bifurcate as in 
the brother. The sixth fingers projected outwards so inconveniently, 
that they were removed, together with their supporting head of the 
bifurcated fifth metacarpal bone, three years ago by Dr Smith, and 
a cicatrix and slight bony eminence remain. On examination of 
one of the removed fingers I find it to contain two phalanges, which 
appear to be entirely destitute of flexor tendons, the proximal 
phalanx alone having an extensor tendon. 

History of the Family. — The father and mother have the 

fingers and toes normal, and the variety was previously unknown 
in the family on either side. Both grandmothers were present at 
the birth of the daughter, the first child which presented the 



86 Dr John Struthers on Variation in the Number 

variety, and both stated that they had never known or heard of it 
in their ancestors, neither having ever heard of such a thing before 
except in the case of the son of the giant in G-ath, which they 
called to recollection in discussing the wonder. The first child 
of this family was a boy, without any digital peculiarity. The 
mother next had four miscarriages, between the 4th and 7th 
months, two boys and two girls, also it is stated with the hands and 

feet quite natural. The sixth child, the daughter M< , was the 

first to present the variety ; she had six toes as above described. 
The family had lived in Forfarshire, and now went to G-lasgow. 

When again pregnant, the mother's thoughts must have been 
strongly turned in this direction, as she relates that she heard as 
it were a distinct voice from the wall of the room say that the 
child would have more than the last. This was about the second 
or third month, and made a deep impression on her mind. The 

child was the boy James above described as presenting six 

fingers and six toes. Three daughters, successively, were the next 
children born, whose hands and feet were quite natural. Lastly 

came the boy Charles , above described as having been born 

with an additional digit both on the feet and hands. 

Dr Smith has attended two of the daughters in their confine- 
ment ; one has had three children all of whom have the fingers and 
toes normal ; the other, the daughter who was born with six toes, 
has had one child, a male, who lived only a few days, in whom the 

toes and fingers were normal. M , J , and C 

have two paternal uncles and two paternal aunts, and one maternal 
uncle and five maternal aunts, all of whom have families, and in 
none of them — uncles, aunts, or children — do the fingers or toes 

present any variety. The mother, Mrs , was a twin, and the 

twin sister has had three children. 

The mother, Mrs , mentions that she used to work beside 

a girl who had a double thumb, but this was years before she was 
married. The father mentions that after the variety had occurred 
in his own family, he saw a man who was exhibited as a giant with 

six fingers and six toes. The family mention the case of a 

railway guard (George B ), known to them after the variety 

had appeared among them, who had an additional finger on the 
ulnar side of his right hand, and an additional toe, also said to be 
on the right foot. He died a few months ago and leaves five or 
six children, none of whom have additional fingers or toes. 

The following Seven Gases present an Additional Thumb on one Hand. 

2. J S , set. 25, Berwickshire, has an additional thumb 

on the right hand. The metacarpal bone bifurcates to support the 
two thumbs, which are of nearly equal length and thickness, that 
next the forefinger being slightly thicker and more powerful than 
the other. Each contains two phalanges, the proximal ]£ inch, 
the distal 1 inch in length, being as long as those of the thumb of 
the left hand, except the distal phalanges, which are J inch shorter. 



of Fingers and Toes, and of the Phalanges, in Man. 87 

In girth, each is only a little less than the left-hand thumb. The 
twin thumbs diverge from each other by their proximal phalanges, 
and converge by their distal phalanges, and are webbed half-way. 
In extension, the distal phalanges become parallel ; in flexion, their 
points come together by their edges, and give a firm nip. Each 
can be flexed and extended separately when the other is held, but 
not otherwise. Flexion at the metacarpo-phalangeal joint is less 
extensive than usual. Motion at the carpo-metacarpal joint is free, 
and, in the movements of opposition, both of the thumbs move to- 
gether across the hand. In writing, the pen lies between the ap- 
proximated points of the two thumbs. He is right-handed as usual. 
He states that variation in the number of the fingers or toes 
was previously unknown in the family. 

3. E N , aat. 13, Edinburgh (brought to me by my 

pupil Mr George Dickson), has an additional thumb on the left 
hand. The metacarpal bone is bifurcated for i to ^ inch, and 
forms two diverging heads for the two thumbs. The thumb next 
the forefinger is the larger of the two, and has nearly the usual 
length, but is not thicker than the last two divisions of the fore- 
finger. The lesser thumb at first diverges to the radial side, and 
then curves forwards at the metacarpo-phalangeal joint, which is 
somewhat loose. It has only one phalanx, which is T 8 „- inch in 
length, the two phalanges of the greater thumb measuring together 
1J inch. The two thumbs move together in opposing the fingers. 
The lesser thumb is flexed and extended in common with the 
other, and has considerable power in flexion. 

Her mother states that variety in the number of fingers or toes 
was previously unknown in the family. 

4. W G- , set. 3 months, Edinburgh (kindly sent to me 

by Mr Edwards), has the thumb of the right hand double. The 
thumb next the forefinger is of good size, and has the usual num- 
ber of bones. The lesser thumb consists of one phalanx, which is 
attached, firmly but quite moveably, to the inner side of the proxi- 
mal phalanx of the greater thumb beyond its middle. It is about 
half the thickness of the greater thumb, is half the nail's length 
shorter, and they are webbed together as far as opposite the begin- 
ning of the two nails. 

The mother states that the variety was previously unknown in 
the family. 

5. I am indebted to Dr Edward Eobertson of Otterburn for a 
note of the case of T H , sot. about 6 months, Northumber- 
land, who had an additional thumb on the right hand. It was rather 
loosely attached at the radial side of the metacarpo-phalangeal 
articulation of the greater thumb, which, again, was rather smaller 
than the thumb of the left hand. Dr Eobertson lately removed 
the lesser thumb, and I find that it contains one phalanx only. 

The father, mother, and maternal grandmother, all state that 
nothing of the kind was before known in the family. 

6. My pupil, Mr Purves of Dry burgh, has procured for me a 
note, by his father, of the case of J W- , Berwickshire, a 



88 Dr John Strutliers on Variation in the Number 

man who has a small-sized additional thumb on the left hand. It 
contains one phalanx, which is attached rather loosely at the end 
of the metacarpal bone, as if by dense tissue and skin, without con- 
nection with the joint. He has no voluntary power over it, but it 
is more sensitive to pain than the greater thumb is. It is over an 
inch in length, and has a well-formed nail. 

He states that " there is no hereditary tendency in his family to 
such formations." 

7. For this (and for case 10. of this group) I am indebted to Dr 

Gibson of Campbeltown. M'M , est. 14, Argyleshire, has 

a double thumb on the right hand. The metacarpal bone is much 
larger than its fellow in the left hand. The proximal phalanx is 
double, the two being wrapped in a common investment of skin, 
presenting a broad flattened appearance externally. The distal 
phalanges are separate, with a little space between them. They 
converge again at the points, giving the thumb a lobster's claw ap- 
pearance. He is able to pick up small objects between the two 
points, and thinks such a thumb rather an acquisition, as in pick- 
ing small things out of his vest pocket. He has the full use of the 
thumb in opposing the fingers. 

He has three brothers and four sisters, none of whom have any 
digital variety. Neither have the father nor mother, nor do they 
know of any such variety in past generations of their families. 
The mother accounts for it from her seeing a man with a double 
thumb when she was pregnant, but says it was not the same kind 
of double thumb. 

8. I am indebted to Dr Henderson of Fordoun for the particulars 

of the case of H K , Kincardineshire, set. 32, who has an 

additional thumb on the right hand. The thumb to the radial side, 
constituting the sixth digit, is considerably smaller and shorter 
than the other, and they are partially webbed. She can move the 
thumbs together so as to hold a pen between them. 

A former child of the mother's, by a first marriage, had a sixth 
finger on the ulnar side of one hand, but lived only three weeks. 
No previous case is known in the family on either side. The 
mother has no story as to the cause. 

Three Cases (two of them Brothers) presenting an Additional Little 
Finger on one Hand. 

9. Dr Edward Kobertson mentions to me also the case of John 

B , &et. 5 years, Northumberland, from whom immediately after 

birth he removed a small supernumerary little finger from the left 
hand. A brother, who is now dead, had a similar supernumerary 
finger also on the outer side of the left hand. 

The father and mother have never heard of any such variety in 
their ancestors, or in any relative of the family. 

10. J G- , aet. 20 months, Argyleshire, has a sixth finger 

loosely attached to the outer side of the little finger of the left 
hand, near the middle of the proximal phalanx, and set at a right 



of Fingers and Toes, and of the Phalanges, in Man. 89 

angle to the little finger. It is § of an inch in length, and has two 
phalanges. The little finger (fifth finger) is two inches in length. 
He is an only child. The father and mother have no such variety, 
and never heard of it occurring in the family before. 

Three Cases presenting Six Toes on one Foot. 

11. J S , Liverpool, aet. 39, brother to one of my students, 

has six toes on the right foot. The external metatarsal bone is not 
broader at its middle than in the other foot, but becomes grooved 
and then bifurcated for a short distance at the head, supporting the 
fifth and sixth toes. I can make out three phalanges in the fifth 
toe, but the sixth seems to have only two. The long extensor ten- 
don is felt and seen to bifurcate for the fifth and sixth toes. The 
five lesser toes form a regular series retiring outwards, with nothing 
to attract notice except the number. It was some months, he 
mentions, until his mother made the discovery that he had a toe 
more on one foot than on the other. There is no trace of any 
attempt to throw out a sixth digit on the other foot, or on the 
hands. 

He states that variety of the toes or fingers was previously un- 
known in the family, and he can trace his ancestors for several 
generations back. He is one of six brothers, none of whom are 
married but himself, and he has no family, although there have 
been several miscarriages. He has five sisters, four of whom are 
married and have families, but none present any digital variety. 
He is a very tall man, standing six feet four inches in his shoes. 
The brothers are rather tall, but under six feet. The mother and 
sisters are not tall. The father was under six feet. 

12. I am indebted to Dr Finlay of Trinity, Edinburgh, for the 
opportunity of examining this case, and also the two next : — 

J L , eet. 40, Newhaven, has six toes on the left foot. 

The fifth metatarsal bone is broader than the corresponding bone 
in the right foot, and supports the fifth and sixth toes. The fifth 
toe is narrower than the sixth, and has three phalanges, while the 
sixth seems to have only two phalanges. The extensor tendons 
of the fifth and sixth toes are seen to come forward together. The 
fourth and fifth toes are partially webbed. 

No instance of digital variety is known to have occurred among 
his ancestors on the father's side, who have lived in Newhaven from 
time immemorial. The grandmother came from Edinburgh, and 

said that it was equally unknown among her ancestors. J 

L has a brother and four sisters; he himself has a family of 

four boys and one girl ; his brother has one son ; and three of his 
four sisters are married, and have families of sons and daughters ; 
but no member or relative of the family has any digital variety ex- 
cept himself. 

13. K L , 86t. 15, Newhaven, has six toes on the left 

foot. The fifth and sixth toes are supported on one metatarsal 
bone. The fifth is a small toe, the sixth thicker than the little toe 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. I. JULY 1863. M 



90 Dr John Struthers on Variation in the Number 

of the other foot. The fifth and sixth toes have each only two 
phalanges ; the proximal phalanges are close together, hut can be 
made to move past each other. Digital variety is unknown in the 

family on either side. R L is one of nine children, three 

boys and six girls. The father's family have, as usual with the 
Newhaven fishermen, always been in Newhaven. The grandmother 
came from the Highlands, and never knew of such a thing on her 
side of the family. Both the father and mother have brothers and 
sisters in Newhaven, all with families of sons and daughters. The 
mother states that her father's left little toe grew very awkwardly 
across the others, not in consequence of the pressure of the shoe, 
but naturally. 

A friend showed me the other day a peculiar curve of his little 
finger, which two of his brothers also have. His father's mother 
had exactly the same peculiarity ; also some of the children of a 
paternal uncle. 

14. Case in which one Hand presents Seven or Eight Digits , forming 
an approach to the condition of Double Hand. 

G- S , aet. 5, has seven digits on the left hand, and the 

one corresponding to the thumb double at its distal segment, con- 
stituting so far an eighth digit. In every other respect the boy is 
well formed. The appearance presented by the hand is seen in fig. 
4. There are seven distinct metacarpal bones. The four fingers 
on the outer side present the usual form and proportionate length, 
each with its three phalanges. The fifth has the position and 
opposing action of the thumb. Besides the metacarpal bone, it has 
two segments, the distal of which contains two phalanges placed 
side by side, while the proximal phalanx is single. The twin distal 
phalanges can be made to move a little past each other, and the 
one to the inner or radial side ends partly by a prominent non- 
articular angle, as if its proximal phalanx were wanting. They 
are closely enveloped in a common integument, and their nails 
join at their contiguous edges. He moves the thumb indepen- 
dently and freely, so that all its tendons must be separate from 
those of the digits on either side. The sixth and seventh digits 
are like the ring and little fingers of a right hand, except that the 
little finger is proportionately small. Each has three phalanges, and 
they are webbed most of the way between the proximal phalanges. 
Their metacarpal bones are quite separate and moveable, and, as 
they pass up, have a direction forwards to the palmar aspect of the 
carpus. These two fingers are associated together in their move- 
ments, and can be moved independently of the rest of the hand, 
but there is a tendency to flex the other fingers at the same time. 
In general grasping, the thumb and sixth and seventh digits oppose 
the other four and clasp down upon them. The hand is flat where 
the ball of the thumb should be.* 

* A somewhat similar case, in which the duplicity of the hand was more 
completo, with a rudimentary condition of the thumbs, by Mr J. Jardine 



of Fingers and Toes, and of the Phalanges, in Man. 91 

A grandfather and grandmother are still alive. The father has 
three brothers and three sisters, besides two sisters who died. Two 
of the brothers and the three sisters are married, all of whom have 
families of sons and daughters, except one of the brothers whose 
children are all daughters, and the father himself has three daughters 

and another boy besides Gr . But no other case of such, or of 

any, digital variety has been or is known in the family, either on 
the father's or on the mother's side. 



Group 2. — Cases of Increase in the Number of Digits, with 
Hereditary Origin. 

15. Case in which the Variety has been transmitted through at least 

Four Generations. 

I am indebted to Dr Hamilton of Falkirk for the follow- 
ing case (and for case 16), and have to thank him for the 
great trouble and interest he has taken in ascertaining the 
genealogy of the family. 

The great-great- grandmother, Esther P (who married A 

L ), had a sixth little finger on one hand. Of their eighteen 

children (twelve daughters and six sons), only one (Charles) is 
known to have had digital variety. We have the history of the 
descendants of three of the sons, Andrew, Charles, and James. 

(1.) Andrew L had two sons, Thomas and Andrew; and 

Thomas had two sons ; all without digital variety. Here we have 
three successive generations without the variety possessed by the 
great-grandmother showing itself. 

(2.) James L , who was normal, had two sons and seven 

daughters, also normal. One of the daughters became Mrs J 

(one of the informants), and had three daughters and five sons, all 

normal except one of the sons James J , now set. 17, who had 

six fingers on each hand. The additional fingers in this boy's case 
were loosely attached at the metacarpophalangeal joint of the little 
finger, and were removed by Dr Hamilton a few days after birth. 

In this branch of the descendants of Esther, we see it passing 
over two generations and reappearing in one member of the third 
generation, and now on both hands. 

(3.) Charles L , the only child of Esther who had digital 

variety, had six fingers on each hand. He had three sons, James, 
Thomas, and John, all of whom were born with six fingers on each 
hand, while John has also a sixth toe on one foot. He had also 
five other sons and four daughters, all of whom were normal. 

(a) Of the normal children of this, the third generation, the five 
sons have had twelve sons and twelve daughters, and the four 

Murray of Brighton, was lately communicated to the Royal Medico-Chirurgi- 
cal Society of London. Noticed in " The Lancet," Dec. 20, 1862. 1 am 
aware of a case of a child with complete double foot, at least at the digital 
and metacarpal part, but have as yet seen only a sketch of it. 



92 Dr John Struthers on Variation in the Number 

daughters have had four sons and four daughters, being the fourth 
generation, all of whom were normal. A fifth generation in this sub- 
group consists as yet of only two boys and two girls, who are also 
normal. 

In this sub-branch, we see the variety of the first generation pre- 
sent in the second, passing over the third and fourth, and also the 
fifth as far as it has yet gone. 

(b) James, had three sons and two daughters who are normal. 

(c) Thomas, had four sons and five daughters who are normal ; 
and has two grandsons, also normal. 

In this sub-branch of the descent, we see the variety of the first 
generation, showing itself in the second and third, and passing 
over the fourth, and (as far as it as yet exists) the fifth generation. 

(d) John L (one of the informants) had six fingers, the addi- 
tional finger being attached on the outer side, as in the case of his 
brothers James and Thomas. All of them had the additional digits 
removed. John has also a sixth toe on one foot, situated on the 
outer side. The fifth and sixth toes have a common proximal pha- 
lanx, and a common integument invests the middle and distal 
phalanges, each having a separate nail. 

John L has a son who is normal, and a daughter, Jane, who 

was born with six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot. 
The sixth fingers were removed. The sixth toes are not wrapped 
with the fifth, as in her father's case, but are distinct from them. 
The son has a son and daughter, who, like himself, are normal. 

In this, the most interesting sub-branch of the descent, we see 
digital increase, which appeared in the first generation on one limb, 
appearing in the second on two limbs, the hands ; in the third on 
three limbs, the hands and one foot; in the fourth on all the 
four limbs. There is as yet no fifth generation in uninterrupted 
transmission of the variety. The variety does not yet occur in any 
member of the fifth generation of Esther's descendants, which con- 
sists, as yet, only of three boys and one girl, whose parents were 
normal, and of two boys and two girls whose grand-parents were 
normal. It is not known whether, in the case of the great-great- 
grandmother, Esther P , the variety was original or inherited. 



16. Case of Additional Thumb, with distant Hereditary Origin. 
B aet. 3, Linlithgowshire, was born with an additional 



thumb on the left hand, which Dr Hamilton removed when she was 
a few months old. The upper end of the proximal phalanx was 
left, for security to the metacarpo-phalangeal joint, and has since 
grown to some extent. It was not much smaller than the thumb 
which was left. The only other child, also a daughter, is normal. 

The mother's maternal uncle (W ) had a thumb of the same 

kind, which Dr Hamilton has seen. His five sons and five daughters, 

however, were normal. The mother of the girl B is one of a 

family of four brothers and five; sisters, all of whom are normal, and 



of Fingers and Toes, and of the Phalanges, in Man. 93 

their children, twenty-four sons and twenty-seven daughters, were 

likewise all normal, except one of Mrs B 's daughters, being 

the case under description. 

The occurrence of it in the maternal grand-uncle, indicates the 
variety to have existed in some generation previous to his. The 
case shows it to have passed over at least two generations, the 
grandmother and the mother, and to have reappeared in the third 
generation in the case of the girl B . 

For this and the five following cases 17, 17 (a), 18, 18 (a), 
19, 19 (a), I am indebted to Dr Gibson of Campbeltown, 
who has most kindly taken much interest and trouble in 
obtaining and sending me the information. 



17. Case of Additional Digit on one Hand, with Three Phalanges and 
a Metacarpal Bone ; and Additional Digit on each Foot. Direct 
Hereditary Origin. 

W S , ast. 73, Argyleshire, has, on his left hand, a sixth 

finger, placed midway between the thumb and fore-finger. It has 
three phalanges and a metacarpal bone, all clearly felt. It hangs 
pendulous, not having the power of extension. Its length is 3J 
inches, that of the thumb being 2J, that of the fore-finger 4 inches. 
The thumb and fore-finger are each 3 inches in circumference, the 
intermediate digit 2f . 

He states that he has six toes on each foot, and that the addi- 
tional toe is placed and formed in the very same way as in the 
hand. His children, four in number, are without digital variety, 
but it is hereditary, as fully given with the next case, that of a 
sister. 

17 (a). Case of Two Thumbs, one of them with Three Phalanges on 
each Hand ; and Two Great Toes on each Foot, with an Additional 
Metatarsal Bone on one Foot. Direct Hereditary Origin. 

A S , Argyleshire, has six digits on each hand and on 

each foot. The additional digit is on the inner side. One of the 
thumbs presents three phalanges, on each hand, and one of the 
additional great toes has a separate metatarsal bone. 

The two thumbs are supported on one unbifurcated metacarpal 
bone. The thumb next the fore-finger is clearly felt to have three 
phalanges, while the lesser thumb has two phalanges. It is the 
same on both hands. The greater thumb is 2J inches in length on 
the left hand, and 2J on the right ; the lesser thumb is 2 inches in 
length on both hands. The circumference of the greater thumbs 
on the left and right sides, respectively, is 2£ and 2|, that of the 
lesser thumbs being 2 inches. The two thumbs are webbed at 
their base. In each hand, it is the thumb next the fore-finger 
which is used. 



94 Dr John Struthers on Variation in the Number 

In the left foot there are two great toes growing from one meta- 
tarsal hone, each having two phalanges, which are distinctly felt. 
The inner toe is the greatest, is 2J inches in length and 3£ in 
circumference; the outer is 2 inches in length and 2 inches in cir- 
cumference. 

On the right foot there are six toes very regularly set, and six 
metatarsal bones. The great inner toe has two phalanges, is 
2 inches in length, and 3£ in circumference; the second is If in 
length, and 2J in circumference, and has two phalanges. The 
outer of the two great toes — that next the other toes — is therefore 
the lesser on both feet. 

The variety is in the family. It came into the family through 

the paternal grandmother, who was a[ relative of the family, in 

which digital variation exists. This grandmother herself is not 

stated to have had the variety, but the father of A S had 

six toes on each foot and " very long thumbs." Of his seven chil- 
dren, a daughter and three sons have no digital variety ; the other 
daughter has, as above described, six digits on each hand and 
foot; a son has the great toes double; and the remaining son, 
whose case is last described, has six digits on each foot and on one 
hand. This son has four children, who are all normal. Of the other 
sons, two, who are normal, are married and have fifteen children, 
all of whom are likewise normal. 



18. Case of Double Distal Phalanx of Thumb, ivith distant Hereditary 

Origin. 

J H , aet. 70, Argyleshire, has the thumb on the right 

hand double at the distal phalanx, while the metacarpal bone, and 
the proximal phalanx, are single. The distal segment is at first 
much flattened, and then bifurcated for about half an inch ; each 
lias a separate phalanx, and a nail. The distal divided segment 
remains constantly extended. 

Neither of his six brothers, or eight sisters, or father or mother, 
had any digital variety. His maternal grandmother, herself normal, 
was a member of the family already alluded to, among whom such 
variety exists ; and the next case is that of a sister's grand-daughter. 



18 (a). Case of Additional Tliumb on each Hand, with Additional 
Metacarpal Bones, and Double Great Toe on one Foot. Distant 
Hereditary Origin, connected with the preceding case. 

J D , a3t. 4, Argyleshire, has two thumbs of equal size 

on each hand, and a double great toe on the left foot. The two 
thumbs on each hand have each two phalanges, and also each a 
metacarpal bone. The two thumbs of each hand possess flexion 
and extension and other motions perfect, and are equally useful. 

The metatarsal bone of the left great toe appears to be grooved 



of Fingers and Toes, and of the Phalanges, in Man. 95 

but not bifurcated. Each of the great toes which it supports has 
two phalanges. They are wrapped in a common integument, 
except near the point, where they separate. Each has a naiL. The 
phalanges of the outer lie partly upon those of the inner great toe. 
She has a brother and two sisters, but no member of the family, 

later than the brother of her maternal grandmother (case of J 

H , last related), has any digital variety. She is, through the 

same channel, a distant cousin of the family, already alluded to, 
among whom digital variety exists. 

19. Case of Additional Thumb on one Hand, with distant Hereditary 

Origin. 

J F , set. 8, Argyleshire, has an additional thumb on the 

left hand. The distal end of the metacarpal bone is bifurcated. 
The lesser thumb is situated on the inner side, and has two pha- 
langes. It is 1J inch in length, the larger thumb being 2 inches. 
The distal phalanx of the lesser thumb remains in the flexed posi- 
tion, and cannot be extended voluntarily. The thumb of the right 
hand is longer than usual, and is somewhat finger-like. 

He has one brother and two sisters, neither of whom have 
digital variety, nor have the father or mother. The father's great- 
grandfather is said to have had some digital variety. The thumb 
on the right hand is longer than usual, and somewhat finger- 
like. 

19 (a). Case of Additional Thumb on one Hand, with Additional 
Metacarpal Bone. Distant Hereditary Origin. 

S M , set* 7, Argyleshire, has an additional thumb on the 

right hand. It has two phalanges and a metacarpal bone, which 
articulates with the inner side of the metacarpal bone of the greater 
thumb, near the carpal extremity. The larger thumb is 2 inches 
in length, the lesser 1J. It begins to leave the greater thumb op- 
posite about the middle of the metacarpal bone of the latter, and its 
point reaches to the last joint of the greater thumb, along the side 
of which it lies. All the bones are clearly felt. 

She has four brothers and five sisters, who, as w r ell as the father 
and mother, have no digital variety. A first cousin, daughter of a 
maternal uncle, had a double thumb. 



20. Case of Six Fingers and Toes, with Interrupted Hereditary 

Origin. 

I am indebted to Mr J. Jardine Murray, F.K.C.S. Edinburgh, 

of Brighton, for a note of the case of Gr , eet. 12 months, 

who was born with six fingers on each hand, the additional finger 
being on the ulnar side, and six toes on the right foot. The sixth 
toe is on the outer side of the foot, and lies more upon the dorsum 



96 Dr John Struthers on Variation in the Number 

than to the outer side of the fifth toe. Mr Murray removed the 
supernumerary fingers in July 1862. 

A brother has the same variety. The grandmother, on the 
father's side, had the same variety ; also a sister of the father's. 

Section 3.— DIMINUTION IN THE NUMBER OF THE DIGITS. 

21. Dissection of Tliree Limbs of a Child, 'presenting Diminution in 
the Number of the Digits. 

The child was born with the right hand presenting only 
two fingers, webbed together ; the right foot presenting but 
three toes ; and the left foot with the fourth and fifth toes 
united at their base. T was indebted to the kindness of Dr 
Keiller for obtaining the limbs. I have no history to the 
case, but have thought it worthy of notice from the oppor- 
tunity of ascertaining by dissection how far the variation 
affected the deeper parts — the bones, muscles, and nerves. 

(1.) Dissection of Hand. — Externally there are two digits, one 
on the radial side considerably thicker than the other. It will be 
convenient to speak of the first as the pollex, and of the other as 
the little finger. They are webbed to the end, presenting a notch 
at the end on the palmar aspect. The nails are distinct, but close 
together. The palm is the same breadth as the forearm, and gra- 
dually tapers into the fingers. Both palm and fingers have the 
usual length in proportion to the forearm. 

Eones. — Each digit has only two phalanges, the proximal about 
twice the length of the distal. There are two metacarpal bones. 
The four bones of the proximal carpal row are present, the second, 
or semilunar, small. The second row of carpals is represented by 
two bones, which are coalesced with, or prolonged from, the first 
row. The piece supporting the ulnar metacarpal, corresponds in 
position to the unciform, and is fused with the cuneiform. The 
piece supporting the radial metacarpal is fused behind with the 
scaphoid, and may represent the os magnum, trapezoid, or trape- 
zium, or all three fused together. The bones and joints of the 
forearm are fully developed. 

Muscles. — All the muscles of the forearm are present except 
one. The pronators and supinators are unusually large, as is also 
the Flexor Carpi Ulnaris. The Flexor Sublimis Digitorum is small, 
wants its radial origin, and ends in two tendons ; one joins the 
tendon of the deep flexor, which goes to the little finger, the other 
ends in the annular ligament. The Flexor Profundus Digitorum 
is full sized, and ends in two tendons ; one, the larger, ends in the 
annular ligament, the other forms a strong flexor tendon, going on 
to the distal phalanx of the little finger. The latter is joined at 
the wrist by the tendon of the superficial flexor, which is here 
pierced by the deep tendon, after which the two are incorporated. 



of Fingers and Toes, and of the Phalanges, in Man. 97 

The absence of a tendo perforatus proceeding separately to the 
finger corresponds to the fact of the absence of one of the pha- 
langes. The Flexor Longus Pollicis is large, arising also from the 
edge of the ulna. It proceeds entirely to the distal phalanx of the 
pollex. It is not joined by any slip, except that, above, the fleshy 
slip which usually descends to the muscle from the condyloid origin 
of the flexor sublimis is unusually large. 

The short muscles of the little finger are all present with the 
usual attachments. So also the short muscles of the thumb, with 
some modification. The Abductor is large. The Adductor arises 
from the annular ligament. The Opponens is small, much smaller 
than the opponens (flexor ossis meta-carpi) minimi digiti. The 
Flexor Brevis Pollicis, undersized, arises from the two sides of the 
metacarpal bone ; the ulnar head appearing like a second interos- 
seous. There is one Interosseous muscle for the little finger, along 
its radial side. 

Extensor Muscles. — The Extensor Carpi Badialis Longior sends a 
small tendon to the base of the metacarpal bone of the pollex, and 
a large tendon to between the bases of both metacarpals, chiefly to 
the ulnar. The Extensor Carpi Badialis Brevior, also large, goes 
to the carpus just above the ulnar metacarpal. The Extensor Carpi 
Ulnaris is entirely wanting. The Extensor Communis Digitorum 
gives a tendon to each finger, that to the pollex only a little the 
largest. The Extensor Minimi Digiti is quite distinct from the 
latter as a muscle. Its only tendon goes to the little finger, join- 
ing with the tendon to that finger from the common extensor, the 
latter being the larger. Two muscles form the deep layer. One 
has the fleshy attachments of the Extensor Ossis Metacarpi Pollicis, 
but its tendon goes to the first phalanx, and is therefore the Ex- 
tensor Primi Internodii. The other muscle has the fleshy attach- 
ments of the long extensor of the thumb, and the extensor of the 
fore-finger. Besides two tendinous slips to the back of the carpus, 
it ends in two tendons which join the tendons of the long common 
extensor. One of them, therefore, represents the Extensor Secundi 
Internodii Pollicis ; the other the Extensor Indicis, going to the only 
remaining finger. 

Nerves. — The Ulnar supplies the ulnar side of the little finger, 
and unites with the median for the supply of the radial side of the 
same finger. The Median supplies both sides of the pollex, and is 
also the principal nerve for the ulnar side of the little finger. The 
interdigital space receives for its supply, as above described, a series 
of nerves, three from the median and two from the ulnar, as if the 
nerves of the wanting fingers had been crowded into the cleft. 

(2.) Dissection of Eight Foot. — This foot presents three toes, 
the internal having the usual characters of the great toe. 

Bones. — Each of the lesser toes has the three phalanges — the 
great toe the usual two. The metatarsal bones are three in number, 
the internal having its usual great size. The second tarsal row pre 
sents a bone for the support of each metatarsal — two cuneiform 
bones and the cuboid — but the latter is fused with the os calcis. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. I. JULY 1863. N 



98 Dr John Struthers on Variation in the Number 

The part corresponding to the cuboid has a separate bony nucleus, 
smaller than the nucleus of the os calcis. Of the first row, the 
astragalus is fused with the os calcis, and the scaphoid is wanting 
or fused with the astragalus. 

Muscles. — The Flexor Brevis Digitorum sends tendons to the 
two lesser toes, that to the external being much the largest. The 
Flexor Longus Digitorum and Flexor Longus Pollicis are separate 
muscles in the leg, but at the ancle form a common tendon, which 
at the middle of the foot, after receiving a large accessorius, divides 
into two, one for the great toe, the other for the second toe, which 
perforates the tendon of the short flexor. There is one Lumbri- 
calis, arising from both sides of the long tendon to the second toe, 
and going to the tibial side of the same toe. Two muscular bundles 
arise from the abductor minimi digiti, besides the usual tendon of 
that muscle, and proceed one to the fibular side of the second toe, 
the other to the tibial side of the outer toe. They are like large 
lumbricales, or additional short flexors. The Flexor Brevis Minimi 
Digiti is wanting. There are two plantar Interossei, one for the 
tibial side of each of the two lesser toes ; and one dorsal, in the 
outer space, for the middle toe. 

Extensors. — The Extensor Brevis Digitorum, gives five distinct 
digital tendons, three to the middle toe, one of which is larger than 
the tendon to the outer or to the great toe. All of the five come, 
as usual with the tendons of this muscle, from separate portions of 
the muscle. A sixth portion and tendon passes to the external 
metatarsal bone, and here represents the peroneus tertius, which is 
wanting in its usual situation. The Extensor Longus Digitorum is 
small, and gives at the ancle a tendon to join the extensor longus 
pollicis, the rest of the tendon ending on the os calcis. It is just 
possible that an intra-uterine fracture of the tibia which had taken 
place, with angular union, may account for the atrophy of this 
muscle, but the other muscles of the leg are well formed. The 
Extensor Longus Pollicis is large and separate throughout, except 
that it receives a tendon from the extensor longus digitorum. 

The muscles not alluded to in these notes present their usual 
arrangement. 

Nerves.— The distribution of the plantar digital nerves is some- 
what remarkable. The external plantar sends a nerve to the fibular 
side of the outer toe, and a second to both sides of the outer inter- 
digital cleft. The internal plantar, which has the usual prepon- 
derance in size, sends, first, a nerve for the tibial side of the great 
toe; second, a branch to the internal cleft which gives off first one 
and then a second set of subdivisions to the sides of the cleft, the 
double nerve on each side keeping a plantar course ; third, a branch 
to join with the external plantar in supplying both sides of the 
outer cleft. Also there is a twig from the deep or muscular divi- 
sion of the external plantar, through below the flexor brevis digi- 
torum muscle, to join one of the branches of the internal plantar to 
the fibular side of the great toe. A similarly derived and similarly 



of Fingers and Toes, and of the Phalanges, in Man. 99 

placed connecting twig passed from the ulnar nerve to the median 
in the right hand. 

The distribution of the internal plantar nerve, taken alone, would 
indicate that the wanting toes are the two outer ; while the distribu- 
tion of the external plantar, taken alone, would indicate that the 
second and third are the wanting toes; but the double apparatus of 
nerves to each cleft, and their source, is exactly explained by sup- 
posing the second and fourth to be the wanting toes. 

(3.) Dissection of Left Foot. — The fourth and fifth toes are 
united at their bases. The foot is in the condition of talipes varus. 

Bones. — The bases of the proximal phalanges of the fourth and 
fifth toes are united in a single piece, and in front of this they are 
held together by a strong transverse ligament, with an anterior con- 
cave edge. Each of the lesser toes has three phalanges, except the 
fifth, in which the distinction between the second and third pha- 
langes is not evident, but the softness and smallness of the parts 
render it difficult to pronounce as to this. It has, however, a 
tendon from the flexor brevis digitorum muscle. The fifth meta- 
tarsal bone is wanting. The fourth is double sized, broader but 
not bulkier than that of the hallux, but it presents no trace of 
duplicity externally, and a section shows one large medullary oanal. 
The tarsal bones present no variety, except that the cuboid is nar- 
rower than usual, having only one metatarsal bone to support, and 
that the astragalus is fused with the os calcis. 

Muscles. — The fourth and fifth toes receive no tendon from the 
Extensor Brevis Digitorum, and but one tendon from the Extensor 
Longus Digitorum, which divides at the metatarso-phalangeal joint 
into a tendon for each of the partially united toes. The external 
tendon of the Flexor Brevis Digitorum divides in the same manner 
at the head of the metatarsal bone to supply these two toes. So 
does the external tendon of the Flexor Longus Digitorum, after 
crossing the metatarso-phalangeal joint. 

The most external of three Lumbricales is double-sized and goes 
to the tibial side of the fourth toe. The first lumbricalis, besides 
going to the tibial side of the second toe, sends a slip to the fibular 
side of the great toe. A muscle arises partly with, partly behind, 
the adductor pollicis, and goes to the neighbouring sides of the 
second and third toes. Of the two plantar Interossei, the external 
is very large and goes to the fourth toe. The Flexor Longus Digi- 
torum and Flexor Longus Pollicis form a common muscle and tendon. 
The muscle splits naturally enough into two, but the outer portion 
comes mainly from the tibia and partly from the upper part of the 
fibula, the usual place of origin of the flexor longus pollicis from 
the fibula being unoccupied. The tendons of these two portions 
form one indivisible tendon above the ankle, which after receiving 
the accessorius, divides into four tendons, the internal for the hallux 
being the greatest, the external, as already noticed, for the two par- 
tially united outer toes.* 

* It is an error to regard the so-called " Flexor Longus Pollicis " as a 
flexor of the great toe only, or to consider the presence of a tendon from it to 



100 Dr John Btruthers on Variation in the Number 

PART II.— VARIATION IN THE NUMBER OF PHALANGES. 

Section 1.— DIMINUTION IN THE NUMBER. 

22. Case in which all the Fingers and Toes want a Phalanx, in 
several Members of a Family. 

I am indebted to Dr Oswald H. Bell of St Andrews for 
the description and history of this case, and for affording 
me an opportunity of seeing the boy. 

David M , aet. 18, St Andrews, wants a phalanx in each of his 

fingers and toes, and has a brother and sister similarly formed. The 
two hands are precisely similar. The thumb consists of a short 
metacarpal bone (f inch in length) and of one phalanx, 1\ inch 
in length, the joint between them being loose, as if composed of 
some soft intermediate tissue. The fore finger is so much longer 
than the others as to suggest the appearance of a hand in the act 
of pointing. This is due to the greater length of its metacarpal 
bone, which is 3 inches in length, while the next two metacarpals 
are under half that length. The metacarpal of the little finger is 
just 1^ inch in length, but, from its obliquity, does not project so 
far as the fourth. The proximal phalanx of the fingers measures, 
in the index If, in the middle If, in the ring 1, in the little 
finger 1\ ; the distal phalanx, in the index and middle, $■, in the 
ring and little fingers §■ inch. On the left side, the distal phalanx 
of the index finger is proportionately shorter. Except in the case 
of the fore finger, the five digits present their usual relative pro- 
jection. The metacarpo-phalangeal joints, especially of the index 
and middle fingers, are considerably sunk behind the web, and are 
loose, while the joint between the two phalanges does not bend down 
with the usual degree of angularity. 

He can easily seize and retain minute articles as a needle or pin, 
between the thumb and index finger, and can write with compara- 
tive ease. Being a groom, he can drive tolerably well, though he 
is apt to let the reins slip, being unable in the usual way to form 
the digital hook which the third phalanx naturally completes. 

The feet are well formed as far forward as the distal ends of the 
metatarsal bones. The toes are short, pulpy, and very loosely arti- 
culated. The lesser toes have two phalanges each, and are much 
turned up at the interphalangeal joint; the great toe has its usual 
proportionate greatness, but, like the thumb, has only one phalanx. 
The pads below the anterior end of the metatarsal bones, behind 
both the great and lesser toes, are more developed than usual. No 

tho second toe as an occasional occurrence only. The tendinous slip com- 
monly described as passing between the Flexor Longus Pollicis and tho 
Flexor Longus Digitorum, in the sole of the foot, is nothing less than a tendon 
from the former to at least the second toe, of good size when the proportionate 
size of the two toes is considered. It is, normally, the principal flexor tendon 
of the second toe, and the first lumbricalis muscle is attached chiefly to it. 
(See communication bv the author to the Edin. Medico-Chirurgical Society, 
" Edin. Medical Journal," July 1863.) 



of Finyers and Toes, and of the Phalanges, in Man. 101 

one would suspect from his gait any deficiency in the feet. He is 
5 feet 2 inches in height, healthy and active. 

Family history. — He is one of a family numbering ten in all, 
who were born in the following order. First, a son, and then succes- 
sively three daughters, all normal. Fifth, a son, the first member 
of the family who presented the digital variety. Sixth and seventh 
twin girls, normal. Eighth and ninth, twin boys, one normal, the 
other whose case is above described. Tenth, a girl, with fingers and 
toes as in this boy, and, in addition, the feet turned in. Neither 
Dr Bell nor I have seen the brother and sister who have the variety, 
but the boy states that their fingers and toes are the same as his, 
the hands so like that when the arms are covered and the hands 
presented promiscuously, the mother cannot say to which brother 
they belong. The brother is a clerk and is said to write an excellent 
" hand." We have no information as to the ancestors, but neither 
of the parents, uncles, aunts, or cousins, had or have any deformity. 

23. Case in which four Fingers of one Hand possess but one Phalanx 
each, the Thumb having two Phalanges. 

Dr Henderson of Fordoun sends me a note and sketch also of the 

case of A W , Bet. 3£ years. The four outer digits of the 

left hand are short nipple-like processes containing one phalanx 
each, so loosely attached to the metacarpals that they can be easily 
twisted round. Each has its little nail. The thumb contains two 
phalanges, is as large as that of the other hand, projects a long 
way beyond the fingers, and she makes great use of it. 

Her father has an aunt with two thumbs on the left hand, simi- 
lar to the case of H K (No. 8). 

24. Case in which the Fingers are formed so as to give the Hand 
a resemblance to a Foot. 

I am indebted to Dr Grierson of Thornhill for the de- 
scription, and for sketches of the hand, of this case, a 
cast of which I had previously seen, obtained through Dr 
A. Mitchell and Dr A. Simpson. 

J M , set. 16, Dumfriesshire. The hand may be described, 

generally, as having a remarkable general resemblance to a foot, in 
the size and straight direction of the thumb, and the little develop- 
ment and outward lessening of the fingers. The sketch (fig. 5) 
will give a correct idea of the form of the hand. The thumb is the 
longest and thickest of the digits, and lies parallel to the fingers. 
It can be abducted, and only half crossed over the palm. It has 
two phalanges, besides the metacarpal bone. The distal end of the 
latter extends a little way beyond the separation between the thumb 
and next finger. The thumb alone has a nail. The next two fingers 
project for about an inch, the index more, the middle less. The 
ring and little fingers appear only as fleshy finger points. There 
is a bone projecting some way into the index and also into the 



102 Dr John Struthers on Variation in the Number 

middle finger, either a phalanx or a prolongation of the metacarpal 
bone. The fourth and fifth fingers have no phalanges. The fingers 
have no voluntary motion. Viewed on the palm, the " ball" of the 
thumb is flat and narrow, but the eminence formed by the muscles 
of the little finger is prominent. 

The other hand and the feet are normal. She is the third child 
in a family consisting of six daughters and three sons, all the rest 
of whom, as well as the father and mother, are normal. No such 
formation is known to have been presented by any ancestor. The 
mother's story is that in her third month of pregnancy she had a 
vivid dream that she saw a man killed and his fingers cut off, at 
her own door ; that she told this at the time to her husband and 
neighbours, and could not for long get rid of the idea of the cut- 
off fingers. 

25. Case of Five Rudimentary Digits on one Hand. 

Mr James R. Crease of Gateshead, sends me the particulars and 

a sketch of the case of a female child, M J T , ten days 

old, whose right hand presents a very rudimentary condition. The 
four fingers are present as mere rudiments, without nails ; the thumb 
is about J inch in length and has a nail. After the radius and 
ulna there are no bones to be felt in the hand, except one support- 
ing the thumb. The rest of the limb is well formed. 

Digital variety was previously unknown in the family history. 
There are three other children, boys, all well formed. An aunt by 
the father's side, had all the fingers, but not the thumb, of the right 
hand amputated, but the mother had not seen her for many years. 
When the mother was three months pregnant, her attention was 
attracted by a woman singing in the street who had a deformed 
right hand. For a time she always thought she saw this woman, 
but had no idea that anything would be wrong with the child. 

Section 2.— INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF PHALANGES. 

26. Case of Additional Phalanx in the Thumb, on both Hands. 
Probably of Hereditary Origin. 

J J ast. 21, Roxburghshire, now in Edinburgh, has the 

thumb on both hands of unusual length and form, as represented 
in Fig. 6, which is taken from a photograph. In examining the 
thumbs I was surprised to find an additional joint, giving three 
phalanges besides the metacarpal bone, the additional bone being 
placed in the position of a middle phalanx. A case so unusual 
deserves careful examination. 

The metacarpal bone is 2\ inches in length and appears to be 
quite nonnal. The first phalanx is 1^ inch in length, and is, there- 
fore, longer than usual. The additional bone, occupying the position 
of a middle phalanx, is broader on the inner, or radial, side than on 
the side next the index finger, having a triangular or wedge-shaped 
figure, which gives the distal phalanx an inclination towards the 
index. II measures along the radial side £ inch, along the ulnar 



of Fingers and Toes, and of the Phalanges, in Man. 103 

side \ inch, and J an inch along the middle. The position of the 
base of this wedge-shaped additional bone is shown in the sketch 
by the double protuberance on the radial side. Between these a 
depression may be felt corresponding to the short shaft between the 
two articular ends. The distal phalanx is an inch in length. The 
measurements were made exactly from the joints, avoiding the 
error of including the knuckle twice. 

When the thumb is straightened, its point passes a sixth of an 
inch beyond the joint between the proximal and middle phalanges 
of the index finger. The thumb of the right hand scarcely ad- 
vances so far as that joint. The unusual length of the thumbs in 
this case is gained by the proportionately greater length of the 
proximal phalanx and by the presence of the additional bone, while 
the distal phalanx is a little shorter than usual. At the joint on 
the proximal side of the additional phalanx there is the usual 
extent of flexion and extension. Between it and the distal phalanx 
passive motion is free and readily felt in both thumbs, although it 
cannot be carried so far as to cause an angle or additional knuckle. 
Some motion in the lateral direction also can be made at this joint. 
The utility of the thumb is not impaired. The fingers are longer 
than usual (their lengths, from the metacarpophalangeal articula- 
tion, are, fore-finger 3f-, middle 4f, ring 4§, little 3^-, inches. 
The whole hand is 8 inches in length), present the usual propor- 
tionate length, and have three phalanges each. The great toes 
present the usual length, size, and number of phalanges. He is of 
full average stature, his height being 5 feet 9J inches. 

A maternal aunt had the same kind of thumb on the right hand, 
being the only instance of the occurrence of the peculiarity in any 
relative of the family. This aunt has a son and three daughters. 
The mother had other three sisters and two brothers, all of whom, 
except one of the sons, have families of sons and daughters. The 
mother never heard that any of her ancestors had it. 

REMARKS. 

As some of the cases in the hereditary group show the 
tendency to have passed over at least two generations and 
then to have reappeared, it is possible that some of the cases 
recorded as original, may be cases of distant inheritance. 
But it must have had a beginning in these too. Careful 
inquiry was made in all the cases, and the previous occur- 
rence of such a thing in the family is pretty sure to be 
brought up when a child is born with it. The cases one 
would feel most inclined to doubt on this score, are those in 
which it appeared in more than one child of the family, 
as in cases 1,8, and 9.* In such cases we may suppose the 

* I am indebted to Dr Strachan, of Dollar, for a case (which has arrived 
tx> late for detailed insertion at present) closely resembling Case 1. In a 



J 04: Dr John Struthers on Variation in the Number 

cause which determined the occurrence in one child roight 
equally determine it in another, or it might be held that the 
first case having occurred spontaneously, the circumstance 
had operated by an impression on the mind of the mother. 

In all the cases of original variation, except in Case 1, and 
in one of the children in Dr Strachan's case, it appeared on 
one limb only. 

This was not to any marked extent on one side of the 
body more frequently than on the other. The greater 
acquired strength of the right hand and foot might be sup- 
posed to operate on the offspring, but in the above cases it 
so happens that it appeared rather more frequently on the 
left side. Throughout the animal kingdom, when one side 
is more developed than the other, the right side is not 
selected more frequently than the left.* 

The variation begins more frequently on the hand than on 
the foot. In the non-hereditary group of cases in which it 
affected either a hand or a foot only, it appeared on the hand 
in eleven of the cases, on the foot in four cases. The here- 
ditary cases, by multiplying the fact, show a still higher 
proportion affecting the hand than the foot ; and in the cases 
in which it occurs on three of the limbs, it is on a foot more 
often than on a hand that the sixth digit is wanting. None 
of the cases show hereditary transmission of the peculiarity 
on the feet alone, while the cases of hereditary transmission 
on the hands only are more numerous than those showing 
it on the hands and feet. This greater frequency of its 
appearance on the hand may be connected with the zoologi- 
cal fact that in those mammals in which the digits differ in 
number on the two feet, the greater number is on the fore 
foot ; or, more generally, with the fact that greater separate 
use is made of the digits on the hand than on the foot. 

The additional digit appears nearly equally on the outer 
or on the inner side of the limb. In the non-hereditary 
group, reckoning the first case as one, it appeared in 7 cases 
on the outer side, and in 7 cases on the inner side, as an 

family of 8 brothers and 3 sisters, 3 brothers and one sister were born with 
digital increase. Two had an additional outer toe, one an additional outer 
finger, one had it on all the four limbs. It was unknown in the family as far 
back, at least, as the great-grand-parents. 

* See a paper by the author in the " Edin. Medical Journal," June 1863. 



of Fingers and Toes, and of the Phalanges, in Man. 105 

additional thumb. Three of the seven external cases were 
on feet, on the outer side. In the hereditary group, taken as 
families, it is on the inner side in the majority of the cases. 
In one family only [cases 17, 17 (a), 18 (a)] does it affect 
the big toes. As far as these cases show, it would, there- 
fore, seem to be more common on the outside of the foot, 
and, on the hand, more frequent on the inner than the outer 
side. Were we to connect these facts with the facts regard- 
ing the order in which the toes appear, or disappear, among 
the mammalia, we would require to consider not only the fact 
that the inner digit is the last added, but that the increase, or 
decrease, takes place alternately on the inner and outer sides. 

On the hand, the additional digit was smaller than the 
next, always so in the case of an additional little finger, 
and nearly always so in the case of an additional thumb, 
but in case 18 (a) the two thumbs were equal, and in case 2 
nearly equal. On the foot, in cases 12 and 13, the sixth 
toe is thicker than the fifth, although it has a phalanx less, 
but the thickness does not seem to depend on the bones. 
Among the hereditary cases, in case 17 (a) the internal of 
the two great toes is the larger. 

Cases of non-hereditary increase in the number of the 
digits appear to be of not unfrequent occurrence. Most 
surgeons have met with cases, and it is a common practice 
to remove the additional digit early. The above cases show 
that the removal of the digit, in cases in which it is in- 
herited, does not eradicate the atavic influence. But most 
of the cases of original variation do not appear to transmit 
the tendency, for, besides the facts mentioned in some of 
the cases, cases of original variation are much more common 
than hereditary cases, even reckoning each member of the 
existing family as a separate case. 

Hereditary Transmission of the Variety. — The transmission 
of a newly acquired variety has to depend on whether the 
new influence or the prior normal influence proves the 
stronger ; and, if the former prevails, it has, so long as 
only one parent presents the variety, farther to depend for 
its continuance on its chance of the fact that one parent 
may exert more influence than the other on some of the 
young. Thus if not itself at the beginning overcome by 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. I. JULY 1863. O 



106 Dr John Strutbers on Variation in the Number 

atavism, it is liable to be lost at every new union, and, we 
would suppose, liable to be worn out at last. The case of 

the L family (case 15) illustrates various phenomena 

of variation and transmission. (1.) In the line of descent 

through Andrew L , we see three successive generations 

without the variety, and it is apparently extinguished. 

(2.) In the line through James L , he and his children 

were normal, but it re-appears in his grandchildren, having 
passed over two generations. In case 19, it had passed over 
three, and in case 16, over at least two, generations. In 
case 18 (a) although the grandmother's brother had it, 
the great-grandparents had not, so that it had passed over 
three generations in the direct line and reappeared in the 
fourth. 

(3.) We see uninterrupted transmission in the line of 

descent through John L , from Esther in the first (if 

she was the first), to Jane in the fourth generation. The 
six-fingered tendency had here maintained itself against 
three successive unions with five-fingered persons. In the 
first offspring it succeeded, as far as we know, in only one 

out of 18. In the offspring of this one (Charles L ) 

it succeeded in 3 out of 12. In two of these three it did 
not appear in the next generation ; in the third of them it 
succeeded in one out of two children, thus being directly 
transmitted to the fourth generation. 

It is interesting to notice, too, how the variety so far 
from being weakened had gathered force in each new 
generation, even although it had not the advantage of the 
greater development attending utility, to enable it to in- 
crease its hold on the organism. In the first known 
ancestor (case 15) it occurred on one hand ; in the second 
generation on both hands ; in the third on both hands of 
two brothers, and on both hands and one foot of a third 
brother ; and in the fourth generation on all the four limbs 
— thus, so far from becoming weaker, making its way to an 
additional limb in each successive generation. 

Besides thus extending itself symmetrically and serially, 
it may extend in depth, beginning as one phalanx and 
extending at length to the metacarpal or metatarsal region. 
In some of the cases of original variation, there was only 



of Fingers and Toes, and of the Phalanges, in Man. 107 

one phalanx, in most of them two phalanges. Among the 
hereditary cases, in case 19 (a) there is a metacarpal bone 
besides two phalanges ; and, in case 18 (a), the same occurs 
in both hands, while on the six-toed foot it has not extended 
to the metatarsal bone. In case 17 (a) one of the thumbs 
on each hand presents three phalanges without an additional 
metacarpal, while the two great toes have, on both feet, two 
phalanges each, and one foot has an additional metatarsal 
bone. In case 17 there is an additional metacarpal bone 
and three phalanges. We do not know how it was with 
the ancestors of these cases, but in none of the cases of 
non-hereditary variation did it extend so deeply into the 
limb.* 

When the variety is transmitted it is on the same side of 
the limb. In case 15, the additional digit was external, 
both on the hands and feet, in all the ramifications of the 
descent. Also in case 20. In cases 17, 17 (a) 18, and 
18 (a), in which the variety is derived from a common 
ancestor by different lines of descent, it is on the inside of 
the hand or foot, or on the inside of both hand and foot. 
Also in case 16. In none of the cases was it external on 
one limb and internal on another limb of the same person, 
or in the same family. In case 8, of two children in the 
same family, one had an additional little finger, the other 
an additional thumb, but the case is one of the non-heredi- 
tary group, and there is the curious fact that they were the 
children of different fathers, though of the same mother. 
The influence of sex does not appear to any marked extent 
in the hereditary transmission in the above cases. 

Diminution in the Number of the Digits. — Diminution in 

* When the additional digit is supported, as it generally is when well 
formed, on one end of a more or less bifurcated metacarpal or metatarsal 
bone, it might be supposed that this indicated the original presence of an 
additional metacarpal or metatarsal bone, which had become more or less con- 
fluent with the next, as in the development of the metacarpus and metatarsus 
in the ruminant. But while this can be easily shown in the ruminant, there 
is no proof that here there is anything but a more or less extensive bifurcation 
of one bone. In the dissection of the left foot in case 21, in which the fourth 
and fifth toes were partially united and supported on one metatarsal bone, the 
fifth metatarsal being wanting, the fourth metatarsal was twice the normal 
thickness, but presented no trace of double origin, externally or internally, 
although the foot was that of a new-born child. 



108 Dr John Struthers on Variation in the Number 

the number of the digits appears to be a much less frequent 
variation than increase, both in man and in mammals 
generally, although many mammals have normally less 
than five. Among these the occurrence of an additional 
digit is generally but the development of the concealed 
rudiment of a suppressed digit. In man, although he nor- 
mally possesses the full mammalian number, the tendency 
is to farther increase rather than to decrease in the number. 

Variation in the Number of Phalanges. — In this group of 
cases there was diminution of the number of phalanges in 
four cases, in none of which was it hereditary, although one 
of the cases embraces two brothers and a sister.* 

From cases 23, 24 and 25, in which the fingers were 
more or less rudimentary, while the thumb was either not 
at all or less reduced, it would seem as if the thumb were 
the last to suffer reduction. Two cases have been men- 
tioned to me, however, although I have not seen them, in 
which the thumb alone is wanting, in one of the cases on 
both hands. Homologically considered, we would expect 

* See a case of hereditary transmission of deficient phalanx by Alf. Robert, 
mentioned in an able paper by Mr Sedgwick " On the Influence of Sex in the 
Hereditary Transmission of Disease" (Brit, and Foreign Med. Chir. Review, 
April 1863). Also a case by Dr Kellie of Leith (Edin. Med. and Surg. Journal, 
1808, p. 252) ; but the mother's statement that it had been transmitted for ten 
generations must be received with caution, when we consider what ten genera- 
tions implies. Among the more interesting cases of hereditary transmission 
of increased number of digits on record are — The case of the Maltese family, 
by Commander Godehew (Mimoires de V Academic Royale des Sciences, 1751), 
more fully related by Reaumur (L'Art de faire eclorre et d'elever des Oiseaux 
Domestiques, torn. ii. p. 377): The case by Sir A. Carlisle (Philosophical Trans- 
actions, London 1814, p. 94) : A case by Dr Crawford of Peebles (Edinburgh 
Monthly Journal of Medical Science, Oct. 1851, p. 356) : A case by Mr J. B. 
Thomson of Perth (Edin. Medical Journal, 1858-59, p. 502) ; and a case noticed 
in " Medical Times and Gazette," Dec. 20, 1800, from the "American Medical 
Times," possibly a branch of the family whose case is related by Sir A. 
Carlisle. On this subject may be also consulted, Haller (Elementa Physiologioz, 
t. viii. pp. 97, 98, 99, 1766): Morand (Mem. de VAcad. des Sciences, 1770): 
Isodore Geoffroy St-Hilaire (Ilistoire G6n6rale et Particuliire des Anomalies de 
V Organisation, 1832-36): and A. W. Otto (Monsfrorum Sezcentorum Descriptio 
Anatomica, 1841). The oldest recorded case is that of one of the sons of the 
giant of Gath (2 Samuel, ch. xxi., v. 20 ; and 1 Chronicles, ch. xx., v. 6) who 
had six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot. Pliny notices two 
cases, among the Romans, of six fingers on each hand (XI. Book, ch. 43). 
Anne Boleyn is said to have had six fingnrs on each hand. 



of Fingers and Toes, and of the Phalanges, in Man. 109 

the thumb to be the first, teleologically considered, the last, 
to suffer reduction. 

Increase in the number of phalanges occurs in the thumb 
only, or as in cases 17 and 17(a), in the digit serially cor- 
responding to the thumb when six digits are present. None 
of the cases presented a higher number than three, the full 
number in the mammalian type. Case 26, in which, with- 
out any increase in the number of the digits, the thumb 
presents an additional phalanx, is a very remarkable one 
when we consider the mammalian law. Not unlikely, it 
may have been the same in the father of cases 17 and 
17 (a), who is described as having had very long thumbs, 
while his son and daughter had three phalanges in the 
corresponding digit, and a thumb with two phalanges added 
by its side. 

On the absence of a Bone in the Thumb and great Toe, as 
compared with the other Digits ; and on the Nature of 
the " Metacarpal" or " Metatarsal" Bone of the Inter- 
nal Digit. 

The occurrence, normally, of a bone less in the thumb or 
great toe than in the other digits, is part of a law exempli- 
fied in the inner digit of all five-toed mammals,* and may 
be supposed to find its explanation in the fact that the in- 
ternal is the small toe, and the one which has disappeared 
when the number is reduced to four. Whatever be its 
meaning, this law is maintained in the few cases in which 
the internal digit undergoes great teleological development, 
as in the seal and walrus,f in which the internal digit is 
longer and thicker than the three middle digits, and in 

* This law is not without exception in cases of variation, as in case 26 ; 
and I have lately been presented by Mr Robertson of Kelso with a pig's foot, 
presenting five toes, in each of which there are three phalanges besides the 
metacarpal bone. 

f I have seen a skeleton of the walrus with three phalanges in the pollex, 
but on trying with my penknife, I found one of them to be a piece of wood. 
In the skeleton of a seal I once saw three natural phalanges in the inner 
digit, but the first and fifth toes had been transposed. The phalanges and 
metacarpals and metatarsals of the seal are arranged and developed exactly as 
in man, and the presence of only two phalanges in the pollex and hallux is 
easily felt in the living seal. 



110 Dr John Struthers on Variation in the Number 

man in whom the great toe and thumb are the most impor- 
tant of the digits. As the erect posture requires a great 
toe on the inner side of the foot, and a long one, the 
phalanges of the inner digit are, accordingly, developed in 
length as well as in thickness. The thumb, again, being 
better adapted for opposition by being shorter, is developed in 
thickness, and still retains its character as the shortest digit.* 

It has long been a discussion in human anatomy, whether 
the wanting bone in the thumb and great toe is a phalanx 
or a metacarpal or metatarsal bone. The view that it is the 
middle phalanx which is wanting is supported by the 
arrangement of the muscles, — (a.) by the absence of the 
tendo perforatus ; (6.) by the attachment to the first phalanx 
of the short muscles which correspond to the short muscles 
of the little finger, which are attached to its first phalanx ; 
(c.) by the attachment to the metacarpal bone (with its re- 
sulting prismatic form) of the muscles which correspond to 
those which are attached to the metacarpal bone of the 
little finger ; and (d.) by the position of its metacarpal bone 
in the metacarpal range. 

Opposed to this view is the one fact, that the so called 
metacarpal bone of the thumb is developed like a phalanx, 
having its epiphysis at the proximal end, while the other 
metacarpal bones have their epiphyses at the distal end. 
The discussion stood there, the difficulty being to say what 
value should be given to the developmental fact. There 
might be some special reason for the changed position of 
the epiphysis, although it would be difficult indeed to sug- 
gest any such reason, either on the longitudinal growth, or 
on the elasticity, theories of the use of epiphyses, especially 

* I have been in the habit of pointing out the interesting fact, that the 
relative length of the digits on the human hand indicates the order in which 
the digits disappear in the downward progression from the five to the one toed 
mammal, — the internal disappearing first, next the external or fifth, next the 
index or second, lastly the ring or fourth, — the extreme digit disappearing on 
alternate sides, beginning on the inner, until the middle digit alone remains 
in the foot of the horse, as demonstrated by Professor Owen in his work 
"On the Nature of Limbs." Nor need this correspondence be regarded as 
a mere coincidence, when we consider the relative function of the digits in 
an ordinary five-toed limb. The exceptions presented to this, in the human 
foot, and in the lateral toes of the pinnigrade carnivora, are special adaptive 
modification* of certain digits. 



of Fingers and Toes, and of the Phalanges, in Man. Ill 

in the case of the great toe, the distal end of whose meta- 
tarsal bone is the most developed. Comparative anatomy, 
however, sets this question at rest. I find that the distal 
position of an epiphysis on a metacarpal and metatarsal 
bone, and its proximal position on the phalanges, belongs to 
other mammalia as well as to man, and is adhered to not- 
withstanding the most varied proportionate size which the 
two kinds of bones, or their two ends, attain.* In the horse 
and ruminant, in which the great metacarpals and metatar- 
sals attain enormous size, they have still only one epiphysis, 
while the radius and humerus have an epiphysis at both 
ends ; and the metacarpals and metatarsals have their epi- 
physis distal, while on the phalanges it is proximal. The 
short and flat thigh-bone of the seal has epiphyses at both 
ends, while the greatly elongated metacarpals, metatarsals, 
and phalanges, have but one epiphysis each, placed as on 
the corresponding bones in the human hand and foot. A 
still more striking example of this law is presented in the 
development of the rudimentary metacarpals and metatar- 
sals of the horse ; the large upper ends of which, serving 
an articular function, are developed without an epiphysis, 
the epiphysis being kept for the little " button " which ter- 
minates the tapering lower end. The more we compare 
the muscles of the two limbs, and in the limbs of different 
animals, the less dependence do we place on their attach- 
ments for the determination of homology ; and the above 
facts in comparative osteogeny show, that the position of 
the epiphysis is decisive in establishing the view that the 
bone which is wanting in the human thumb and great toe, 
and in the internal digit of other five-toed mammals, is the 
metacarpal and metatarsal, although custom and convenience 
lead us to apply these terms to the bone which homologi- 
cally is the proximal phalanx. 

* The cetacea present an exception to the mammalian law of three pha- 
langes, in the occurrence of more than three in the longer digits of the 
paddle, making an approach in this respect to the digital type of the fish. I 
have observed that the cetacean digits present another exception in the pre- 
sence of epiphyses at both ends of each phalanx, and also at both ends of the 
metacarpal bones. In contrast with this, we have the great distal phalanx of 
the horse, ruminant, pig, and some others, developed without an epiphysis, 
while in man it is present on the distal phalanx as well. 



112 Extract from Report on the Acts relating to 

Extract from Report of the Royal Commission (consisting of 
Professor Lyon Playfair, C.B., Professor Huxley, and 
Lieut.-Colonel Maxwell) on the Operation of the Acts 
relating to Trawling for Herring on the Coasts of Scotland. 

Natural History of the Herring. 

Before proceeding to sum up our conclusions from the preceding 
inquiries, it will aid us to take a general survey of the natural 
history of the herring, so far as it relates to the practical questions 
now under consideration. 

The herring is found under four different conditions : 1st, Fry 
or Sill; 2d, Maties or Fat Herring; 3d, Full Herring; 4th, 
Shotten or Spent Herring. 

The first term is applicable to all herring which are not larger 
than sprats, or, in other words, are under five or six inches in 
length. The milt and roe in fish of this size are so small as to 
be discoverable only by careful dissection. 

The fry pass imperceptibly into Maties, which may have any 
length from six inches to thirteen, the last admeasurement being 
the extreme length of any British herring which has come under 
our notice. Internally, a matie is characterised by two peculiari- 
ties : the one being the great quantity of fat deposited about the 
alimentary canal ; the other the small size of the roes or milts, 
which never quite fill the abdominal cavity, and, in herrings under 
ten inches, rarely exceed two or three inches in length, though 
they are always readily discernible. 

A Full herring is one in which the milt or the roe is fully 
developed, so as to occupy the whole of the abdominal cavity, 
except the small space filled by the intestine ; while the fat around 
the intestine has disappeared, having in all probability been 
applied to the nutrition of the reproductive organs. 

The smallest full herring which has come under our own ob- 
servation was a female, measuring 10 T % inches in extreme length, 
taken in Loch Fyne ; but we have been assured by very competent 
and trustworthy informants, that full herrings not more than seven 
or eight inches long have been taken at several points of the west 
coast of Scotland. The largest British full herring which we have 
had under our direct observation was 12 T 6 - inches long; but Mr 
Gibson, Fishery Officer at Broadford, Skye, through whose hands 
immense numbers of herrings passed when he was in the employ- 
ment of the late Mr Methuen of Leith, assured us that it is by 
no means an unfrequent occurrence to find fish 14 or 15 inches 
long among the Orkney herrings, and that he once measured one 
which had attained the surprising length of 17 inches.* 
* Mr Methuen himself states that Iceland herrings are generally 17 inches long. 



Mw Series, Vol. XVIII. PI III. 




W. H M e Fatlane, litW ESin 1 



PancLanus odoratissimus. 



Trawling for Herring on the Coasts of Scotland. 118 

We have measured two maties from Labrador, respectively 
13^ and 13 T 9 T inches long; while Mr Mitchell, in his valuable 
essay on the herring, states that the Norwegians have a consider- 
able fishery at Stadtland, where they generally get very large 
herrings, few being under a foot in length, and many 15 inches. 

Hence it is quite safe to assume that adult full herrings may 
vary in length from 10 inches to 15, while it is possible that 
they may vary from 7 inches to 17 inches. There is nothing 
really remarkable about this, as other fish vary in dimensions in 
their adult state to fully the same extent, — a consequence of their 
continuing to grow long after they have reached the age at which 
they are capable of propagating their kind. 

It has been frequently asserted, and evidence has been re- 
peatedly laid before us to the effect, that particular lochs on the 
west coast of Scotland, such as Loch Broom and Loch Hourn, 
are inhabited only by herrings of a size smaller than the 
average ; but, on the other hand, equally trustworthy evidence 
has directly negatived these assertions, the witnesses on this side 
affirming that the herrings of these lochs differ in no appreciable 
respect from those met with in other localities. We can give no 
opinion on this subject, as the time at our disposal was necessarily 
employed in investigating matters more directly relevant to the 
objects of the Commission. 

When the herring first attain the full condition, the roe or the 
milt, as the case may be, is firm and hard; and pressure upon 
the belly of the fish will not give rise to the extrusion of ova, or 
seminal fluid, from the apertures of the reproductive organs. 
But the texture of the latter rapidly becomes softer, and soon 
acquires a semi-fluid consistency, so that the slightest pressure 
causes the reproductive elements to pass out of the body. 

If a female in this state be squeezed, and the ova received into 
a vessel full of sea- water, they will all fall to the bottom ; and 
the viscid substance, with which the ova are coated, causing them 
to adhere together, forms a thick cake, which, after a few hours' 
rest, constitutes a dense consistent mass, so firmly adherent to the 
bottom of the vessel that the latter may be suddenly inverted 
without detaching the ova. Indeed, to separate these either from 
one another or from the body to which they adhere, demands the 
exertion of a certain force, which as often ends in the destruction 
of the eggs as in their detachment. 

It would seem as if all the superfluous nourishment in the 
body of the herring were applied to supply the rapid increase of 
the reproductive organs ; for shotten, or spent herrings, so called 
because their roe and milt are completely emptied of their contents, 
not only have no fat about their intestines, but even their muscular 
substance is almost devoid of fat, and is consequently harsh, dry, 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. I. JULY 1863. P 



114 Extract from Report on the Acts relating to 

and insipid when cooked. They are distinguished from maties 
not only by this circumstance, but by the fact that the roe or milt, 
though greatly shrunken, may be restored to nearly the size of 
those of a full herring by inflating them with air, whereas the 
reproductive organs of a matie cannot be enlarged in any such 
manner. 

It is extremely difficult to obtain any satisfactory evidence as 
to the length of time which the herring requires to pass from the 
embryonic to the adult or full condition. Of the fishermen who 
gave any opinion on this subject, some considered that a herring 
takes three, and others that it requires seven years, to attain the 
full or spawning condition ; others frankly admit that they knew 
nothing about the matter; and it was not difficult, by a little 
cross examination, to satisfy ourselves that they were all really 
in this condition, however strongly they might hold by their 
triennial or their septennial theories. Mr Yarrell and Mr 
Mitchell suppose, with more reason, that herring attain to full 
size and maturity in about eighteen months. 

It does not appear, however, that there is any good evidence 
against the supposition that the herring reaches its spawning con- 
dition in one year. There is much reason to believe that the 
eggs are hatched in, at most, from two to three weeks after de- 
position, and that in six or seven weeks more (that is, in, at most, 
ten weeks from the time of laying the egg), the young have 
attained three inches in length. Now it has been ascertained that 
a young smolt may leave a river and return to it again in a couple 
of months, increased in bulk eight or ten fold; and as a herring 
lives on very much the same food as a smolt, it appears possible 
that it should increase in the same rapid ratio. Under these 
circumstances, nine months would be ample time for it to enlarge 
from 3 to 10 or 11 inches in length. It may be fairly argued, 
however, that it is not very safe to reason analogically from the 
rate of growth of one species of fish to that of another ; and it 
may be well to leave the question, whether the herring attains its 
maturity in twelve, fifteen, or eighteen months, open, in the toler- 
ably firm assurance that the period last named is the maximum. 

Yarrell, Valenciennes, and all the best authorities upon the 
herring, agree that the account of the migrations of the herring 
from and to the seas within the Arctic circle, promulgated by 
Anderson and Tennant, is wholly devoid of evidence. The herring 
fry frequent the lochs and shallows of the sea upon the British 
coasts in shoals, sometimes by themselves, at other times mingled 
with sprats, feeding upon the minute Crustacea which throng the 
waters, and gradually growing into maties. Whether they betake 
themselves into deeper water on assuming the latter condition, or 
merely pass from a gregarious into a solitary state, does not 



Trawling for Herring on the Coasts of Scotland. 115 

appear to be clearly made out. But the large shoals of herrings 
which appear upon onr coasts in the early summer and in the late 
autumn months, and which seem to come from deeper into shal- 
lower water, are at first either entirely composed of maties, or 
contain a very large proportion of them. 

The maties feed, develop their reproductive organs, and become 
full herring in the course of about three or four months, the full 
herring appearing, at first, only scattered here and there among 
the shoals, but gradually increasing in number, until they largely 
preponderate over the maties, or almost entirely constitute the 
shoal. The herrings then frequently aggregate for about a fort- 
night, in most prodigious numbers, in particular localities, like 
the Banks of Ballantrae, and the Traith or Fluke Hole, which 
are suitable, from the character of the bottom or from other 
circumstances, for the reception of their ova. Here they lie 
in tiers, covering square miles of sea bottom, and so close to 
the ground that the fishermen have to practise a peculiar mode 
of fishing in order to take them ; while every net and line used 
in the fishing is thickly covered with the adhesive spawn 
which they are busily engaged in shedding. So intent are 
the fish on this great necessity of their existence, that they 
are not easily driven from their spawning ground ; but when 
once their object has been attained, and they have become spent 
fish, the shoal rapidly disappears, — the universal and very pro- 
bable opinion of fishermen being, that they withdraw into deep 
water, at no great distance from the coast. There is no positive 
evidence as to the ultimate fate of the spent herrings ; but there 
is much to be said in favour of the current belief, that after a 
sojourn of greater or less duration in deep water, they return as 
maties to the shallows and lochs, there to run through the same 
changes as before, passing a second time from the condition of 
matie to full herring, and from full to spent. Of the manner in 
which the change from the spent to the second full state is effected 
we know nothing, nor have we any information respecting the 
number of times which one and the same herring may run through 
the cycle. However, the enemies of the fish are too numerous 
and too active to allow us to suppose the existence of any one 
individual to be prolonged beyond two or three reproductive 
epochs. It is probable that the difference of age, whatever it 
may be, is sufficient to account, in great measure, for the varying 
size of adult herrings. 

Singularly contradictory statements are to be met with re- 
specting the spawning season of the herring. We have obtained 
a very large body of valuable evidence upon this subject, derived 
partly from the examination of fishermen, and of others conversant 
with the herring fishery ; partly from the inspection of the accurate 



116 Extract from Report on the Acts relating to 

records kopt by the Fishery Officers at different stations,* and 
partly from other sources ; and our clear conclusion from all this 
evidence is, that the herring spawns at two seasons of the year, 
viz., in the spring and in the autumn We have hitherto met 
with no case of full or spawning herring being found in any 
locality during what may be termed the solstitial months, namely, 
June and December ; and it would appear that such herring are 
never (or very rarely) taken in May or the early part of July, in 
the latter part of November or the early part of January. But 
a spring spawning certainly occurs in the latter part of January, 
in February, in March, and in April ; and an autumn spawning 
in the latter part of July, in August, September, October, and 
even as late as November. Taking all parts of the British coast 
together, February and March are the great months for the spring- 
spawning, and August and September for the autumn spawning. 

It is not at all likely that the same fish spawn twice in the 
year ; on the contrary, the spring and the autumn shoals are 
probably perfectly distinct ; and if the herring, according to the 
hypothesis advanced above, comes to maturity in a year, the 
shoals of each spawning season would be the fry of the twelve- 
month before. 

However, no direct evidence can be adduced in favour of this 
supposition ; and it would be extremely difficult to obtain such 
evidence. 

The food of the herring consists of Crustacea, varying in size 
from microscopic dimensions to those of a shrimp, and of small 
fish, particularly sand eels. While in the matie condition, they 
feed voraciously, and not unfrequently their stomachs are found 
immensely distended with Crustacea and sand eels, in a more or 
less digested condition. 

Herring thus abundantly fed are apt to have all their tissues 
so permeated with fat that they will not cure well, and their flesh 
is liable to break when handled. The Scotch fishermen style such 
as these " gut-pock" herring, f and consider them of very inferior 
quality. 

The Possible Effects of Legislation on the Breed of Herring. 

The herring is a notoriously variable fish, appearing in the 
most prodigious shoals, year after year, at a given point of the 
coast, and then suddenly diminishing in number, or even utterly 

• The intelligent Fishery Officers might bo made highly useful by keeping 
Datura] history registers on a systematic plan, and results important both to 
ace and practice might thus soon be obtained. 

f These seem to bo tho " Ifarengs a la bourse," or " Ilarongs aboutifs," 
f.f the French fishermen. 



Trawling for Herring on the Coasts of Scotland. 117 

vanishing for a long period. The chief reason of these variations 
is probably to be sought in the variation, 1st, of the quantity of 
food of the fish ; 2d, in the number and force of the destructive 
agencies at work upon it. 

Any circumstance which increases or decreases the quantity of 
Crustacea and of sand eels, for example, must influence in a direct 
ratio the chances of existence of a multitude of herrings ; while 
any condition which increases or decreases the number or the 
activity of the enemies of the herring, must influence those chances 
in an inverse ratio. 

Leaving out of consideration the animals which prey upon 
herring fry, and their mere accidental and unimportant enemies, 
their great destroyers are, — 

a. Fish. 

Cod, ling, coal-fish, hake, conger, dog-fish. 

b. Birds. 

Gulls and gannets. 

c. Marine Mammals. 

Porpoises and other cetacea. 

d. Man. 

The following considerations may help us to form an estimate 
of the relative importance of these different destructive agencies : — 

In 1861, there were in Scotland, and that part of England over 
which the Fishery Board have jurisdiction, 42,751 fishermen and 
boys engaged in the herring fishery. The total take of the year 
would give about 20,000 herrings for each of these persons, or 
near upon 900,000,000 for the whole. 

It seems, and indeed is, a most marvellous drain upon the 
power of multiplication of one animal, to destroy in one year 
a multitude exceeding in number the whole human population 
of the globe. But it may be readily demonstrated that this vast 
number sinks into insignificance if compared with the total 
destruction effected by agencies over which man has no control 
whatsoever. 

Consider the destruction of large herring by cod and ling alone. 
It is a very common thing to find a cod- fish with six or seven 
large herrings in his stomach, of which not one has remained long 
enough to be digested. If, in order to be safe, we allow a cod- 
fish only two herrings per diem, and let him feed on herrings for 

Herring. Days. 

only seven months of the year, then 2 x 210 =420 herring as 
his allowance during that time ; and fifty cod-fish will equal one 
fisherman in destructive power. But the quantity of cod and ling 
taken in 1861, and registered by the Fishery Board, was over 
80,000 cwt. On an average, 30 cod-fish go to 1 cwt. of the dried 
fish. Hence, at least, 2,400,000 cod-fish were caught in 1861. 



118 Extract from Report on the Acts relating to 

But if 50 cod-fish equal 1 fisherman, 2,400,000 will equal 48,000 
fishermen. In other words, the cod and ling caught on the Scotch 
coasts in 1861, if they had been left in the water, would have 
caught as many herring as a number of fishermen equal to all those 
in Scotland, and six thousand more, in the same year; and as the 
cod and ling caught were certainly not one tithe part of those left 
behind, we may fairly estimate the destruction of herring, by these 
voracious fish alone, as at least ten times as great as that effected 
by all the fishermen put together. 

When it is further considered, that the conger and the dog-fish 
probably do as much mischief as the cod and ling, that the gulls 
and the gannets slay their millions, and that the porpoises and 
grampuses destroy additional untold multitudes, it will probably 
be thought no exaggerated under-estimate if we assume that our 
fishery operations, extensive as they are, do not effect 5 per cent, 
of the total destruction of maties and full herring that takes place 
every year. And when it is further considered, that sea-trout and 
innumerable other fish prey upon the herring fry, and that flat 
fish of all kinds resort in immense numbers to the spawning 
grounds of the herring, to prey upon the freshly-deposited ova, it 
would seem, as we have said, that the influence of man, whether 
conservative or destructive, upon herrings must be absolutely in- 
appreciable ; and, under these circumstances, it seems almost 
unavoidable that great fluctuations, wholly beyond human control, 
should occur in the abundance of herring in different years. 

If the herrings in any given year multiply with great rapidity, 
owing to favourable circumstances, their enemies also will multi- 
ply in consequence of their better and more abundant supply of 
food ; and if, as must sometimes happen, the ratio of multiplica- 
tion of the enemies is greater than that of the herring, the latter 
will, in that or the succeeding year, be vastly diminished. But 
the very diminution of the herring necessarily tends to starve 
down the fish which destroy tbem, and to throw them open, in a 
weakened state, to the attacks of their enemies, who, by the same 
law, have necessarily multiplied in consequeuce of their multi- 
plication. By such a concurrence of causes, the herring, relieved 
from their oppressors, will in a year or two appear again in 
immense numbers ; and so the alternations of prosperity, over- 
production, and panic in the trade which they originate, will 
occur with as much regularity as if the herring were manufac- 
turers. 

Conclusions. 

Having in the previous part of the Report given our reasons 
for the conclusions to which we have come, in regard to the sub- 



Trawling for Herring on the Coasts of Scotland. 119 

jects of our investigations, it may now be useful to make a brief 
summary of the results : — 

1. Drift-net fishing has been long pursued in this country, as 

the chief method for the capture of herring. 

2. Drift-nets must have a mesh of not less than one inch from 

knot to knot (48 Geo. III., c. 110, s. 12). In conse- 
quence of this regulation, herring fry cannot be caught by 
this system of fishing. 

3. The amount of capital required by the crew of a drift-net 

boat is considerable. The price of the boat varies, accord- 
ing to its size, from L.20 to L.100 or upwards, and the 
value of the nets may be equal to that of the boat. 

4. The system of seining (improperly called ' trawling ') for 

herring was introduced on the West Coast in 1838, but 
did not become general till 1846. Its operations are 
chiefly confined to Loch Fyne and its neighbourhood. 

5. The system of seining requires much less capital than that 

of fishing by drift nets. The cost of each trawl skiff is 
about L.15, two skiffs being used in fishing, and the 
cost of the seine net is from L.15 to L.20. 

6. The practice of using the seine net for herring was ren- 

dered illegal in 1851, by the Act 14 and 15 Vict., 
c. 26. 

7. Under special circumstances, the risk of a rupture of the 

peace being imminent, the Government, but not at the 
instigation of the Fishery Board, obtained in 1860 in- 
creased powers for the repression of trawling by the Act 
of 23 and 24 Vict., c. 92, and still further powers in 1861 , 
by the Act 24 and 25 Vict., c. 72. 

8. These Acts have been effective as means of repression, 

and seining for herring is scarcely now practised on the 
West Coast of Scotland. 

9. The Act of 1860 established a close time, during which 

herring are not allowed to be taken. This close time is 
limited to the West Coast of Scotland, and is fixed from 
the 1st January to 31st May as far as Point Ardnamur- 
chan, and from thence to Cape Wrath from 1st January 
to 20th May. 

10. There is no close time on the East Coast of Scotland ; but 

the Fishery Board, by the Act of 1860, have power to 
introduce one, — a power which we recommend should be 
withdrawn. 

11. The curers of herring and the drift-net fishermen approve 

of the operation of these repressive Acts, asserting that 
the method of fishing with the seine destroyed the supply 



120 Extract from Report on the Acts relatiny to 

of herring, by scaring the shoals of fish ; that immature 
fish were captured by it; that the spawn beds were 
injured ; that the fish caught by the seine were unfit for 
curing ; and that the seiners or ' trawlers ' injured the 
fishing-gear of the drift-net men. 

12. The main question involved in these allegations is the 

following: Is it an ascertained fact that the system of 
trawling has injured the fishery of Loch Fyne and its 
neighbourhood ? 

13. Our inquiries satisfy us that the fishery of Loch Fyne has 

suffered no diminution by the operations of the trawlers, 
but that, on the contrary, it is a steadily progressive 
fishery, when the periods of comparison are made suffi- 
ciently long to correct the annual fluctuations, which are 
always considerable in this as in all other herring fisheries. 
The approximate gross take of herring in Loch Fyne, 
according to the returns of the Fishery Board, are as 
follows : — 

General annual average take from 1833 to 1843, 18,994 barrels. 

1844 to 1848, 15,427 
1849 to 1853, 19,149 „ 
1854 to 1858, 25,744 
1859 to 1862, 42,165 „ 

14. This steady increase of the fishery, during the period when 

trawling was practised, cannot be ascribed to an augmenta- 
tion in the number of drift-net boats ; for these, on an ave- 
rage of the same years, with the exception of 1862, show 
no increase, while the square yards of netting employed re- 
main also comparatively stationary. Hence we are forced 
to the conclusion, that there have been no grounds for 
the alarm that the fishery of Loch Fyne was being de- 
stroyed by the operations of the trawlers. 

14. This result established for Loch Fyne is found to apply 

to the west coast of Scotland as a whole — viz., that there 
is a steady increase in the fishery during the periods 
when trawling was prosecuted, and since it has been 
abandoned. 

15. The selected years of bad fishing, brought as proofs that 

trawling was destroying the fishery, have, when examined, 
no application to the question, as an equal number of 
years of quite as bad fishing are found in every decen- 
nial period before the system of trawling had been dis- 
covered. 

16. The selection of the prosperous year of fishing, 1862, is 

equally fallacious as bearing on the question. It is only 



Trawling for Herring on the Coasts of Scotland. 121 

an instance of the singular fluctuations of the herring 
fishery. In a period of nearly forty years, the two most 
productive years have been 1860 and 1862. In the 
first of these years the second Act of repression was just 
passed, but trawling was still actively carried on, and had 
been in more or less active operation for fifteen years. 
It was only effectually put down by the Act of 1861. 
The good returns of these two years prove beyond a 
- doubt that trawling has not injured the fishery of Loch 
Fyne. 

17. These conclusions as to the steady increase of the fishery 

in Loch Fyne, negative the assertion that the trawlers 
scared away the shoals of fish when entering the lochs. 

18. The evidence laid before us, and the experience of the Irish, 

Norwegian, Newfoundland, and Labrador fisheries, prove 
that trawled fish, when properly handled, are fit for the 
purposes of the curer. The reason of their occasional 
inferiority for this purpose is the reckless mode of pur- 
suing a system of fishing in the constant apprehension 
of being caught in the violation of the law. 

19. Trawling for herring has been an important means of 

cheapening fish to the consumer, by the large and sudden 
takes, and has thrown into the market an abundant sup- 
ply of wholesome fresh fish, at prices which enable the 
poor to enjoy them without having to come into compe- 
tition with the curer. 

20. It is this circumstance which, in our opinion, has produced 

the demand for repressive legislation, for the gains of 
the drift-net fishermen are much affected by the sudden 
and great captures of the trawler, who, working with 
less capital, and with a more productive kind of labour, 
is able to undersell the drift-net fisherman, and to de- 
range the market for the curers. It is to be observed, 
that as facilities of locomotion and transport increase, 
the market for fresh fish becomes more important than 
that for salt fish, and the former suffers if any special 
protection be afforded to the latter. As regards Loch 
Fyne, the number of barrels of herrings sold fresh already 
considerably exceeds that cured. From 1844 to 1853, 
55,247 barrels were cured, and 77,137 barrels were 
consumed in a fresh state. From 1854 to 1862, 
129,000 barrels were cured, and 168,530 barrels con- 
sumed fresh. 

21. The demand for repressive legislation is only another form 

of that which always arises when a new and more pro- 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. I. JULY 1863. Q 



122 Extract from Report on the Acts relating to 

ductive form of labour presses inconveniently upon those 
who prosecute and have embarked their capital in the old 
and less productive form of labour. 

22. Although recent legislation has been in logical sequence of 

that which has long prevailed, and may, in the absence 
of new inquiries, have been requisite to prevent disturb- 
ance of the peace, still, as it proceeds on the assumption 
that it is justifiable for the conservation of the breed of 
herring, we are bound to state that, in this point of view, 
the repressive Acts of 1851, 1860, and 1861, were alto- 
gether unnecessary; that they are essentially Acts for 
protecting class interests, and interfere with the invention 
and application of new and more productive modes of in- 
dustry. 

23. We are of opinion, that if any legislation had been re- 

quisite, it should have only been in the same direction 
as that applied to the herring fishery generally, viz., to 
a regulation of the size of the mesh of the seines, which 
were frequently used under the legal standard. We 
express no opinion as to the necessity of restricting the 
size of the mesh generally, as this question is not referred 
to us under our Commission. 

24. If the seine fishing be again rendered legal, increased powers 

for regulating the police of the fisheries should be given 
to the Fishery Board. 

25. A discretionary power should be vested in that Board to 

prohibit seining from being prosecuted in waters which 
are too narrow for that and drift-net fishing being peace- 
ably carried on simultaneously. We are of opinion that 
Upper Loch Fyne, i.e., above Otter Spit, is too narrow 
for this purpose, and that the Kyles of Bute offer another 
instance in which it would be desirable to give the Fishery 
Board discretionary powers to prohibit the practice of 
seining, but merely as a question of police. 

26. Although we have been unable to satisfy ourselves that a 

close time is of any advantage for the protection of the 
herring, still, as it is universally approved of in the dis- 
trict round the Firth of Clyde, we do not take upon our- 
selves to recommend, against the wish of those who are 
practically concerned in the fisheries, any alteration as 
regards this district. It is true that close time presses 
heavily on the long line fishermen, who are unable to ob- 
tain herring for bait to catch white fish during the close 
time from the 1st January to the 31st May; but it would 
be possible in this locality to allow licensed boats to catch 



Trawling for Herri7ig on the Coasts of Scotland. 123 

fish for bait ; and the general desire of all witnesses 
examined by us is, that the Board of Fishery should be 
allowed to license such boats under proper regulations. 
We make this suggestion, however, purely in deference 
to the state of public feeling in the district in question. 
The establishment of any system of licensing boats for 
the capture of bait would, in the long run, involve the 
taxation of the community for the support of the officers 
by whom this fishery is superintended, and a further tax 
on the long-line fishermen, who could obtain their bait 
more cheaply if they were allowed to procure it for them- 
selves. We do not pretend that it is strictly justifiable 
to tax the community in general, or one particular branch 
of industry, to foster another ; but in the prevalent state 
of public feeling about the Firth of Clyde, the method 
proposed is the only practicable means of alleviating the 
injustice of close time, as regards the persons engaged in 
the long-line fisheries. 

27. We are of opinion that there is not the slightest necessity 

for retaining a close time in any part of the coast north- 
west of the Mull of Cantire. The advocates for a close 
time in the extensive coast line between this and Cape 
Wrath desire a period different for each locality, and for 
reasons entirely dependent on class interests, and having 
no relation whatever to the protection of the herring. 
We recommend, therefore, that the coast line from the 
Mull of Cantire to Cape Wrath should be made as free 
as the whole east coast of Scotland. 

28. In coming to this conclusion, we have taken into consider- 

ation the various destructive agencies to which the her- 
ring is subject, and of which man is certainly the least 
destructive. The effect of the recent legislation has been 
to promote an increase of the major destructive agencies 
in the sea. 

29. By prohibiting the use of herring for bait during the close 

period from 1st Jan. to 31st May, the white fish, like 
cod and ling, have been allowed to multiply. A single 
herring used for bait is employed to catch three of these 
fish, each of which, if left in the sea, would have devoured 
annually at least between four and five hundred herring. 

30. The cod and ling actually caught and cured on the Scotch 

coasts in 1861 would, if left in the sea,have destroyed more 
herring than 48,000 fishermen. As only 42,751 fisher- 
men and boys were engaged in fishing in that year, the 
magnitude of this destructive agency will be readily per- 



124 Report as to Trawling for Herring. 

ceived. The close time which diminishes the capture of 
such fish must necessarily prove destructive to the her- 
ring. 

31. When we further consider that the cod and ling caught re- 

present only a small proportion of those which remain in 
the sea, and when we recollect that these fish are by no 
means the most voracious for herring, but that the latter 
have to struggle for existence, not only with larger fish, 
but with birds, such as gulls and gannets, and with por- 
poises, and other cetacea, man, as an element of either 
conservation or destruction, must produce an inappreci- 
able effect. 

32. Under such circumstances, the herring fishery should not 

be trammelled with repressive Acts, calculated only to 
protect class interests, and to disturb in an unknown and 
possibly injurious manner the balance existing between 
the conservative and destructive agencies at work upon 
the herring. If legislation could regulate the appetites of 
cod, conger and porpoise, it might be useful to pass laws 
regarding them ; but to prevent fishermen from catch- 
ing their poor one or two per cent, of herring in any 
way they please, when the other 98 per cent., subject to 
destructive agencies, are poached in all sorts of unrecog- 
nised piscine methods, seems a wasteful employment of 
the force of law. 

33. We conclude by expressing our strong conviction that the 

recent legislation on the subject of the herring fishery 
has unnecessarily restricted the operations of fishermen, 
— has repressed invention, by prohibiting new and more 
productive forms of labour, — is calculated to be destruc- 
tive, rather than conservative, in relation to the future 
supply of herring ; and although it may be beneficial to 
certain class interests, is prejudicial to the consumer of 
fish, and to the public generally. 



Dr Lauder Lindsay on Natural History. 125 

The Place and Power of Natural History in Colonisation ; 
with special reference to Otago* (New Zealand). By W. 
Lauder Lindsay, M.D., F.R.S. Edin., F.L.S. and F.R.G.S. 
London, &c. (Concluded from last Number.) 

Geology of the Otago Lignites. 

Nearly as many queries have been put to me regarding coal as 
regarding gold. What do I think, I am asked, of the Clutha 
coal, the Saddlehill coal, the Tokomairiro coal, and others of the 
so-called coals of Otago ? In reply, I regret I cannot regard 
any of your so-called coal, luhich I have seen, in the same favour- 
able light that Government and the settlers generally appear to 
do. I say so now, and frankly, because I fear great disappoint- 
ment, and, very probably, great losses in speculation may be the 
result of exaggerated or erroneous notions of the value of the 
coals referred to. There are questions connected with the com- 
mercial value of your coals — (or let me call them by what appears 
to me to be their proper name, Lignites — I prefer using the true de- 
signation, for reasons immediately to be explained) — with which, 
at present, I have nothing to do ; such are the distances of the 
respective coal fields or workings from Dunedin or other market, 
the difficulty and cost of transport, the scarcity and expensiveness 
of labour, and so forth, — all of which, however, are matters of 
moment to speculators and consumers. But I would enter on 
certain brief explanations as to the geological position and cha- 
racters of your lignites. Without going into the strict scientific 
definition of ll what is coal" — a theme of much greater intricacy 
than you may suppose, and the subject of one of the most in- 
teresting suits that has been tried before the Court of Session in 
Scotland of late years — the celebrated Torbanehill mineral case — 
it is enough for present purposes to say that the substance we 
at home call Coal, belongs to, or is contained in, a particular 
formation or system of rocks called by geologists the Carboniferous, 
or coal-bearing, system. The position and the components 
of this series of strata are well defined ; geologists know pre- 
cisely the rocks above and below. The character of the fossils 
especially it is, vegetable or animal, which a rock contains — 
a fern frond, a fish-tooth, a shell, — which enables the geologist 
with certainty to identify strata, and at once to fix the system to 
which they belong — their place in the geological series or chain 
— their comparative chronology. And it is fortunate we possess 

* Extracts from a Lecture prepared for, and at the request of, the " Young 
Men's Christian Association" of Dunedin (Otago, New Zealand). Dunedin, 
January 1862. 



126 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Place and Power of 

such an infallible, or at all events comparatively accurate, index ; 
for the mere mineral characters are often utterly insufficient. For 
instance, there is a red sandstone above and another below the 
Coal Measures, the one called the New Red and the other the Old 
Red Sandstone, in reference to their comparative ages, — alike in 
regard to mineral characters, that is as to colour, composition, 
and texture. The novice cannot tell the one from the other ; but 
the palaeontologist — the expert who is conversant with the fossils 
which characterise the earth's strata — can at once say which 
is which. Knowing that the geological position of the Coal 
Measures is between these two series of rocks, the man of science 
would never be so stupid, nor so rash, as to be at the trouble and 
expense of sinking coal-pits through the Old lied Sandstone in the 
hope of finding coal ; while he would do so through the New Red 
with every probability of success. But, look at the position of 
the landowner or coal speculator ignorant of these elementary 
facts in geology. He may ruin himself by sinking shafts through 
the Old Red Sandstone, for a mineral which cannot be found below 
it ; or he may lose a fortune should he mistake the New Red for 
the Old Red Sandstone, by refraining from digging where coal may 
with every probability be found. This is no hypothetical case ; 
I have known landowners ruining and stultifying themselves by 
boring or sinking shafts for coal through the Old Red Sandstone 
on the Perthshire base of the Ochils in Scotland. I have already 
quoted the familiar adage — " All is not gold that glitters." Neither, 
may it be equally truly added, is every rock that is black coal ! 
There is no lack of black rocks in the earth's crust ; many shales 
are sufficiently black and carbonaceous: they contain more or less 
vegetable matter, yet are they not coal, nor do they belong to the 
Carboniferous system. The Silurian slates, for example, are fre- 
quently very black and carbonaceous, quite as much so as many 
shales of the true coal measures ; they are so where I have ex- 
amined them in the neighbourhood of Dumfries. Now the Silurian 
system is inferior in the geological scale to the Old Red Sandstone ; 
and if no coal is to be found below the latter, still less will it be 
found below the former. Led astray, however, by the coal -like aspect 
of such shales — having confidence in their own judgment and cun- 
ning, ignorant altogether of geology, too parsimonious to spend a 
few guineas on a survey and report from a mining geologist — I 
have heard of Dumfriesshire lairds ruining themselves by expensive 
borings through these same Silurian slates. The late Mr Rose, con- 
sulting geologist, Edinburgh, I have heard tell many stories of the 
same kind ; sufficiently numerous instances occur, indeed, in the 
experience of all practical geologists.* Such cases, indeed, are the 

it mo here cite the testimony of what is at once the most recent and 
ling to the "Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal " for Oct. 1862, p. 



Natural History in Colonisation. 127 

commonest illustrations of the loss of money by geological ignorance. 
But not only are such cases frequent at home ; they would appear 
to be equally so much nearer your own shores ; so notoriously so 
indeed as to have found the following record in the pages of a popular 
topographical handbook (Fairfax's "Handbook to Australasia," 
1857, p. 14, Victoria) : — " Considerable sums, which might have 
been saved by a very small amount of geological knowledge and in- 
vestigation, have been injudiciously and fruitlessly expended, both 
in the Cape Patterson, Cape Otway, and Barrabool Hills districts, 
in searching for workable seams of coal. v True coal, then — the 
coal we use as fuel in Scotland and England — belongs to the 
" Carboniferous system" of geologists. A limited amount of coal, 
whether properly or improperly so-called I cannot stop here to 
inquire, occurs, inter alia, in the Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, and 
Cretaceous systems, all of which are superior in the geological 
scale to the Carboniferous system. Another substance called 
Brown Coal or Lignite — usually the latter — is peculiar to the 
Tertiary formation, a formation still more recent, still higher in 

290) " the best Manual of Geology in the English language" — " The Student's 
Manual of Geology, by J. Beete Jukes, F.K.S., Director of the Geological 
Survey of Ireland : Edinburgh, 1862." " I have elsewhere stated my belief," 
says Mr Jukes, '-that the amount of money fruitlessly expended in a ridiculous 
search after Coal, even within my own experience, would have paid the entire 
cost of the Government Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. It is a 
curious perversity of the human mind, that men prefer to take the advice of 
those whose interest it is to get them to spend money, rather than the warn- 
ings of those who can have no interest in inducing them not to spend it 

Within my own experience large sums of money have been absolutely thrown 
away, which the slightest acquaintance with Palaeontology would have saved. I 
have known, even in the rich coal district of South Staffordshire, shafts con- 
tinued down below the coal measures, deep into the Silurian shales, with 
crowds of fossils brought up in every bucket, and the sinker still expecting to 
find coal in beds below these Silurian fossils. I have known deep and expen- 
sive shafts sunk in beds too far above the coal measures for their ever being 
reached ; and similar expensive shafts sunk in black shales and slates in the 
lower rocks far below the coal measures, where a pit might be sunk to the 
centre of the earth without ever meeting with coal. Nor are these fruitless 
enterprises a thing of the past. They are still going on in spite of the silent 
warnings of the fossils in the rocks around, and in spite of the loudly expressed 
warnings of the Geologists, who understand them, but who are supposed still 
to be vain theorists, and not to know so much as the ' practical man.' .... All 
' indications ' are worthless as evidence of the presence of the ' Carboniferous 
formation,' except the occurrence of the ' Carboniferous fossils.' Even where 
the fossils occur, there may be no coal ; but all sinking for coal in beds con- 
taining any other than the Carboniferous fossils is pure waste of labour and 

money The geologist .... knows that not only do black and grey shales 

occur where there is no chance of coal being found ; but that even thin seams 
of coal occur in formations where no coal worth working has ever been found 

in the British area or in western Europe 

" The importance of the study of fossils .... is not limited to the theoretical 
speculations or the philosophical conclusions that may be derived from them ; 
for these, like many other scientific conclusions, may be coined into actual money, 
or money's worth, by their practical application. " 



128 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Place and Poiver of 

the geological scale. It hardly occurs to any extent in 
Britain ; but it is abundant in some parts of Germany, and in 
Iceland it constitutes the " Surturbrand," of which I have seen 
specimens very like those of the Otago lignites. To this class of 
rocks — to the tertiary lignites — belong, in my opinion, all the so- 
called Otago coals I have as yet seen. I have traced the formation 
of your lignite from the state simply of decayed wood to that of 
a black coal-like mineral, in the cliffs near the Coal Point at the 
mouth of the Clutha ; and I have seen it in process of formation 
at the present day in a well sinking at a depth of some 40 or 50 
feet in the swamp-clays of Dunedin. The origin of these lignites 
seems comparatively recent : they have not been subjected to the 
same enormous pressure as the Carboniferous system coals, occur- 
ring as the former do mostly on or near the surface. Nor do 
they seem composed of the same materials — at least in the same 
proportions : chemically, their constitution is not precisely the 
same; in heat-giving, gas-giving, and steam-giving power, they 
are likely to prove inferior to the true coals, with which they will 
not probably be able to compete.* Should all the coals of Otago 
belong to the family of the tertiary lignites, I fear you must be 
prepared to find their value inferior to that of the true coals of 
Scotland or England, or of coals belonging to the Carboniferous 
system, or to the other systems older than the Tertiary. I have 
been asked whether there is no chance of the discovery of true coal 
in connection ivioh any of the numerous Otago limestones. This 
point I am not in a position to determine ; it is an interesting 
problem for solution by your Provincial geologist. Should what is 
called by geologists the " Mountain Limestone" be found in Otago, 
true coal may reasonably be looked for. But the limestones I have 
met with, so far as I can at present venture an opinion, seem of a 
more recent age, and are not of a kind usually associated with coal. 
Lignites you possess in abundance : for they are scattered in beds 
of greater or less extent very generally over the province. They occur 
in, and they are probably co-extensive with, the older tertiary auri- 
ferous " Drifts," which constitute one of the most marked features 
of Otago geology. One of the largest workings in the Dunedin 
district, perhaps in Otago, may be seen at Saddlehill, on Mr 
Jeffrey's property of Saddlehill Park, on the flank of the hill 
looking towards the Taieri Plain. Lignites crop out at various 
points on the slopes or base of this hill, or in its immediate 

* This impression is so far borne out by the analyses, since my return 
homo, by Dr Murray Thomson of Edinburgh, of a series of the Otago lignites. 
His analyses embraced 8 series of sample:-, including Saddlehill, Clutha, 
Abbott's Creek, and M'Coll's Creek, lignites. Among the results is the follow- 
ing — that they arc comparatively poor both in oil and gas : — the highest pro- 
portion of oil pel ton being 17 gallons (Saddlehill), and of gas 3931 cubic feet 
>1Tb Creek). I reserve details for future and separate publication. 



Natural History in Colonisation. 129 

neighbourhood ; for instance, between Saddlehill and Scrogg's 
Hill on the Government Coal Reserve ; in the gully in which 
M'Coll's and Taylor's Stations are situated, on the seaward aspect 
of the hill ; on the farm of Fairfield, and in the adjoining Abbott's 
Creek. They are being worked also in the hills between the 
Tokomairiro Plain and the sea, on the slope of the range which 
looks towards the plain ; and on the coast near the mouth of the 
Clutha. It is proposed further to work them on the Gold Fields 
— at Waitahuna and Wetherstone's Flats. My remarks must, I 
think, have sufficiently implied that I would recommend caution in 
any speculations as to working these Lignites — especially under the 
impression that they are true Coals. To be more specific, I would 
point to the circumstances under which the Clutha Coal-field is now 
being worked, and the Waitahuna and Wetherstone's Fields are 
proposed to be worked. In regard to the former I have to express 
a doubt whether the considerable expenditure of capital indicated 
by the railway and other appliances will be followed by adequate 
returns — especially seeing that lignite, apparently of the same 
kind and quality, in as great, perhaps greater, abundance, is to be 
found within six to eight miles of Dunedin, in what may be called 
the Saddlehill Lignite Basin. In regard to the lignite beds of 
Tuapeka Gold-field, I have to remark upon the inexpediency of 
"getting up" a company and proceeding to work a "coal-field" 
that has not been surveyed by competent persons. While on the 
gold-fields lately, I was told, on what I cannot but consider the 
best authority, that a company has been, or is being, formed at 
the diggings, for the purpose of working the lignite of Waitahuna 
and Wetherstone's Flats. Enormous profits are expected from its 
sale among the diggers. The whereabouts of the coal at Wether- 
stone's, at all events, and other matters therewith connected, seem 
to be kept a profound secret ; the consequence whereof to me 
was, that though I searched diligently in the locality to which 
rumour pointed as its site, I failed in finding it. I was informed, 
further, that the extent of the field or seam is unknown ; its value 
a matter of conjecture : — that neither locality has been visited by 
a geologist, nor reported upon by any competent authority. So 
far as I could learn from investigation on the spot, nobody seems 
to know anything precise regarding this so-called coal, which, as 
is the case with all latest discoveries, is said to be the finest coal 
yet found in New Zealand, but which, I fear, will prove neither 
better nor worse than the lignite of Saddlehill, the Clutha, and 
many other localities ; and yet apparently steps are being taken 
to work this " coal." This is surely a kind of speculation as 
unsafe as it is unsound. I am far from saying it will necessarily 
prove unsuccessful or unfortunate ; but I do say it deserves to be, 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. I. JULY 1863. R 



130 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Place and Power of 

if resting on no better basis than tbat described to me by the 
local authorities. 

Museum of Local Natural History. 

Having indicated, by a few illustrations, what fruits may be 
expected from a judicious cultivation or promotion of the study 
of the Natural Sciences, — how and to what extent these sciences, if 
rightly applied, may aid materially in the advancement of the 
State, — let me consider, in the second place, the most legitimate 
means — the best, the cheapest, and easiest methods of rendering 
these sciences available to the citizens at large, as well as of 
applying them to the specific requirements of Government or of indi- 
vidual settlers. The most obvious and easy means of recognising 
the place and power of natural history in your province, and of 
developing its applications to practical life, is the establishment 
of a Museum of Local or Provincial Natural History, or a collec- 
tion of the products of this province, with such products only 
of other countries as will enable you to understand and appre- 
ciate the true position and value of the economical resources of 
your own province. Let such a Museum be essentially a collec- 
tion of the rocks, minerals, plants, and animals of Otago;* and 
let it possess an attached Library, containing such works on the 
natural history of Otago or of New Zealand, or such general 
works on natural history, as will enable the student duly to learn 
the lessons which the specimens displayed in the Museum- cases 
are ready to teach him. Of such a library there is great want, 
and of such works there is an astonishing dearth. I have not 
heard, for instance, of any person or corporation in the province 
possessing a copy of Dr Hooker's work on the " Flora of New 
Zealand/' the most complete work on the subject yet published. I 
am told that the expense of such a work prevents its purchase by 
individuals ; and this perhaps is a valid excuse for individuals. 
But, as a work of reference, it ought undoubtedly to have a place 
in some of your public libraries. Moreover, I know that the first 
British authorities in Botany — Sir William Hooker, and his 
equally distinguished son, Dr Joseph Hooker, — of Kew — are 
extremely desirous of issuing cheap Colonial Botanical Manuals, 
were there any demand for such works. Show that you desire 

* I was, while in Otayo, referred for the only good collections of Otago rocks, 
fossils, and minerals, to two private geologists at Wellington, and of Otago 
plants to a lady at Sydney ; and I had tho opportunity of examining a better 
suite of illustrations of Ncio Zealand geology and mineralogy in Sydney (in the 
magnificent collection of tho Rev. W '. I!. Clarke, the Government geologist of 
New South Wales) than in New Zealand itself! This is a state of things 
discreditable in the extreme to New Zealand generally, as well as to its 
itive provihe 



Natural History in Colonisation. 131 

and require such works, and a supply would speedily meet the 
demand : offer the necessary funds for publication, and England 
will forthwith send you a Manual, which cannot fail to be useful 
to all who are connected with land — and who is not? — among your 
settlers. A Museum may appear to many of you a formidable 
undertaking, and one that may well be delayed, while so many 
institutions of more immediate importance must be established. 
The idea of a Museum may be associated in your minds with 
conceptions of a large, handsome, imposing structure, a well-paid 
and full staff of consequential officials, and endless glass cases ; 
it will thus appear necessarily most expensive. But, in a young 
colony like this, it need be nothing of the sort — at least in nucleo ; 
and all I would at present recommend is the formation of a 
nucleus— a step which may be taken with little trouble, and at 
little cost. The first desideratum is perhaps a few earnest men 
to take action in the matter — to organise a committee, to hold 
public meetings, to agitate by means of the press. Surely some 
of the energy which has lately been, and is now being, displayed by 
the office-bearers of the " Young Men's Christian Association," 
might be spared in this direction. I think I can venture to assure 
them that many would flock to their standard were it only raised. 
I have met many settlers, of every class and in every part of the 
province I have visited, most favourable to the establishment of a 
Provincial Museum, and who, I feel assured, would aid it by every 
means in their power — by subscriptions, if necessary — had they 
only a guarantee that such an institution would be properly 
managed, by which I mean, principally, had it only a competent 
Head as Director or Curator. The feeling is very general (and I 
confess I think the feeling a just one), that a Provincial Museum 
should be established and maintained essentially by Government. 
But this is no excuse for inaction. It is not at all likely that 
Government will take the initiative in a matter of this kind, when 
it has so many more pressing and serious wants to relieve. Nor, 
it is possible, might Government, at any more favourable time, be 
disposed to patronise such an undertaking, unless under the vis a 
tergo of strong public feeling ; and, lastly, Government may re- 
pudiate all connection with such an establishment, and refer it to 
the individual or collective exertions of the colonists themselves. 
On what plea they might do so I know not. Education is the 
care of the State, and a Museum of this kind is just as much an 
educational establishment as any of your provincial schools. If 
it be not so, it ought to be so, and the fault must lie with its 
originators and managers. I can show, I think, presently, that 
a Museum may be made an educational establishment of a very 
high and important kind — one allied in character to our home 
universities. It seems to me desirable that the colonists should 



132 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Place and Power of 

actively take up the matter themselves — aided by Government if 
possible, without Government assistance if necessary. Let a few 
friends of the movement convene a meeting, and pass a resolution 
that the establishment of a Provincial Museum is desirable, and I 
doubt not for a moment the practical heads and active hands of 
the colonists will soon find means of carrying their views into 
effect. All that is at first wanted is a room for storage ; by and 
by another room fitted up with presses, shelves and drawers 
would be added. I am told that there are buildings in Dunedin 
already existing which might easily afford the accommodation 
requisite ; and I am given to understand, further, that such an 
appropriation or application of their space, or at least a portion 
thereof, would be quite consistent with the objects for which such 
buildings were erected. I refer to such a building as the Athenceum, 
which I think could not be devoted to a more legitimate use than 
that of a Provincial Museum, and which is at present, I am told, 
occupied as a merchant's warehouse or store-place. What 
arrangement should be made with the proprietors of such a 
building, I leave it to you to decide. My acquaintance with its 
history, and my local knowledge, are such that I can venture no 
suggestions on this head. 

I look upon a competent Curator as the essential feature of a 
Museum, and, in your case, as its most expensive feature. With- 
out a curator to organize its machinery, and to keep that machinery 
smoothly in regular and constant action, I have no great faith 
in the stability or permanent usefulness of a Provincial Museum. 
Without such an officer, I do not see how you can satisfactorily 
start it. You must have some competent authority to name 
and to classify specimens — some enthusiast, with the necessary 
leisure and interest in his work to encourage the collection of 
objects of natural history, and the study of such sciences as 
geology, mineralogy, botany, and zoology. Unless you have 
already in the colony some naturalist, quite competent, in the 
first place, and quite willing, in the second, to give his whole 
services, either gratuitously or for suitable remuneration, as 
curator of the nascent Museum, you must — if you wish your 
Museum to hold a real position of usefulness — procure a suitable 
person from home. However well qualified your colonial natu- 
ralists may be, I have met with nobody who could sacrifice the 
necessary time for so worthy an end ; all are too much en- 
grossed with their own private affairs. I believe a properly 
selected head of your Museum wonld be an immense acquisition 
to your province. He would, in the first place, be at his post to 
receive specimens sent up from the country, and I feel certain he 
would soon succeed in inducing settlers in all parts of the colony 
to collect. He would name and arrange these specimens in 



Natural History in Colonisation. 133 

the Museum. He would be ready to receive country settlers 
during their visits to town, and to instruct them practically how 
and what to collect ; how to preserve specimens : to set them 
in the way of acquiring a thorough knowledge of the Natural 
Sciences, or of such of them as they might have a bias towards, 
or find it more particularly their interest to study. He would be 
at hand to solve difficulties, answer inquiries, and afford en- 
couragement. He would be librarian as well as curator, and 
introduce students to the judicious use of the works in Natural 
History placed under his charge. In due time he might become 
a Collector as well as a Curator. His first duty would be to or- 
ganize the Museum, — to provide or see provided, the requisite 
rooms, fittings, apparatus and staff. Thereafter, he might take 
occasional excursions through the province, making observations 
and collections in all departments of Natural History, or in special 
departments, sending or bringing back his collections to the 
Museum, which would always form his head- quarters. Such 
excursions would be of great importance, not only to himself, but 
to the promotion of scientific interests in the province. He 
would thus not only become thoroughly acquainted with the 
natural resources of the province, but he would personally come 
in contact with all classes of settlers, in whom he would not fail — 
in many cases at least — to inspire a certain love of, or respect for, 
Natural History, or an interest in the objects for which the 
Provincial Museum was founded, and for which he was exploring 
the country. The result would, in all probability, be, that in every 
tour or excursion he would raise up fresh friends of the Museum — 
friends who would aid it by their subscriptions, or their contribu- 
tions of specimens — probably both. Another great advantage of 
such excursionizing would be, that he might fulfil the duties, or 
occupy the position, of a Surveying Naturalist, and that, in course 
of time, by such means, a thorough Natural History Survey of the 
province might be secured. Were the summer months, for 
example, devoted to such excursions, an assistant being left to 
manage the routine of Museum business, important results might 
in a few years be obtained. There is yet, however, other work for 
him, whereby you might still further " get value for your money." 
In addition to being curator of, and collector for, the Museum, as 
well as Provincial Naturalist, he might be most useful as a 
Lecturer and teacher. He might give lectures, or institute 
classes, for different sections of the community, at different hours 
of the day, or at different seasons of the year, in connection with 
the Museum. With this view, a lecture room would fall to be 
added to the accommodation proper of the Museum. By the aid of 
the diagrams now so common and so cheap, and with all the 
resources of the Museum shelves at his command, science might 



134 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Place and Power of 

in his Lands be made popular and most attractive. Such courses 
of instruction would, or should, be attended by, or at least open 
to, the ladies of the province ; and, if they do not differ remark- 
ably from their fair sisters at home, the Provincial naturalist 
would not find them his least anxious caterers, his least zealous 
supporters. Natural History has become a common and favourite 
feminine study at home — with what success the ferneries, the 
albums of sea-weeds, the baskets of shells, the marine aqua- 
vivaria of our ladies' fancy bazaars sufficiently testify. But he 
might disseminate his knowledge much more widely. While on 
his tours, he might lecture in district schoolhouses and churches, 
a boon which I venture to predict would be duly appreciated in 
country districts. I am assured on every hand, both in town and 
country, that lecturers are " at a premium,'* to use a commercial 
phrase: they are scarce, sometimes "not to be had," (to which 
circumstance, by the way, I must not forget, I probably owe my 
presence here this evening), and any addition to the lecturing staff 
of the province would be most acceptable. The newspapers are 
also open to such an officer ; with a daily sheet at his command, 
how rapidly could he disseminate information — how easily 
announce the arrivals of specimens, intimate his excursions or 
lectures, and issue his suggestions. The Press, by and by, will 
be open to him in a more substantial and permanent form. You 
will doubtless, in due course, have your publishing houses in 
Dunedin, whereby he may issue his pamphlets, or his volumes, on 
subjects bearing on Provincial Natural History. It will naturally 
occur to some of you, as an objection to the appointment of such 
an officer, that such appointment would entail a very heavy ex- 
pense. This, however, is not necessarily the case ; though, even 
if it were, I think you would find the outlay well invested. At 
home there are many young men, enthusiasts in the pursuit of 
Natural History, who would be delighted with the privilege of 
occupying so novel and so rich a field, with so brilliant a prospect 
of gathering their laurels---of making substantial additions to 
science — with so promising a sphere of usefulness. Such youths 
are to be found as assistant-curators in our public Museums, our 
University and National Museums, and the experience they have 
there acquired would render them most useful public officers here. 
Some of this class, I should think, would be glad to come to 
terms. They would probably look more to their opportunities as 
men of science, than to mere salary or emoluments, though in- 
dubitably Naturalists must live as well as other people, and on 
something more substantial than enthusiasm. In addition to a 
guaranteed salary, which, considering his real usefulness and 
scientific status, should, in my opinion, be handsome, such an 
officer might be permitted by his employers, be they the Govern- 



Natural History in Colonisation. 135 

ment, the public, or the members of a private association, to add 
to his emoluments by the fees of lectures and classes, or of such 
other offices or duties as he could undertake without prejudice to the 
objects for which he was brought from home. I see no difficulty in 
securing a suitable person on suitable terms, which must, of course, 
be the subject of private arrangement. I am not sanguine 
enough to suppose that a Provincial Museum will ever become of 
the same real use to the present, as to the rising, generation. To 
the latter, I think it might be made one of your most important 
educational establishments, and therefore it is that I should like 
to see it systematically organized, thoroughly equipped, and firmly 
rooted as a State institution of recognized value; with a view to 
all which I will only be too happy if I can in any way forward 
its interests at home. 



Geological Survey of Otago. 

The fact that the Government has recently appointed a Provin- 
cial Geologist, who is expected shortly to enter upon his duties 
here, is without prejudice in any way to the remarks I have just 
made under the head of Museum. I am quite aware of the circum- 
stance of the appointment having been made ; but so far from 
such appointment interfering in any way with the schemes I have 
proposed, it appears to me most opportune, as affording a means 
whereby you may at once commence your Museum, organize its 
machinery, and carry it on, till you can procure a special curator. 
The assistance of so experienced a naturalist as Dr Hector, who 
has distinguished himself by his labours in the Palliser expedition 
across the Rocky Mountains of North America some years ago, 
could not fail to be valuable. I cannot refrain from stating here 
that I think it reflects high credit on Otago that she is the first 
province in New Zealand to have made arrangements for a sys- 
tematic geological survey, a survey which should imply the expen- 
diture, in my opinion, of at least £10,000; that is, including the 
cost of the proper publication of reports, maps, and drawings, which 
publication can only be carried out in Britain, and at necessarily 
great expense. And it seems to me doubly creditable that the sug- 
gestion regarding such a survey was made, and the arrangements 
carried out, considerably prior to the discovery of the gold fields 
of Tuapeka and Waitahuna ; so that I presume it was from a 
firm faith in the usefulness of geological science in a practical sense 
that the Provincial Government passed its vote for this survey. I 
am glad to find that other provinces of New Zealand are following in 
your wake in this respect, and I doubt not all will sooner or later 
be encouraged by the results of your Geological Survey to do so. 
I know not how far the suggestion may meet with the approval 



136 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Place and Power of 

of your Government or Dr Hector ; but I hope neither of them 
will be offended by the simple expression of individual opinion. 
It appears to me that Dr Hector's presence might legitimately be 
taken advantage of in establishing the nucleus of the mineral ogical 
and geological sections of the Provincial Museum, as well as in 
the dissemination of a knowledge of local geology and mineralogy 
by the medium of lectures or classes. For such purposes advan- 
tage might be taken of the completion of the survey, of the winter 
season, or of periods of inclement weather, when the survey may 
be temporarily suspended. A properly named and classified col- 
lection, first, of the rocks and minerals of Dunedin, and by and 
by of those of other parts of the province, might be made. 
Whenever the funds would admit, I would strongly recommend 
the purchase of coloured geological diagrams, models of crystals, 
and other scientific educational apparatus, now easily to be had, as 
well as a series of selected named specimens — as standards — of 
rocks and minerals similar to those of Otago, and which throw light 
on the relations and uses of the latter ; specimens, for instance, from 
the Trap districts of Scotland, the volcanic regions of Iceland or 
Italy, the Chalk districts of England, or the Tertiary formations of 
Germany and France. These are procurable, at a moderate ex- 
pense, at such establishments as Professor Tennant's, in London ; 
or Krantz and Co., of Bonn and Berlin. With the aid of such 
specimens, diagrams, and apparatus, as illustrations, and by means 
of field excursions round Dunedin, your Provincial geologist might 
teach practically, in a most attractive way, details of the sciences 
of geology and mineralogy, or the rudiments thereof, according to 
circumstances. Government would surely grant every facility in 
the way of accommodation and assistance for so desirable an end. 
I am told Dr Hector is daily expected. I am not at all aware 
whether any or what preparations have been made here for the 
prosecution of his survey : but it appears to me that the way may 
be so far paved for him ; his labours so far facilitated and aided ; 
his objects co-operated in. There is not one of you, probably, 
who may not in some way, however humble, promote Provincial 
geology by co-operating in the efforts of the Provincial geologist. 
You are at considerable expense in providing the staff and requi- 
sites for a geological survey ; yonr being so shows the value you 
place upon the possession of the information such a survey is ex- 
pected to collect or educe. It is surely your interest to get the 
best, the largest return for your outlay — to make the most of 
your engagement. You will best consult your own interests then 
by doing all that in you lies to further the aims and objects of 
Dr Hector. You may do so in various ways, but on one only of 
these will I touch. I would suggest that so soon as Dr Hector 
arrives, Government should insert in all the local newspapers an 



Natural History in Colonisation. 137 

intimation of his arrival, and thereafter announce, from time to 
time, the localities he is about to visit, calling upon settlers of 
every kind to note all peculiarities of rocks in their neighbour- 
hood, and to collect specimens of rocks and minerals — all which 
should be produced in due time to Dr Hector. This would pro- 
bably direct his attention to places and circumstances that might 
otherwise escape him. I have myself derived great benefit from 
collectors of " curiosities," which generally include a miscellany 
of rocks, minerals, fossils, shells, eggs, insects, and so forth. I 
have frequently seen specimens in such collections which at 
once arrested my attention. Their owners or collectors knew 
perhaps little or nothing of their value, but they could tell 
where they picked them up, and could lead me to the spot. In 
such a way some of the most interesting geological phenomena I 
have seen have come under my notice. These so-called " curi- 
osities" were casually collected as mementoes, perhaps, of visits 
to localities beyond the beaten track of travellers, as playthings 
for children, or as mantelpiece ornaments. Were, however, the 
attention of the same collectors directed to the fact that such 
specimens might lead the Provincial geologist to discoveries, if not 
practically important, at least scientifically interesting, with this 
higher motive, and a more intelligent conception of the bearings or 
value of such specimens on the promotion of scientific research, 
they would become more careful observers, more diligent collectors, 
and ultimately many of them efficient co-operators, and learned 
geologists. Dr Hector will probably necessarily be engaged for 
some time in Dunedin preparing the groundwork of his survey, 
and Government would therefore, on or after his arrival, have 
ample time— especially as it now has at its command the inestim- 
able advantages of a daily newspaper — to communicate with the 
settlers in the most remote parts of the province, and so set them 
on the alert as observers and collectors in Natural History. It 
is evident that the more the Provincial geologist sees and hears 
of the geology of your province — the greater the number of speci- 
mens presented to his notice — the more varied and abundant the 
information supplied, — the more valuable will be his survey report, 
and the better pleased you will be with the expenditure of your 
money. Let me hope, then, that, in the light of your own inter- 
ests as well as in those of science, you will accord your heartiest 
assistance to the able naturalist you have been fortunate enough 
to secure as Provincial geologist. 

Botanic Garden. 

A second great desideratum in Dunedin is a Botanic Garden, 
whether regarded in a purely scientific light, or in that of a public 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. XVJII. NO. I. JULY 1863. S 



138 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Place and Power of 

recreation ground, a promenade and place of resort.* At present 
I am not aware there is anything of the kind, while there appears 
no lack of suitable sites in the possession of the Government. I 
have found among the settlers throughout the province a strong 
feeling in favour of the establishment of a Botanic Garden ; and 
so long as you possess men so admirably qualified by experience 
and tastes to act as committee men in promoting such an under- 
taking as Mr Matthews of Dunedin, Mr Martin of Saddlehill, Mr 
Bower of Anderson's Bay, and Mr Buchanan of the North-east 
Valley, you need have no hesitation in taking the initiative. 
Many of the remarks I have made under the head " Museum," 
apply equally to the Botanic Garden. It may appear to you a 
more extensive and expensive undertaking than even the Museum ; 
visions of magnificent hothouses, greenhouses, and conservatories, 
of ornamental sheets of water and fountains, of terraces and par- 
terres, will probably appear to those of my audience who have 
vivid imaginations. But none of these are necessary to begin with ; 
they will all be added ultimately, I doubt not. A small piece of 
ground and a small staff would suffice at its first start. It is 
most desirable that the Botanic Garden should have a separate 
and competent Head as Director ; but, should the expense of such 
an arrangement be found an insurmountable obstacle, the Curator 
of your Museum might act as director for a time. Indeed, should 
a more convenient building not offer itself, the Botanic Garden 
would form an excellent and appropriate site for a new Museum 
building. The latter would be rendered all the more attractive 
by the luxuriant foliage of, and the beautiful views from, the former. 
The first aim of such a garden should be to collect together, name, 
and classify, specimens of all the plants of Otago, so that a glance 
might give the stranger or the mere townsman a good idea of the 
general vegetation of the province. By and by, the collection 
might be made to include, in proportion as the garden space was 
extended, and the garden finances permitted, the plants of the 
adjacent provinces, of the North Island and Stewart's Island, of 
Tasmania and Australia, of the Chatham and other neighbouring 
islands. Thereafter, European plants might be added, if it were 

* The experience and example of the Sydney Botanic Garden may be use- 
ful. It occupies one of the finest sites about Sydney, and is most tastefully 
laid out, — less, however, as a garden arranged purely for the purposes of science 
than as pleasure-grounds for the purposes of public recreation. Its attractions 
include an orchestra for the regimental band, which plays regularly on certain 
days of the week,— on which "band days" the garden becomes the most 
fashionable promenade in Sydney; and an aviary, with ponds for aquatic birds. 
But the scientific is not forgotten, for the garden possesses an excellent Botani- 
cal Library and Museum, as well as a Lecture-room, where the excellent 
Director, Mr Moore, gives public courses of Lectures on Botany. Amidst such 
environments, it would be surprising did such lectures fail to prove attractive to 
a considerable section at least of the general public. 



Natural History in Colonisation. 139 

deemed advisable ; but the garden ought to be essentially repre- 
sentative and local — a collection of Otago plants, Otago products. 
Secondly, it might become an excellent Experimental Garden, a 
place where, appropriately, properly conducted experiments might 
be instituted as to what foreign plants are suitable for growth 
in Otago ; what will flourish in its climate ; what might be accli- 
matised or naturalised, so as to become useful to the settler for 
his shrubberies or gardens, his plantations or hedges ; what trees 
may be made to supply the place of the monarchs of the virgin 
forests, which are fast disappearing under the axe and fire of the 
settler — under the insatiable requirements of advancing civilisa- 
tion. Thirdly, the Exchange of seeds would probably form an 
important feature in the usefulness of your Botanic Garden. 
There are many of your native shrubs, such as the Eurebias and 
Fuchsias, which would make beautiful and acceptable additions 
to our shrubberies and gardens at home ; and I am sure that our 
nurserymen and seedsmen in Britain would gladly, in exchange 
for the seeds of such of your shrubs as seemed suitable for British 
cultivation, send to your garden the seeds of any plants usually 
cultivated in their gardens or forcing-houses. In connection 
with such exchange of seeds would be the intercommunication of 
information regarding the plants represented by the seeds — in- 
formation mutually important, mutually desirable. Many of your 
Provincial gardens — your settlers' gardens, I mean — are quite 
Botanic gardens in miniature : they are carrying out on the small 
scale the aims which it should be the business of the Botanic 
Garden to carry out on a larger one. In the gardens of some 
individual settlers you may find excellent collections of the* more 
interesting shrubs of Otago, of Tasmania, and Australia — shrubs 
which are being naturalized ; and of British or other plants, the 
seeds whereof have been received in exchange for those of Otago 
plants. Such gardens are those of Mr Matthews, of Dunedin ; 
Mr Shaw of Finegand, on the Clutha ; and the Rev. Mr Will of 
the Taeri. These are not solitary instances ; for the wants, which 
a Botanic garden would supply, are extensively felt. 

University of New Zealand. 

Not less important, as a means of promoting science in your 
province, than either a Museum or Botanic Garden, at the same 
time not as superseding these, would be the establishment of a 
University, or at all events at first the nucleus thereof. Such 
an institution is desirable on many other and more important 
grounds. A University in Dunedin might become not only the 
Provincial University, or the University of the Middle Island, 
but the University of New Zealand. I believe that New 



140 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Place and Power of 

Zealand will gradually, more and more than at present, be 
selected as the residence of our successful Australians, and East 
Indians. Its climate will be in request as one better suited to 
the physical training of youth than the climates of more tropical 
countries. Did good educational establishments, of the higher 
kinds especially, exist in the Middle Island of New Zealand, this 
would probably prove a great attraction, from the excellent op- 
portunities offered for the education of youth, to many who 
might not otherwise have thought of emigrating, or of sending 
their sons or families hither. For many reasons, it appears to 
me the Middle Island will be preferred to the north as a place of 
residence, and a place of education. And further, it seems to me 
that the first of the New Zealand Provinces, which will establish 
a University, will, ceteris paribus, attract towards itself the 
classes of persons above referred to. I am glad to find the same 
view has occurred to the late Dr Arthur Thomson, in his " Story 
of New Zealand,'' the most recent and best work on New Zealand, 
with which I am acquainted. His remarks are so apposite and 
brief, that I make no apology here for introducing them. " A 
University of the highest order is urgently required in New 
Zealand. Such an establishment would draw within its walls 
large numbers of the Australian aristocracy, as Anglo-Saxons 
born and reared on that continent are occasionally destitute of the 
bodily energy requisite for the full development of the mind. 
Two generations in Australia change the children of the broad- 
shouldered emigrants into a lithe race, more nervous than 
muscular. ' Sydney corn-stalks,' as the youths of that city are 
denominated, are no match in intellect against men brought up 
in colder countries. For this reason, Australian settlers will 
strive to give their children a few years' residence in climates 
more invigorating than that in which they were born ; and it is 
already discovered that the best period for this is on the approach 
of maturity, when youth is rising into manhood, and the mind is 
developing itself for the future battle of life. Whichever 'province 
in New Zealand, therefore, can found a University, where youth 
can be taught as the youth of England are taught, will acquire a 
name and an influence in the Southern hemisphere, not to be 
measured by money or the figures of the statist." [Vol. ii., 
p. 230.] So far, at least, as the study of Natural History is con- 
cerned, I can scarcely conceive a more fitting site for an 
"Academe" than Dunedin. In the midst of magnificent scenery, 
with a rich and varied geological and botanical field before him, the 
student's natural advantages are great ; and these advantages would 
be enhanced, had he access to Museums and Botanic Gardens, 
Libraries and Class-rooms, as already described. If a Museum or 
Botanic Garden appear to you necessarily expensive, I fear a 



Natural History in Colonisation. 141 

University will appear much more so, if you think of it as a 
massive pile, richly ornamented, its niches containing statues 
of the great and good, with endless lecture-rooms, a commodious 
library, and an imposing Senate Hall, two or three dozen learned 
Professors, and a venerable Principal. It is, however, far from 
necessary — it is not, perhaps, desirable — that you should at 
once establish a University complete in all its parts.* All 
I would recommend, so far as Natural History is concerned, 
is the appointment of two or three professors, who would be 
easily accommodated, and who might be most useful Government 
officers, independent altogether of their " chairs. 1 ' No separate 
buildings would be necessary at first. I would house the Pro- 
fessors in the Museum, though this would imply your making 
this building commodious. Your Provincial Geologist might be 
Professor of a certain section of the Natural Sciences, certainly of 
Geology and Mineralogy, with their economical applications. He 
might act as Government referee on all questions relating to 
mining and quarrying in their scientific aspects- The Director of 
your Botanic Garden might be your Professor of Botany, and per- 
haps also of Zoology, with their economical applications. He 
might also hold office as Conservator of Forests, or have a seat 
at a Board of Woods and Forests as professional referee. 
He would be a useful authority in all questions relating to the 
acclimatisation of plants or animals, agriculture and arboriculture, 

* Let me indicate the University of Sydney, less as a model for imitation, 
than as a beacon of warning against dangers liable to be incurred. I have 
visited and greatly admired it as a building. But I think it has aimed at too 
much in the form of building, which is both too extensive and expensive for 
the requirements of the age and of the colony. The consequence of this error 
is, inter alia, that, contrasted with the size of the edifice, there is a miserable 
paucity of students ; and throughout the colony there seems to exist a feeling 
of insecurity or want of confidence in the solidity or stability of this the Pro- 
vincial University of New South Wales. While the building is on too large 
and expensive a scale for present requirements, the Professorial staff seems 
inadequate, — especially in so far as the Natural Sciences can be thereby repre- 
sented. There is only one Professor of these sciences, the particular science 
taught being Chemistry. In a country which owes so much of its prosperity to 
its gold, its coal, its sandstone, there is no Professor of Geology or Mineralogy, — 
while New South Wales possesses at least one local Geologist eminently worthy 
of such a chair, the Rev. W. B. Clarke of Sydney, whose distinguished labours 
in connection with the discovery and development of the Australian gold- 
fields, I am happy to see, have recently been rewarded by a handsome Govern- 
ment grant or honorarium. Nor is there any Medical School in connection 
with the University, though there is a large general Hospital in Sydney, as 
well as large Lunatic Asylums at Tarban Creek and Parramatta in its vicinity. 
And yet all of these might exist at a moderate expense, and without a separate 
University building at all ! It would have been desirable had the large expen- 
diture of the Sydney University taken first the direction of the essential con- 
stituents of an efficient Academe, — a staff of Teachers of celebrity .- the walls or 
buildings would gradually have followed as they were required and could be 
afforded. 



142 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Place and Power of 

in their scientific aspects. Another Professor could hardly he 
dispensed with ; indeed his usefulness is, perhaps, more evident 
than in the case of the other two. I refer to a Professor of 
Chemistry, who might also be Government Analyst and Assay er. 
At present, I believe you send your gold for assay to Sydney ; 
and you are dependent entirely on Australia or Britain for 
chemical reports on the percentage of iron in your iron sands or 
ochres, sulphur in your sulphur muds, lime in your limestones, gas 
or oil in your lignites. Would it not save time and trouble, delay 
and suspense, as well as expense, to have your analyst always at 
hand — always at your service. He would be ready to act as 
agricultural chemist, making analyses of soils for settlers. He 
would be a valuable referee in medico-legal cases, in judicial ex- 
aminations in cases of poisoning for instance, and in similar cases 
where the chemical, would necessarily be the chief, evidence. He 
would act as a detector of adulterations in your foods and drinks — 
adulterations which are generally rife in such a state of society as 
exists in Dunedin at present. Even as a reporter on the quality 
of the water-supply proposed for your towns, he might be of signal 
service, especially in regard to indicating the proper materials for 
conveyance and storage. Such Professors might give systematic 
instruction in their respective sciences to all who desired to take 
advantage thereof, as well as more general and popular courses of 
lectures to the public at large. The contents of the Museum 
would afford abundance of suitable illustrations. All three Pro- 
fessors might, if necessary, occupy the same lecture room at 
different hours, or at different seasons, though there is no doubt 
separate and ample accommodation would be desirable. The 
Professor of Chemistry would, in addition, require a small Labora- 
tory, the cost whereof would reside chiefly in its fittings, which, 
however, may be had at a very moderate outlay. Let us hope 
that ere many years elapse, (i New Edinburgh" may possess in 
the Southern Hemisphere a University rivalling that of *' Old 
Edinburgh." in the Northern ; and if it does so, I will venture to 
predict it will become the University, not only of New Zealand, 
but of this (Southern) Hemisphere ! 

Teaching of Natural Science in Schools. 

But, pending the establishment of a University, which must be 
gradual in its growth, there seems no reason why the existing 
educational machinery of the province should not be rendered 
available for bestowing upon the rising generation scientific tastes, 
if not acquirements. I would commend to the favourable con- 
sideration of your Education Board the propriety of introducing 
the teaching of at least the rudiments of Natural Science, — of such 



Natural History in Colonisation. 143 

sciences, especially, as Physiology, Zoology, Geology, and Botany, 
into your district schools, and especially into your High Schools. 
The means of doing so are now ample. Books and diagrams, 
named specimens, and working models, may be purchased at ex- 
tremely moderate rates from educational publishers. What is 
called " Object-teaching" — the teaching of science by means of 
actual specimens — is now common in our most elementary schools 
at home. This method of teaching has the immense advantage that 
facts are indelibly graven on the mind, without any appreciable 
effort of thought or memory, the observative more than the re- 
flective faculties being thus educated in a way most attractive and 
interesting to the pupil. 

Natural History Society. 

Much might be done mutually to diffuse a taste for natural 
history studies, by the establishment or formation of a Natural 
History Society. Meetings might be held periodically for the 
reading of papers relating to local natural history ; specimens of 
rocks and minerals, plants, insects, shells, &c, might be exhibited ; 
excursions might be planned ; encouragement and assistance given 
by the more to the less experienced. Such societies are abundant 
at home, and are most serviceable, especially to youth. The 
" Natural History Society of Dunedin," or of Otago, might, in the 
first instance, be an offshoot from the " Young Men's Christian 
Association," and would probably, ere long, have an independent 
existence, and a distinct sphere of usefulness. The establishment 
of a Natural History Museum, Botanic Garden, and University, 
and the introduction of science-teaching in schools, will probably, 
each and all of them, give an impetus to the formation of societies 
of this kind ; and this is an additional reason why no time should 
be lost in taking steps towards the carrying out these most de- 
sirable schemes. There is no lack of settlers with the requisite 
tastes and enthusiasm to form a solid nucleus, a good working 
committee ; nor is there wanting the readiness to become members 
of a Natural History Society, were it only established. But the 
great difficulty here, as in all the schemes I have propounded, is 
the start; and here is another instance, added to the many that 
can be cited, of the value of the presence of competent Naturalists 
among you, — men who have their whole time to devote to the pro- 
secution and promotion of Natural Science, whose interest it is 
pecuniarily to use their best efforts for its progress, — whose bias 
and tastes, whose habits and experience all tend in this direction, 
and who would be the soul and life of such a society — of any 
association, which might have for its object or aim the study or 
applications of Natural Science. 



1 44 Dr Lauder Lindsay on the Place and Power of 

Example of Victoria in its Encouragement of Natural History. 

In connection with the schemes I have above advocated, I would 
ask you to look to the example set you by your near neighbour 
and fair sister Victoria. Consider what Melbourne has accom- 
plished for the promotion of science during the short ten years of 
her existence. Visit her magnificent Botanic Gardens — her excel- 
lent Museums of Natural History, Geology, Mining, Agriculture, 
&c. — her University and her Royal Society — and see whether these 
do not afford proof of an enlightened recognition of the value of 
the Natural Sciences as a power in colonisation. What Melbourne 
has achieved, Otago may, with similar energy, aspire to accom- 
plish. ' I am sanguine as to the future of your province. I 
believe that, independently altogether of the gold-fields, it pos- 
sesses many elements of future greatness and distinction ; that it 
has boundless resources, which it will take many years fully to 
develope and appreciate ; that, prior to the discoveries of Gabriel 
Read, Otago was progressing " slowly but surely," silently and 
unostentatiously, but substantially, in all that constitutes a 
healthy colonisation. But I believe, further, that though this 
satisfactory progress would have continued had there been no gold 
discovery in your province, one result of such discovery will be 
to render the said progress greatly more rapid. You will find 
the colony in one year in a position it would probably not have 
reached in ten or perhaps twenty. Much depends — though every- 
thing does not depend — on the permanency of your Gold Mining, 
the extent and productiveness of your gold-fields. To take the 
worst view of the question, — should the gold-fields fail, should they 
prove of very limited extent, there would probably result an im- 
mediate great commercial distress — a distress, however, that would 
probably affect your speculative Victorian brethren more than 
yourselves. Your country would remain much in the state in 
which the discovery of the gold-fields found it, with the exception 
that your settlers would have the advantages of additional popu- 
lation, additional roads and bridges, and other desirable results of 
the temporary influx of population. There is no reason, however, 
for supposing the gold-fields of Otago to be of very local charac- 
ter, or of very limited extent ; while experience is daily showing 
they are abundantly productive. To what extent they will com- 
pete in the long-run with the Victorian gold-fields remains to be 
seen. That they are at present competing successfully therewith 
is a fact that can no longer be doubted. I have repeatedly been 
assured by gold-seekers — many of them of Californian as well as 
Australian experience — that the escort returns of no single gold- 
field in other countries, within the same space of time, have ever 
equalled those of Tuapeka, and that Gabriel's Gully has proved, 



Natural History in Colonisation. 145 

in proportion to its size, the richest gold-field ever discovered or 
worked in any part of the world. The present horizon of the 
colony, therefore, is bright and cloudless. Your land, your flocks 
and herds, are rising rapidly in value. Dunedin is being meta- 
morphosed, at a Victorian rate of progress, from a village into a 
city. The stream of population is at the flood. This population 
brings with it large numbers of the educated classes of society ; 
and these classes, let me hope, will not be long in experiencing the 
want, and demanding the supply, of many, if not all, of the insti- 
tutions, the establishment whereof I have been recommending. 

Conclusion. 

Circumstances have compelled me altogether to omit the sec- 
tions I had originally intended on such subjects as — 

I. Under the head of the Botany of Otago — 

a. The necessity that seems to exist for the careful Con- 
servation of your Forests, and for the establishment of a 
Board of Woods and Forests. 

b. The importance of investigating the nature of the Tutu 
Poison, and of discovering a preventive or remedy therefor. 

c. The importance of a comparative study of the British 
(naturalised) and native Grasses, as fodder for sheep and cattle 
on your ranges and runs. 

d. The desirability of experiment on the Acclimatisation, 
or introduction, of such of the trees or shrubs of Tasmania, 
Australia, or Europe, as might be found suitable as a pro- 
tection or environment to your dwellings, or as a substitute 
for your Forest trees. 

e. The development of the economical appliances of your 
Flax fibre. 

f. The economical applications of a number of your com- 
monest weeds ; for instance, the Lichens of your rocks, which 
I have proved by experiment here are capable of yielding 
good dyes. 

II. Under the head of the Zoology* of Otago — 

a. The Acclimatisation of many of our British fish, birds, 
and other animals, viz. : — The introduction of the salmon and 
trout into your streams and rivers ; of the grouse, partridge, 

* Our ignorance at home of New Zealand zoology may be happily illustrated, 
in one of its phases, by the following apostrophe by the author of " The Plea- 
sures of Hope:" — 

" On Zealand's hills where tigers steal along, 
And the dread Indian chants a dismal song," &c. 

It so happens that the most striking feature of the very meagre fauna of New 
Zealand is the entire absence of animals dangerous to man, — a circumstance that 
goes far to render that country one of the safest of all the British colonies. 
NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. I. JULY 1863. T 



UG Dr Lauder Lindsay on Natural History, 

capercailzie, ptarmigan, and other of our game birds on your 
ranges; of our common British insectivorous birds generally. 

6. The desirability of the establishment of an Acclimatisation 
Society, similar to those of Melbourne and Sydney, of Paris 
and London.* 
III. Under the head of the Meteorology of Otago — 

a. The importance of establishing throughout the pro- 
vince a chain of Meteorological Stations, in connection with a 
central Provincial Observatory at Dunedin, with a view to 
the collection of precise data, whereon to base conclusions as 
to the true character of the climate of Otago. 



Contributions to Ornithology- By Sir W. Jardine, Bart. 
No. V, 

Acanthylis sabini (Gray). A specimen of this spine-tailed swift 
was procured by Captain Sabine (now Major-General Sabine) 
when upon duty on the west coast of Africa ; and the first notice 
of it as a new species appeared in Griffith's edition of Baron 
Cuvier's "Animal Kingdom," part xvii., 1828, as Chcetura sabini, 
Gray, MSS. — " Bluish black, belly and rump white; Africa, 
Captain Sabine." The specimen thus referred to is now in the 
British Museum. 

It was afterwards more fully described, and the dimensions 
given (1831), in Gray's " Zoological Miscellany," under the name 
of W lute- Humped Chaztura, Ch. bicolor. Why the change of name 
we do not know. 

When M. Duchaillu returned to America from his first expe- 
dition in Western Africa, his ornithological collections were 
described, and a list of all the species was given, by John Cassin 
in the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia, and Chcetura sabini (Gray), with the synonyms applied to 
that bird, was printed with the list. 

At a later period M. Duchaillu came to Europe, and his speci- 
mens of gorilla and other animals and birds were exhibited in 
the rooms of the Geographical Society of London On visiting 
this collection, we saw that the swift named by Cassin as Ch, 
sabini was not identical with that bird, but had not at that time 
an opportunity of comparing them. On leaving Europe to resume 
his explorations in Africa, the remains of his collections were sent 
to Mr Stevens for disposal, and we then procured a specimen of 
the bird we had before partially seen. 

From the first description in Griffith's " Animal Kingdom," the 

• An excellent example lias been set by the recent establishment of one 
in Auckland. New Zealand. 



Sir W. Jardine's Contributions to Ornithology. 147 

mistake was easily made, no measurements being given ; but a 
comparison of the specimens leaves no doubt of their being distinct. 
In the " Athenaeum " of May 30th, "Dr Sclater pointed out 
the characters of a species of spine-tailed swift of the genus 
Chcetura, from West Africa, for which he proposed the name of 
C. cassinii." This may be Duchaillu's bird, or any other; but we 
cannot recognise such notices as descriptions, or as any authority 
for a name. It has been the practice for many years for gentle- 
men thus to announce new names without anything more, and it has 
been the source of confusion and great multiplication of synonyms. 
We now give the characters of the two allied species, describing 
the old bird from a specimen in the museum of T. C. Eyton, Esq., 
who procured it from the refuse specimens of the once fine ornitho- 
logical collection of the Zoological Society. 

Acanthylis sabini (Gray), 1828.* Mus. British. T. C Eyton. 
Above, black with blue and violet reflections, rump and up. 
tail-coverts white, shafts of each feather black, tail-coverts 
as long as the rectrices without the spine. Below, greyish- 
black; belly, vent and under tail-coverts white, the latter 
long with narrow black shafts ; tarsi and feet slender. 
Length to end of tail spines, 4; wing, 4.5. 
Chcetura sabini (Gray), Cuv. Reg. An., ed. Griff, ii. , No. xvii. 

p. 70. Hartl aub,* Syst. Orn. W. Africa, p. 25. 
C. bicolor (Gray), Zool. Miscel, p. 7. 

Acanthylis bicolor (Strick.), Proc. Zool. Soc, 1844, p. 99. 
A. sabini (Gray), Gen. B. Fol. Sp. 8. List B. Brit. Mus., p. 16. 

Mull. Cab. Journ. Orn., 1855, p. 3. 
Pallene leucopygia (Boie), Isis, 1844 (Auct. Hartl.) 
P. sabini, Bonp. Consp. Avium, p. 64. 

Hab.,W. Africa. Sierra Leone (Sabine) ; FernandoPo(Fraser). 

Acanthylis hartlaubi, Jard., June 1863. Mus. Brit. Jard. Philad. 
(Auct. Hartl.) 

Above, black with slight greenish reflection; up. tail-coverts 
short, those next rump white, forming a narrow band, 
outer rectrices pale near the shaft. Below, chin greyish- 
white ; throat, breast and sides grey ; belly, vent and 
under tail coverts white ; tarsi and feet, strong. Length 
to end of tail spines, 4.3 ; wing, 6. 
Chcetura sabini (Cassin), Proc. Ac. Nat. Soc. Philad. (without syns.) 
Hartlaub (included in synonyms of C. sabini), Syst. Ornith. W. 
Africa, p. 25. 

Hab., W. Africa (Auct. Cassin). 

* For this date, we take the notice on 16th Number of Griffith's edition of 
Cuvier,— " The 17th Number of the Animal Kingdom will be published in 
October 1828." 



1 18 Sir W. Jardino's Contributions to Ornithology. 

Note. — A. kartlaubi differs from A. sabini in the stout short 

form of the body, long wings, narrow -white band on upper 

tail-coverts, and in the form and strength of feet. 

Charadrius virginiacus. — In Dr Ilartlaub's System der Ornitho- 

logie, West Africa, Charadrius pluvialis, or common golden 

plover, only is noted. In a small collection of birds lately sent 

from Fernando Po by Consul Burton, there is a specimen of 

C. virginiacus. This is not remarkable, being a bird of wide 

geographical distribution, but it has not yet been noticed as 

occurring in Western Africa. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 



Royal Society of Edinburgh. 

Monday, 2d March 1863.— Principal Sir D. BREWSTER, 
V.P., in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read: — 

1. Letter from Sir D. Brewster relative to the specimens 
of Topaz with Pressure Cavities presented by him to 
the Museum of the Society. 

2. On the Polarization of Rough Surfaces, and of Substances 
that reflect White or Coloured Light from their Interior. 
By Sir David Brewster, K.H., F.R.S. 

3. On a Clay Deposit with Fossil Arctic Shells, recently 
observed in the Basin of the Forth. By the Rev. Thomas 
Brown, F.R.S. E. 

The author having stated the circumstances which led to his 
discovering this bed with its fossils near the harbour at Elie, re- 
ferred to a drawing of the section, and explained the position and 
contents of the different strata. 

Specimens of the shells were exhibited, as named by Dr Otto 
Torrell of Lund, who had supplied important information as to their 
distribution. They are all, without exception, now living in the 
Arctic Seas. A majority of them are exclusively Arctic. Several 
are new to the British glacial deposits — viz., Tliracia myopsis, 
Pecten groenlandicus, Crenella decussata, C. laevigata* Turritella 
erosa,f and a new Yoldia found in Spitzbergen in 80° north lati- 

* " Most probably, but much injured."' 

t " Almost certainly this species, yet cannot bo positively asserted." 



Royal Society of Edinburgh. 149 

tude.* It was shown how strongly this evidence goes to prove the 
former existence of a Boreal or Arctic climate in Scotland. 

The shells seem also to indicate some considerable rise in the 
level of the land. They are deep-water species — some of them very 
markedly so. Four distinct series of facts appear to show that 
they have not been washed up and transported, but are lying in the 
clay-bed where they originally lived. As the deposit is now rather 
above high-water mark, the fair inference would seem to be that 
the whole sea-bed of the Firth must have been considerably raised. 

Eeference was made to the discovery of the glacial beds of the 
Clyde by Mr Smith of Jordanhill. They had been looked for on the 
Forth, but without success. Dr Fleming struck the first trace of 
them at Tyrie, but it was faint, there being only two or three 
specimens of the shells, and these he was led to think not indigen- 
ous. In the Elie clay the same two species occur rather abundantly, 
along with others, all evidently in the clay-bed where they had 
lived. The group is so characteristic that there need be no ques- 
tion now as to the occurrence of the true old glacial beds with 
Arctic shells in the basin of the Forth. 

Various reasons were stated for holding that this bed is very 
closely connected with the boulder clay, being not improbably a sea- 
formation contemporaneous with some portion of that deposit. 

It was shown, that the facts brought to light in this section give 
us some glimpse into the circumstances under which the period of 
Arctic cold passed away. 

4. On the Kemarkable Occurrence of Graphite in Siberia. 
By Thomas 0. Archer, Esq. 



Monday, lQth March 1863.— Dr CHBISTISON, V.P., 

in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 

1. On the Polarization of the Atmosphere. By Sir David 

Brewster, K.H., F.K.S. 

2. Concluding Note on the Star Observations at Elchies. 

By Professor C. Piazzi Smyth. 

3. On a new fossil Ophiuridan, from Post-pliocene strata of 

the valley of the Forth. By Professor Allman. 

I am indebted to one of our University students, Mr Peter 
Lawson, for a specimen of a star-fish, which he informed me had 
been found, along with many others, in a deposit of brick-clay near 

* The other species axe—Saxicava rugosa, large form, Tellina proximo,, 
Astarte compressa, Leda truncata, L. pygmcea, Natica groenlandica, large form. 
Fragments also occur which seem to belong to Cyprina Islandica and Mya 
truncata. 



150 Proceedings of Societies. 

Dunbar. The interest of this fact was a sufficient inducement to 
cause me at once to visit the locality where the star-fish was ob- 
tained, and where, by the kindness of Mr France, the proprietor of the 
brick-works, I succeeded in obtaining good specimens of the fossil. 
Notwithstanding some very marked characters, which might 
possibly be regarded as possessing higher than specific value, I pre- 
fer referring the star-fish of the Dunbar brick-clay to Muller and 
Troschers genus Ophiolepis, rather than encumbering the existing 
nomenclature with a new and doubtful generic name. The species, 
which is very distinct from every other described member of the 
genus, may be defined by the following diagnosis : — 

Ophiolepis gracilis (mihi), nov. spec. 

Upper surface of the disc covered with imbricated plates, a single 
circular plate occupying the centre, and with the radial shields 
large, and having their opposed edges in contact for their entire 
length. Dorsal shields of the arms about twice as broad as long- 
near the disc, and thence with their breadth gradually decreasing 
in proportion to their length, until towards the distal extremity of 
the arm they become longer than broad ; they cover the whole 
dorsal surface of the arm, and have their adoral and aboral margins 
transverse and parallel. Ventral shields of the arms very minute, 
and allowing the lateral shields of one side to meet those of the 
opposite side in the inferior median line of the arm. Aboral edge 
of each lateral shield with a notch for the exit of a cirrus. Spines 
about once and a-half as long as the breadth of the arms. Arms 
about five times as long as the diameter of the disc, and gradually 
tapering to a fine point. 

The size of the largest specimens obtained is about four inches 
from tip to tip of the arms. 

Fossil in brick-clay of the Post-pliocene age, near Dunbar, Scot- 
land. 

One of the most remarkable features in the present species is the 
rudimental condition of the ventral shields of the arms ; these 
shields being much smaller than in Ophiolepis ciliata (Mill, and 
Trosch.), where they are exceptionally small among the Ophiuridce, 
and where the lateral shields bear only short papilliform spines 
instead of the long, highly-developed spines of 0. gracilis. It was 
only after having sought in vain for the ventral shields in some 
dozens of specimens that I succeeded in detecting them in a single 
instance. In this case they appeared in a view of the internal sur- 
face of the ventral wall (fig. B) as very minute rhombic plates 
lying along the mesial line, where they were interposed between 
the angles of the lateral shields. It is quite possible that the 
ventral plates are more fully displayed upon the outer surface of 
the wall, but in no case did I find this surface sufficiently exposed 
to enable me to obtain a view of them ; while the inner surface, 
on the contrary, was frequently well exposed by the disappearance 
in the fossil of the dorsal shields, and of the series of vertebra-like 
ossicles, which, in the living Ophiuridce, occupies the axis of the 



Royal Society of Edinburgh. 



151 



arms. In most of the specimens sufficiently well preserved to afford 
a view of the ventral walls of the arms, the lateral shields were 
seen to be slightly separated from one another along the ventral 




Ophiohpis gracilis — (A) viewed from the dorsal side, slightly enlarged ; 
(B) ventral wall of one of the arms, still more enlarged, viewed from within ; 
showing the lateral shields slightly separated from one another along the 
mesial line, where the minute ventral shields are introduced between their 
angles. The apertures for the exit of the ambulacral cirri are seen near the 
outer edges of the lateral shields. 

suture, leaving here a distinct but narrow fissure, which was not 
interrupted even by the intervention of the minute ventral plates, 
which had in almost every case disappeared. In some instances, 
however, the lateral shields escaped displacement, and the two 
series were then in contact with one another along the line of suture. 
The notch for the exit of the cirri or tentacular ambulacra, situated 
on the aboral edge of every lateral plate, is very distinct, and is 
completed into an entire aperture by the adoral edge of the plate 



1 52 Proceedings of Societies. 

next in succession. The spines along the sides of the arms are 
long and slender ; in no case, however, could I satisfy myself that 
more than a single spine was borne by each lateral shield ; but the 
condition of the specimens does not justify our thus limiting the 
number of those spines. Neither was I able to discover in the 
specimens any evidence of scales over the apertures for the cirri. 

The deposit in which Ophiolepis gracilis occurs is a fine dense 
tenacious blue clay of Post-pliocene age. It is situated upon the 
shore of the Firth of Forth, about two miles to the west of Dunbar, 
and is largely worked for the manufacture of bricks. It lies low; 
and were it not for an artificial embankment, would be flooded at 
high tide. 

In this deposit, at about five feet from the surface, is a horizontal 
bed, where the star-fishes are found. They occur in great numbers 
upon the surface of the bed, which is occasionally separated from 
the bed above it by a thin parting of fine sand. They are remark- 
able for their unmutilated condition, lying there with their slender 
arms, even to the extreme points, in the position which they must 
have naturally held during life, thus showing an entire absence of 
that spontaneous dismemberment which is so characteristic of the 
Ophiuridce when dying under any prolonged irritation, and indicat- 
ing some sudden cause of deprivation of life, such as we may sup- 
pose to result from an irruption of fresh water into the part of the 
sea inhabited by them. 

None of the specimens I obtained, however, were sufficiently 
well preserved to enable me to make out all their characters as 
completely as I could have wished, the nature of the clay in which 
they were imbedded being apparently not suited to the preservation 
of the more delicate structures. The oral surface of the disc, espe- 
cially, was in no case retained so perfectly as to allow of the mouth 
or the disposition of the plates of this part of the animal being 
observed. It was only in some instances that traces of the spines 
were visible, and then almost the only indications left were their 
impressions in the surrounding clay. 

It is a curious and interesting fact, that not only did all the 
specimens found belong to a single species, but that not a vestige 
of a shell, or of any other organism, could be detected in any part 
of the clay which I had an opportunity of examining. 



Monday, 6th April 1863.— Professor KELLAND, V.P., 
in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 

1. Note as to Portions of Lead from the Roof of the 
Lower Storey of Nelson's Monument, injured by Light- 
ning on the evening of 4th February 1863. By Professor 
C, Piazzi Smyth, 

The portions of sheet-lead above mentioned had attracted myatten- 



Royal Society of Edinburgh. 



153 



tion on the days following the 4th of February, when engaged in re- 
pairing some damage which had then occurred to the electric wires 
connecting the Nelson Monument and the Observatory; and finding 
that plumbers (employed by the Town -Council) were removing the 
old lead and substituting new in its place, and being also encouraged 
by Professor P. Gr. Tait, who with me visited the spot, to believe 
that the markings which had been discovered were electrically of 
unusual interest, I lost no time in applying to Mr J. D. Marwick, 
town-clerk, for those portions of the leaden covering which con- 
tained the marks in question, with the view of presenting them to 
the Eoyal Society. 

Mr Marwick was as obliging as prompt in responding to such a 
request, and sent me the required specimens next day, accompanied 
by the enclosed memorandum written by Mr H., assistant to 
Mr Cousin, city-architect, 

10th February 1863. 

" The accompanying pieces of lead were taken from the north- 
west side of the lead platform on the roof of the lower part of 
Nelson's Monument. 

" The distance between the holes was about nine feet six inches. 

" Both holes were immediately over a block-tin gas-pipe, which 
is here carried under the lead and boarding of the platform, and 
which was found melted the whole length between the two holes, 
and a foot beyond the north-east hole. 

" These holes in the lead were evidently directly caused by the 
burning gas from the pipes underneath. 



Fig. 1. 




B s.w.hole: 

BOARDING 



tl The sketch shows section through the platform between the 
two holes A and B. CD shows the gas-pipe under and between 
them. 

" From this sketch we might naturally expect a hole melted in 
the lead at A, the pipe being here at its highest level immediately 
under the boarding, only one inch from the lead. 

" The pipe between C and D would very quickly be melted by 
the burning gas, as it lies horizontally and can be more easily acted 
on by a flame issuing from it. 

" At D the pipe dips vertically about eighteen inches. 

" It is evident that the vertical length of pipe DE would not 
be readily melted by the strong flame burning at D. 

" The boarding and lead at B, immediately over I), would there- 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XV11I. NO. I. — JULY 1863. U 



154- Proceedings of Societies. 

i'ore be exposed to the iiaine of the gas for a much longer time 
than any part between A and B. And here we might expect what 
we find, a large piece of the boarding burnt, and the larger of the 
two holes in the accompanying pieces of lead. 

" How the gas was at first ignited remains to be shown. 

"H." 

The above memorandum gives an excellent matter-of-fact de- 
scription of what chiefly remained to be seen at the time when 
it was written, but it does not mention what had much struck me 
several days previously, when I first caught sight of the small and 
neat oblong hole in the roof at A ; and, on subsequently pulling 
up the leads, which at that time had not been disturbed at that place 
since the storm, I found the under surface of the metal strangely 
burred and scored around the aperture, and also perceived small 
globules of melted lead, driven away apparently by some radiating 
force from the hole, until caught and jammed between the remain- 
ing uninjured lead and its wooden surface of support.* Neither 
does the memorandum account for the first igniting of the gas, 
but expressly says, that what may have caused that " remains to 
be shown." 

This is in truth the most important part of the whole affair, and 
which I will now endeavour to describe. 

The evening of the 4th of February 1863 ushered in one of the 
most violent storms of thunder and lightning that has been ex- 
perienced in Edinburgh, and perhaps in most parts of Scotland, for 
many years, and its violence was all the more remarkable, inasmuch 
as the month of February is near the minimum of the year for 
electrical manifestations in the shape of thunder-storms. This point, 
not yet generally acknowledged, is indicated pretty certainly by the 
following numbers, extracted from the Registrar- G-eneral's printed 
Reports for Scotland ; they are, in fact, the deductions prepared 
for that officer at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, from the 
schedules of fifty-five observers of the Meteorological Society of 
Scotland, and give, for the means of three years, as follows : — 





Number of Stations 

at which Lightning 

was seen. 


Mean Number of 

Times at each 

Station. 


January, . . . 
February, . . . 
March, .... 


34 

11 

42 


4 
'2 
3 



These globules had very imperfect adhesion, and had mostly dropped of! 
when <li<- plate was presented to the hoyal Society; but some few of the more 
distant ones Btill remained, and all the others had left marks, visually of a 
yellowish colour, showing their former positions, sizes, and shapes. 



Royal Society of Edinburgh. 



155 





Number of Stations 

at which Lightning 

was seen. 


Mean Number of 
Times at each 
- Station. 


April, .... 

May, .... 
June, .... 


24 
86 

85 


4 
5 

7 


July, .... 91 
August, ... 54 
September, . . 31 


7 
3 
3 


October, . . . 50 
November, . . 30 
December, . . 37 

I 


8 
4 
4 



The storm., then, was anomalous in its season of occurrence, and 
in its violence ; also, as it would appear from the newspaper accounts, 
by the regularity and broad spread of its passage over the country 
from west to east, occurring nearly an hour earlier at Greenock than 
at Aberdeen or Edinburgh. In Glasgow and its neighbourhood 
several buildings were struck, a tall chimney and a church entirely 
ruined ; a lodging-house of operatives injured in every floor ; and 
a large number of the telegraph instruments of the Private Tele- 
graph Company thrown out of order, and one clerk rendered 
senseless. 

This storm began in Edinburgh about 7 h p.m., and lasted nearly an 
hour ; it came with very strong west wind, and accompaniments of 
rain and hail ; and it was described to me by Mr Wallace, who was 
on the Calton Hill at the time, as being most remarkable for the 
slanting, almost horizontal, direction of the lightning, as well as 
its greenish -blue colour. The thunder was at the same time deafen - 
ingly loud, and on one occasion apparently coincident with the flash; 
shaking the house he was in (the old Observatory Tower), and 
giving the idea that either that building, or the Koyal Observatory, 
must have been struck. Groing out immediately to see what might 
have happened, he met the servant at the door, who spoke of the 
flash of lightning having entered the lowest room of that tower, 
" gone half way across the floor," and left an overpowering smell 
of "brimstone" behind; and also called his attention to Nelson's 
Monument, about 200 yards east-south-east of them, being appa- 
rently on fire, because sparks were issuing from the roof of one of 
the low rooms at its foot, on the western side. 

Now, at the winter period of the year, it seems that the tenant 

there (Mrs ) finding the above monumental building very 

cold, prefers to live in a wooden house close by, and on the evening 
of the 4th of February she was in that house ill and in bed ; but 
when the particular flash occurred which had been so much noticed 
by Mr Wallace and the Observatory servant, it seemed close to her 



15G Proceedings of Societies. 

also, filled her house with the brimstone odour, and so firmly im- 
pressed her with the belief that the Monument had been struck, 
that she sent out her servant " to see if the time-ball was still at 
the top of the building ;" believing that if mischief had occurred 
anywhere from lightning, it would be near the summit of the 
structure. The answer, however, brought back was, that the time- 
ball was quite safe, but that sparks were coming out of the roof of 
the low west room. The policeman of the hill was likewise on 
the ground almost immediately after the flash, and testified both 
to the then sudden appearance of sparks issuing from the roof of the 
uninhabited room, and its accompaniment,by the traditional sul- 
phurous smell in the air of strong lightning, or "ozone." 

The door of the Monument was then speedily opened, access to 
the roof obtained, and the new-lit fire, caused by the burning of gas 
and wooden rafters, speedily extinguished. In this manner the gas, 
no doubt, after it was set on fire, did much mischief to both leaden 
roof and wooden rafters, especially at the place on the sketch 
marked B, which contains big and rather confused holes ; but if 
any one still asks what first set the gas on fire, I think there is 
equally little doubt that we may answer " it was that particular 
slanting flash of local and ozone-producing lightning which excited 
the residents on the hill so much at the time." 

We may probably also assume that the lightning struck at the 
point A. I had already been directed to that point from the 
similarity of the hole there, to a lightning hole in sand, but could 
not imagine why the fluid should have pierced a hole through 
a good conductor, viz., a sheet of lead. On mentioning this diffi- 
culty to Professor Tait, he remarked, " that if the hole was due to 
the immediate action of the spark, I might be quite sure that there 
was a conductor below, which the lightning was trying to get at 
and pass off by," and after that opinion had been so expressed, the 
lead was lifted at the place (it had previously only been raised at 
B), and the gas-pipe was found precisely there at its closest point 
of approach anywhere to the roof, as may be seen clearly repre- 
sented in the assistant architect's subsequent and independent 
drawing.* 

However anomalous, therefore, the case may appear at first, some 
theoretical principles are remarkably borne out by it ; and that the 
foot of the building should have been struck, and not the top, seems 
to follow from the low, level and almost horizontal direction in 
which the lightning was sensibly observed to come, and with the 
wind and rain, — causing thereby the windward foot of the tall 
building to become for that occasion the shortest passage for the 
fluid to reach the ground by. 

* Professor Tait lias also remarked, and it seems well worthy to be noted 
as a memorandum for any future occasion, that it would have heen advisable 
to have preserved the boarding at "A," as well as the lead ; for the manner 
of actios and of piercing through wood by lightning is very different to the 
burning action of flame; and tbick wooden planking was everywhere inter- 
betwi en the gas-pipe and the leaden roof. 



Royal Society of Edinburgh. 



157 



In such a case, though, it may be suggested, that the long hori- 
zontal wire extending through a length of 4000 feet between 
the Nelson Monument and the Castle for the service of the time- 
gun, should have been most abundantly charged by induction. 
That is true ; and there is little doubt but that the said wire was 

Fig. 2. 




The hole at "A," as it appears on the under surface of the lead ; 
carefully drawn full size by Mr J. M. Corner, wood-engraver. 

copiously filled, and might have produced dangerous effects, had 
it not been furnished at either end with large copper plates in 
close proximity to many pronged conductors ending in wet earth, 
which led away innocuously the greater part of the charge. Enough 
however still remained to do some singular damage to the elec- 
trically controlled clocks at either end of the line. Thus, the 
members of one of the bundles of permanent magnets, near the 
pendulum-bob of the Castle clock, had their poles changed and 
their new attraction made rather stronger than their old ; the 
members of a similar bundle in the Observatory window-clock 
had their poles partially changed ; and in the interior of the 
Normal Mean Time clock one of the gold contact points was 
partially fused, and spattered on its steel spring, which was blued 
at that part as though by heat. 

The gold contact point thus treated, it will be understood, was 



158 Proceedings of Societies. 

in direct metallic connect ion at the instant with the long open-air 
wire ; and the magnets that were altered were in indirect connec- 
tion, or rather, in inductive position, for they were surrounded at 
the time by the wire coil of the pendulum-bob, whose composing- 
wire is a connected continuation of the long open-air wire. 

To this it only remains to add, that these lightning-made mag- 
nets at the Castle clock, when duly replaced in the bundle suitably 
with their new poles, have given the most steady and satisfactory 
results in working the control of the clock ever since. 

'2. Note on the Anatomical Type in the Funis Umbilicalis 
and Placenta. By Professor Simpson. 

3. On Earth-Currents during Magnetic Calms, and their 
Connection with Magnetic Changes. By Balfour Stewart, 
Esq., M.A., F.R.S. Communicated by Professor Tait. 

In two previous communications made by the author to the 
Royal Society of London, it had been endeavoured to show that 
earth- currents and auroras, which occur simultaneously with mag- 
netic storms, are secondary currents due to the small but abrupt 
changes in the magnetism of the earth which such storms denote. 
Earth- currents also occur during periods of magnetic calm, but they 
can then be rendered visible only by means of a delicate gal- 
vanometer. 

Such has been constructed by Mr C. V. Walker, who has by its 
means registered those earth-currents which occurred during the 
three last months of 1851, a period of magnetic calm. 

The object of the present communication is to discuss those 
observations of Mr Walker in connection with the simultaneous 
changes which took place in the values of the declination and 
the horizontal force component of the earth's magnetism, these 
changes being furnished by means of continuously acting magneto 
graphs at Kew Observatory. By this method Mr Walker's obser- 
vations were divided into three classes, — 

1st class. Observations during moments of magnetic calm. 
2d ,, Observations during minor magnetic disturbances. 
3d ,, Observations during greater magnetic disturbances. 

In the first of these classes a law of hours was manifestly ob- 
served, the values of the earth-currents for the hours of the night 
being extremely small. But in the second, and especially in the 
third class, the law of hours was observed to fail ; and in the latter 
of these classes the peculiar action of disturbances was very mani- 
fest, the tendency of sucli disturbances being to create very strong 
earth-currents at the moment of their occurrence; and it is notice- 
able that these earth-currents were as often positive as negative. 

It was remarked by the author, that the very great strength of 
those earth-currents, which lake place at the moments of disturb- 
ance, LS in favour of the theory of induction, since the peculiarity 



Royal Society of Edinburgh . 1 5 9 

of a disturbance is not so much a very great as a very rapid and 
abrupt departure of the magnet from the normal position ; and 
since, on the theory of induction, the corresponding earth-current 
will be due to abruptness of magnetic change, we thus obtain an 
explanation why the currents which accompany disturbances are so 
very powerful, and also why these are as often positive as negative. 
With regard to the first class of earth-current observations, or 
those which occurred during magnetic calm, the author believed 
the daily range indicated by these observations to be the induction 
effect of the daily magnetic change, on which hypothesis the small 
value of the currents for the night hours might be accounted for 
by the corresponding fact that during these hours the magnetic 
change is exceedingly small. 

4. Note on a Pictish Inscription in the Churchyard of 
St Vigeans. By Professor Simpson. 

Dr Simpson considered the inscription to be " Drosten, Son of 
Voret, of the family of Fergus." 

5. On some Kinematical and Dynamical Theorems. By 

Professor W. Thomson. 

6. Note on a Quaternion Transformation. By Prof. Tait. 



Monday, 20th April 1863.— Principal FORBES, V.P., 
in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 

1. On the Conservation of Energy. By Professor Tait. 

2. On Fagnani's Theorem. By H. F. Talbot, LL.D. 

3. On the Theory of Parallel Lines. By H. F. Talbot, LL.D. 

An Address to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales 
was adopted, and ordered to be forwarded to the Duke of 

Argyle for presentation. 



Royal Physical Society. 

Thursday, 26th February 1863.— James M'Bain, M.D., R.N., President, 

in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 

I. On the Fossils of the Boulder Clay (Till) of Caithness. By Charles 
W. Peach, Esq., Wick. 

Mr Peach gave details of the various kinds of shells that occur in 



160 Proceedings of Societies. 

many places of the boulder clay, and referred to their orders and classi- 
fication, the number of species being as follows: — 32 Shells, 15 Uni- 
valves, 17 Bivalves ; 1 Balanus ; 1 Annelide ; 4 Polyzoa ; 2 Sponges ; 
I Coral ; 1 Alga— 42 total species. Of the shells, 29 are British; 2 Scan- 
dinavian ; 1 Arctic. All the others are British. He stated that the clay 
might be traced all over Caithness, especially in the estuaries and the 
sides of rivers and burns. Some sections snowed a depth of 60 or 80 
feet ; while in other places, from low- water mark, it rose a height of 200 
feet and upwards above the level of the sea. It differed greatly in con- 
stitution in the same locality. In some places shells were abundant, with 
very few stones, the clay being pretty soft ; in others, stones were 
abundant, shells rare, and the clay so compact that it could not be blasted 
with gunpowder. Occasionally it contained large blocks of stones, such 
as granite, porphyry, gneiss, quartz, &c, some of which contained fossils, 
which were all more or less worn and polished. 

II. Observations on British Zoophytes. By T. Strethill Wright, M.D. 
III. Notes on Ophrydium versatile. By Mr W. R. M'Nab. 



Wednesday, 25th March 1863. — James M'Bain, M.D., R.N., President, 

in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 
I. Notes on some Surgical Homologies. By A. M'K. Edwards, Esq. 

LI. On the Osteological Homology of the Vertebrate and Articulate 
Classes. Part I. — The Cranium. By Professor William MacDonald, 
St Andrews. 

HI. Note of a Fireball, recently observed near Auchterarder. By John 
Alex. Smith, M.D. 

In the beginning of the month of February, a notice appeared of 
the descent of a so-called aerolite upon the farm of Drumtersal, near 
Auchterarder. Lieutenant-Colonel Hunter, who saw the fall, favoured 
Dr Smith with details regarding the phenomenon. The fire-ball fell 
on Tuesday the 27th of January, at five minutes to five r.M. The day 
had been beautifully bright with sunshine ; the sun had set for eighteen 
minutes, it was however still full daylight, when Colonel Hunter's eye 
was attracted by the descent of a most brilliant luminous body. Its 
fall was nearly perpendicular, and it had the appearance of being the size 
of a twenty-four pound shot. It seemed to fall in a lea field. Colonel 
Hunter's gamekeeper also saw it, from another direction, apparently 
fall in the same field, and after twenty-four hours had passed, with 
heavy rain, he went to see if he could discover anything. His eye was 
soon attracted by the peculiar appearance of a stone which lay in the 
place where the meteor seemed to fall. The stone was twelve ounces in 
weight, had a sulphurous smell, and the grass round about it was black- 
ened. Part of the stone was examined by a chemist who recently pub- 
lished the result of his analysis, and stated, among other components, that 
it contained 17'22 per cent, of sulphuret of nickel. 

From the fact of no report of any kind being heard when the ball 
was seen to fall, Dr Smith was very doubtful of any stone-like body 
having fallen, — a loud report generally accompanying the fall of an aero- 
lit.'. He fancied the ball must therefore have consisted simply of gaseous 



Royal Physical Society, 161 

or electrical agencies, the resistance of the atmosphere to its rapid passage 
through it being apparently so slight as to cause no noise. He was 
aware also of the danger of any peculiar or unusual-looking stone 
lying near the place where an apparent fall had taken place, being mis- 
taken for the actual body that was apparently seen to have fallen there. 
The analysis, however, was decidedly against this view of the case ; and 
Colonel Hunter politely forwarded to him the mineral mass for examina- 
tion, and some of its broken portions, to allow of the correctness of the 
analysis being tested. On examining the mass, Dr Smith found no traces 
of the dark-coloured outer coating or skin which exists on ordinary me- 
teoric stones, depending, it is believed, on the fusion of their surface, 
by the heat evolved in their passage through the atmosphere ; but, 
instead, the surface was rough and irregular, showing on one side various 
cubical coaly-looking masses ; and on the other the coaly-like matter pro- 
jecting through a series of thin layers, apparently of white sulphuret of 
iron, or white iron pyrites. The specimen appeared to' be a portion of 
one of those small seams of white iron pyrites, which are not un- 
common in our coal seams. On showing it to various friends — Professor 
Allman, Dr M'Bain, Mr Alex. Bryson, and others — they all agreed with 
him, there could be no doubt of its being simply a mass of white iron 
pyrites. The existence of the sulphurous smell in its gradual decompo- 
sition, after exposure to continued rain, was, of course, to be expected 
from its composition as a sulphuret of iron; and the same would also 
account for the blackened appearance of the vegetation round the mass of 
pyrites. The broken portions of the stone Dr Smith put into the hands 
of Dr Murray Thomson, telling him nothing of its history, and request- 
ing to know if it contained any metal besides iron ; and was favoured 
with a reply, stating that he had made a lengthened examination of the 
substance sent him, and could detect no traces of anything besides iron, 
sulphur, and a little siliceous matter. 

IV. BemarJcs on a "Raised Beach " at Ardross, in the County of Fife. 
By the Rev. Walter Wood, Elie. Communicated by James M'Bain, 
M.D., R.N. 



Wednesday, 22d April 1863.— James M'Bain, M.D., R.N., President, 
in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 

I. On the Evidence of the Rise of the Shores of the Firth of Forth. By 
Alexander Bryson, Esq. 
Mr Bryson described various places on the shores of the Firth of Forth, 
to show that there was not the slightest evidence to be found of any rise 
of level, at least in recent times. He referred to the rock at Cramond 
sculptured with the Roman eagle, believed by antiquaries to be the work 
of the Romans ; and showed that it was now just above high-water mark, 
so that, if a rise of 25 feet, as has been assumed, or indeed any rise 
at all, had taken place since that time, this rock must have been entirely 
under water at the Roman period. He also alluded to the position of 
the Roman wall at Carriden, and showed that no remains of it had been 
visible for at least 200 years back ; so that no evidence of any kind could 
be got from it. He also pointed out the existence of an extensive fluvia- 
tile or fresh- water deposit at the mouth of the Almond at Cramond, 
without any included marine remains, the existence of which would have 
been impossible had any great rise of the land taken place here. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVITT. NO. I. JULY 1863. X 



162 Proceedings of Societies. 

II. Remarks on a Peruvian Skull. By James M'Bain, M.D., R.N. 

Dr M'Bain stated, there was no foundation for the assumption that the 
crania of the ancient Peruvians always showed additional or wormian 
bones in the lambdoidal suture of the skull. 

III. On the Occurrence of the Rosy Feather-Star, Comatula rosacea, on 
the Eastern Shore of Scotland, especially that of Caithness. By 
Charles W. Peach, Esq., Wick. 

IV. The Kjbkken-Mbddinger of Denmark, and their similitudes on the 
Elginshire Coast. By the Rev. George Gordon, LL.D., Minister of 
Birnie. 

V. Notes of Bones of the Ox and Dog, and a curious Bronze Implement 
found in a bed of undisturbed gravel at Kinleith, near Currie, Mid- 
Lothian. By John Alex. Smith, M.D. 

The bones and bronze implement (exhibited) were found in the valley 
of the Water of Leith, at a depth of about 12 feet from the surface, in a 
bed of gravel, which was covered by a bed of undisturbed sand and silt, 
about 5 feet in thickness. Dr Smith had seen no notice of any weapon 
of a similar character having been found in Britain or Ireland ; it was, 
however, closely analogous to "a crescent-shaped" implement of bronze 
discovered at Steinberg, one of the ancient piled lake-dwellings of Swit- 
zerland, which is figured in M. Troyon's work on these lake habitations. 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

Thursday, 12th March 1863. — Professor Balfour, V.P., in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 

I. Notice of Pandanus odoratissimus (Fragrant Screw-pine), now flower- 
ing in the Palm-house at the Royal Botanic Garden. By Professor 
Balfour. (Plate III.) 

Pandanus odoratissimus has recently produced pistilliferous flowers 
in the Palm- house at the Royal Botanic Garden. The plant is a native 
of the East Indies, China, and the Islands of the Pacific Ocean. The 
plant in the garden is about fifty years old, and has attained a height of 40 
feet, with a stem about two feet in circumference. It has sixteen large 
alternate branches, and is provided with sixty aerial roots, some of them 
five feet long. (Plate III. fig. 1.) The leaves vary in length from three 
and a half to five feet. The plant has produced two globular spadices of 
pistillate flowers (fig. 2). As no staminate flowers have appeared on any of 
the plants in the Palm-house, the fruit will not be perfected. The fragrance 
is chiefly confined to the staminate flowers. The plant is used for hedges 
and for various economical purposes, such as the preparation of matting, 
bags, baskets, &c. A specimen of the pistilliferous spadix was exhibited. 
The species, so far as known, has not previously produced flowers in the 
botanic gardens of this country. 

Explanation of Plate III. 
Fig. 1. Sketch of plant in the Palm-house of the Edinburgh Botanic Garden. 
Fig. 2. Branch with leaves and globular cluster of fruit. 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 



163 



II. On a Method of taking Impressions of Plants by means of Printers' 

Ink. By Walter Elliot, Esq., of Wolfelee. 

Mr Elliot explained to the meeting his process of taking impressions 
of fresh plants by means of a press and printers' ink. The specimens 
are covered equally on both sides with the ink by means of a roller, and 
then placed in the press between sheets of paper, and pressure applied. 
The whole process is exceedingly simple, and may prove useful to travel- 
lers. The press in operation was exhibited. 

III. Remarks on the Economical Use of the Carnauba Palm (Copernicia 

cerifera). By Professor Archer. 

IV. Notes regarding some new and rare species of British Mosses. By 

Mr John Sadler, F.R.P.S. 

V. Register of the Flowering of certain Spring Plants in the Open Air 
at the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. By Mr M'Nab. (Second 
list.) 





1863. 


1862. 


1861. 


Knappia agrostidea, .... 


Feb. 13 








Symplocarpus fcetidus, 








... 15 


Feb. 


2Q 


Feb. 9 


Daphne Mezereum, 








... 16 








Tussilago nivea, . 








... 18 








Muscari botryoides, . 








... 20 




22 


... 26 


Dondia Epipactis, 








... 23 




28 


1 


Orobus vernus, . . 








... 25 






Mar. 4 


Arabis albida, . . 








... 28 


Mar. 


S 


6 


Scilla bifolia, cserulea, 








... 28 


Feb. 


20 


... 7 


Ribes sanguineum, 








March 2 








Scilla bifolia, alba, 








4 


Mar. 


10 


9 


Erythronium Dens-canis, 








4 




15 


14 


Draba aizoides, 








4 








Orobus cyaneus, 








6 








Narcissus pumilus, 








8 


Feb. 


21 


6 


Primula nivalis, . . 








8 






12 


Puschkinia scilloides, . 








9 


Mar. 


16 


18 


Scilla sibirica, . . . 








... 10 




17 


8 


bifolia, rubra, . 








... 10 


Mar. 


12 




Corydalis nobilis, . . 








... 11 






12 


Pulmonaria mollis, 








... 11 






12 


Hyoscyamus Scopolia 








... 12 






9 


orientalis, 








... 12 









A letter was read from Professor Martius of Erlangen, to Professor 
Balfour, in which he says : — " I wish to call your attention to the fact, 
that the seeds of Abrus precatorius contain an alkaloidal poisonous 
matter. It is easily obtained by boiling the crushed seeds several times 



164 Proceedings of Societies. 

with alcohol of 0830 to 0*812, filtering, and then distilling the alcohol 
until two ounces remain per pound of seeds. If it stands a long time, the 
poisonous matter crystallises out. Weak alcohol exhausts the colouring 
matter." 



Thursday, Olh April 1863. — Professor Maclagan, President, 
in the Chair. 

H.R.H. the Prince of Wales was elected an Honorary Fellow of the 
Society. 

A congratulatory address to H.R.H. the Prince of Wales on the occa- 
sion of his marriage was adopted. 

A memorial to the First Commissioner of H.M.'s Office of Works, 
asking for more accommodation at the Botanic Garden for the Herbarium 
and Library of the University, was also adopted. 

Professor Balfour read a short notice of the death of Mr John Wright 
Brown, who had acted for six years as assistant in the Herbarium depart- 
ment of the University Museum. 

The following Communications were read : — 

I. Note on Lemania variegata of Agar dh. By George Lawson, LL.D., 
Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry and Natural History in the Queen's 
University of Canada. 

(This paper appears in the present number of this Journal.) 

II. Some Account o/Paullinia sorbilis and its Products. By T. C. 
Archer, Esq., Director of the Industrial Museum of Scotland. 

III. Notice of Observations by F. Cohn, Breslau, on the Contractile 
Filaments of the Stamens in Thistles. Communicated by Dr Alex- 
ander Dickson. 

(This paper will appear in next number of this Journal ) 

IV. On an Easy and Effective Style of Nature-printing. By Mrs 
Stirling of Kippenross. Communicated by T. C. Archer, Esq. 

Take some finely powdered lamp-black, mix it smoothly with fine 
almond oil and a small proportion of pale drying oil, till of the consis- 
tence of very thick cream. The paper used should be of a soft spongy 
kind. Smooth crayon paper or fine Bristol board is best; a hard, rough- 
grained paper will not answer well. Take a small branch where the 
leaves are nearly perfect. As accuracy is chiefly required, it is better to 
lay the branch face downwards on your paper, and with a pencil lightly 
trace out the stem and side branches, marking where the principal groups 
of leaves lie, — this will ensure a more faithful copy than sketching the 
branch by sight. Place the branch upright before you in a pot of wet 
sand, and then you can either strip off these leaves and print them, or by 
having other branches beside you, you can select leaves resembling those 
of your model, remembering that the side of the branch next your right 
hand is on the left of the paper. Take the finger off a clean white kid 
glove, put a small bit of jeweller's cotton into it, so that when you put 
the glove finger on the first finger of your right hand, the cotton forms a 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 165 

soft cushion at the end. Fold some soft paper in several folds, upon this 
lay the topmost leaf, or group of leaves, face uppermost; take some of 
the black upon your first finger and smear it over the leaf (or leaves) 
quite evenly and quickly ; lay them down on your crayon paper in their 
right position; put a thin piece of paper over them, holding it quite 
steadily, and rub each leaf firmly all over, following the veins of the 
leaves, running your finger from the stem to the point, and from the mid- 
rib to the edge. Each bit should be done at once; going over the same 
part twice often causes a double impression. Raise the leaf quickly when 
done. Jn blacking the leaves include the footstalk ; it will never make a 
perfect impression, but serves to mark the outline, and forms a guide for 
you afterwards. No blots, or thicker portions of the black must be al- 
lowed ; they will make a blotch in the impression. Work downwards 
from the top of the branch. When all your leaves are finished, take 
lithographic chalk and draw in the whole of the stem, branches, and foot- 
stalks, marking any irregularities, knots, or buds, as these should be 
finished with equal care and accuracy. Lithographic chalk has the ad- 
vantage of fixing at once, and blends better with the printing than any 
crayon or glossy pencil. As to the capabilities of this process, I found 
that a group of acacia or elm leaves could be done together ; the horse- 
chestnut, ash, or walnut leaves, require to be separated. No very glossy 
or very rough leaf will take the black sutficiently to make a good impres- 
sion. All the leaves must be perfectly fresh. I have done a series of 
forest trees, including several of the fir tribe. These last print very im- 
perfectly, but still well enough to show the character of the tree, and the 
imperfect parts can be filled in with chalk. I have also done a number 
of the ferns, the difficulty with them being solely in their size ; but I 
divide them into suitable portions, and no break is discernible in the im- 
pression. I thus managed to print both the Osmunda regalis and the 
common bracken. If the surface you have to blacken is too large, the 
first bit you do becomes dry before the rest is finished. Many flowers are 
capable of being printed. 

V. Notice of the Tallow Tree of China (Stillingia sebifera), lately intro- 
duced into the Punjaub. By William Jameson, Esq., Saharunpore. 
Communicated by Professor Balfour. 

VI. Memorandum on Local Museums in the Punjaub. By Hugh 
Cleghorn, M.D. 

VII. Notice of an Ash Tree struck by Lightning at Dunipace. By the 
Rev. Thomas Robertson. 
Mr Robertson gave some account of an ash tree which was struck by 
lightning on 14th June 1849, of which he was an eye-witness. The tree, 
which was of large size, grew close by the Avon Burn, and near the 
manse of Dunipace. 

VIII. Register of Plants in Flower in the Open Air at the Royal 
Botanic Garden. By Mr James M'Nab. 
1 . Third Spring List : — 
Asarum europaeum, March 15. Narcissus moschatus, March 25. 

Saxifraga crassifolia, March 18. Pseudo-Narcissus, March 

Fritillaria imperialis, March 22. 28. 

Dalibarda geoides, March 28. Anemone nemorosa, April 2. 

Corydalis solida, March 24. i Adonis vernalis, April 7. 



166 



Proceedings of Societies. 



2. List of Plants in Flower in the Open Air on 9th April 1863, not 
hitherto recorded as flowering at so early a date in the Botanic 
Garden. 



Rhodora canadensis. 
Rhododendron alta-clarense. 

ciliatum. 

Rhodothamnus Chamaecistus. 
Phyllodoce crerulea. 

empetriforinis. 

Andromeda tetragona. 
Bryanthus erectus. 
Potentilla alba. 
Euphorbia gloriosa. 
Saxifraga tridentata. 
Epimedium alpinum. 

— violaceuni. 

rubrum. 

Lepidium procumbens. 
Draba confusa. 
Cochlearia officinalis. 
Alyssum saxatile. 
Diclytra spectabilis. 
Fumaria lutea. 
Ranunculus montanus. 
Anemone apennina. 
Crespidium Richei. 
Symphytum tauricum. 
Holosteum umbellatum. 
Sesleria caerulea. 
Luzula sylvatica. 



Luzula pilosa. 
Carex montana. 

japonica. 

Helonias bullata. 
Sanguinaria canadensis. 
Equisetum arvense. 
Iris reticulata. 
Tulipa Gesneriana. 
Hyacinthus orientalis. 
Leucocoryne alliacea. 
Ornithogalum exscapura. 
Narcissus Tazetta. 

odorus. 

Scilla italica. 

Primula ciliata, purpurata. 

Polyanthus. 

marginata. 

viscosa. 

■ integrifolia. 
Pulmonaria virginica. 
Jeffersonia diphylla. 
Erica hybernica coccinea. 
alba. 



Trillium grandiflorum. 
Sieversia triflora. 



3. List of Fruit and other Trees in Flower, and with Buds far advanced 
towards flowering, on 9th April 1863. 

Cherry, gean, pear, plum, apricot, currants, gooseberries, in full flower. 
Apple and thorn, some of the buds almost open. Elm, Norway maple, 
Canadian mespilus, Pyrus nivalis, in full flower. Thorn in full leaf, 
covered with the fruit of 1862. Thorn in full leaf, with the leaves of 
1862 still green. 

Mr John Reid, manager of the Edinburgh and Leith Gas Company, 
presented a large specimen of a new gas-coal from Gorebridge, near 
Arniston, accompanied with the following analysis : — Products from 168 
lbs. of coal — Oil tar gas and volatile matters, 82 lb. ; coke and ash, 86 lb. ; 
gas, in cubic feet, 560=11,333 cubic feet per ton ; specific gravity of gas, 
temperature 53°, 5807, air=1000 ; heavy hydro-carbons, condensed by 
bromine, 155 ; carbonic acid, condensed by potash, 0*25 ; duration of 1 
foot of gas in maintaining a flame from single jet 4 inches in length, 83*3 
minutes ; illuminating power by photometer, 27'JM stand, candles. 



167 
SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. 



ZOOLOGY. 

Syrrhaptes paradoxus. — The following paragraph appeared in the 
" Times'' Newspaper of 6th ult. :•— 

" Sir, — Another specimen of this remarkable bird has met its death on 
British soil, and narrowly escaped passing into oblivion unhonoured and 
unknown. Shot by some unknown person, the precise locality also as 
yet unknown, it was received on the 1st inst. from Perth, in a basket of 
leverets, rabbits and pigeons, forwarded to Mr A. Ruthven, wholesale 
game-dealer of this town, for sale in the ordinary way of business, with- 
out note or comment of any kind. By Mr Ruthven it was kindly given 
to Mr Thomas Littler, who presented it to this museum. It was a very 
fine adult male, and had apparently been dead a day or two. — I have 
the honour to be, Sir, your obedient servant, 

" Thos. J. Moore, Curator. 

"Derby Museum, William Brown Street, 
Liverpool, June 6." 

The appearance of these birds in this country of late years is very 
curious and remarkable, and the questions arise, "What is the cause? 
Have they been previously overlooked ? Specimens of the bird were for- 
merly extremely difficult to procure, not perhaps from the scarcity of 
the species in the districts which it frequents, but from inaccessibility of 
the districts, and the general difficulty of procuring anything from them 
which was out of the ordinary line of commerce. The opening up of 
China made them more common, and specimens brought by Mr Swinhoe 
from the neighbourhood of Pekin were sold at a moderate price. This will 
not, however, account for the appearance of these birds in Great Britain. 

I have received a note from Professor Dickie of Aberdeen which may 
throw some light on Mr Moore's letter in the lt Times," and the speci- 
men forwarded to Liverpool was either part of the same flock of birds 
which went on to Aberdeenshire, or of other flocks driven over to us under 
the same circumstances. 

Aberdeen, June 1, 1863. Dear Sir William, — " Two specimens of 
Syrrhaptes pallassii, Temm., were shot on the coast near this at Mun- 
chals, seven miles to south of Aberdeen. There was a flock of at least 
fifteen. Mr Carfrae, the curator of our Museum, directed my attention 
to the specimens, they having been given him to stuff." 

Professor Dickie has also enclosed the following notes from his intel • 
ligent curator, Mr Carfrae. The food they selected in this country and 
manner of fight, &c, are all interesting points : — 

" They were shot near Stonehaven, May 28, 1863 — Weight of two spe- 
cimens, 1 lb. 9J; oz., 1 lb. 9| oz. avoird. Size — extreme length, 18 T V inches ; 
breadth, 25|| inches. Bill, bluish, darker at tip, slightly compressed and 
depressed. Nostrils, small, basil, covered with feathers. Iris very dark. 
Ears, external apertures very large ; the colouring agrees with all the 
descriptions I have seen. Stomach very muscular, inner layer of a horny 
consistency, intestines short or medium length. Crop large, and filled with 
turnip and grass seeds ; the birds were in fine condition, fat, and appa- 
rently healthy ; there were about twelve or fifteen in the flock when first 
seen ; they were very, shy, and flew very quickly, but low ; they have not 
been seen in the neighbourhood since ; the bones, &c. of the specimens 
are in the Museum here." 

W. J., Ed. 



168 Scientific Intelligence. 

BOTANY. 

Botanical Collector in British Columbia. — Mr Robert Brown, the 
Botanical Collector sent out by the British Columbian Association, reached 
Victoria, Vancouver's Island, on 6th May 1863, and has now commenced 
his examination of the Flora of the Island. 

Cinchona Bark. — The Red Bark grown in India, after two years' 
growth, has been found to yield quinine in the same quantity as the same 
species of Cinchona in South America. In Mr Maclvor's report of 31st 
March 1863, it appears that there are now 146,548 Cinchona plants in 
the Nilghiri Hills, 35,750 of which have been planted out. A qualified 
gardener is about to proceed to Darjiling to superintend Cinchona planta- 
tions there. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Dr Hector s Exploration of Neiv Zealand. — The following notice has 
been contributed to the "Otago Daily Times" by one of Dr Hector's 
party. It is dated " Left Bank of the Matukituki River, March 8th, 1863." 
After alluding to the preparations made for the expedition to the West 
Coast, he says : — 

" Proceeding up the valley of the Matukituki, we found it to preserve 
the same character for several miles, viz., a broad shingle channel, out of 
all proportion to the magnitude of the stream, and only very partially 
occupied by it. Our progress was slow, so that by the evening of the 
first day we had only accomplished seven miles. A dense fog continued 
to obscure the higher mountains from our sight. Early next morning I 
obtained my first view of the icy pinnacles of Mount Aspiring, its appa- 
rent altitude being greatly increased by the rolling mist which still en- 
shrouded its base. Mount Aspiring is one of a group of lofty mountains, 
all of which it evidently overtops by a pyramidal mass of rock almost too 
steep to allow of eternal snow resting on its surface, and which forms the 
characteristic feature by which it might be recognised almost at any 
distance. About ten miles above our main camp, the Matukituki is 
formed by the confluence of two equal-sized branches. The one from the 
north, although the shortest, may be properly considered the main stream. 
The other, which sweeps from the west, joins it through a rocky defile, 
which at first sight we anticipated would offer an obstacle to our progress. 
We were, however, surprised to find it occupied by an open flat, fringed by 
noble forests of beech, which clothe the mountain sides also to the height 
of about 2000 feet. A short distance above the junction of the two 
branches, we forded the stream. The scenery for two miles above this ford 
is extremely beautiful. The mountains on either hand are to be seen 
furrowed by impetuous torrents issuing from the snow at their summits, 
and gaining the level of the river by a succession of wild leaps. One of 
the most strikingly picturesque of these cascades descends by six pre- 
cipitous bounds from an altitude of about 1200 feet, forming graceful 
curves of white spray that are momentarily swayed into fantastic shapes 
by every gust of wind. The dark green shades of the massive beech 
forests along the base of the mountains also, are relieved at intervals by 
the pale verdure of patches of Mallow trees, which at this season were 
covered with their snowy white blossom. 

"On the 13th February, we recrossed the river, and making a con- 
siderable ascent on its right bank, gained the elevated terrace which 
borders the gorge immediately below M'Kerrow's Flat. The tangled 
nature of the scrubby vegetation in this portion of the valley, and the 
frequent succession of deep gullies, rendered our progress so slow and 
tedious, that Dr Hector struck off to the river, and succeeded in finding a 
more practicable track by which to avoid the labour of hewing, as well as 



Miscellaneous. 169 

a means of again descending into the immediate valley of the stream. In 
the gorge, the channel is beset with huge boulders, rendering the river 
for some distance a series of foaming rapids, as well as preventing any 
track being practicable along the edge of its waters. Just above the 
gorge, through a narrow fissure in the mountains, there is a fine view of 
the glaciers which clothe the southern flanks of Mount Aspiring. 

" The Matukituki in this part of its course flows due south, and we 
were now within a few miles of the boundary line of the Province of Can- 
terbury, which crosses it at right angles, and opposite to a depression in 
the mountains to the westward which from a distance had seemed favour- 
able to our further progress to the west, and from which there issued a 
large tributary to the river. As it was Dr Hector's wish to keep as close 
to the boundary line as possible, and within the province of Otago, he 
devoted the 15th in searching for a pass in this direction. By a laborious 
climb, he ascended the mountains to a height of about 5000 feet, but 
could observe no available route, as the extent of the nick, or depression, 
was deceptive, and confined to the exterior range bordering the valley ; 
while to the westward a succession of lofty mountains rose from an exten- 
sive mer de glace. To the north, however, he perceived that, by following 
the Matukituki to its source, a comparatively low saddle would lead into a 
region of country in which the mountains appeared to have a lesser eleva- 
tion. He resolved, therefore, to make the first attempt in this direction. 
" On the 16th we continued our journey along the edge of the river, 
climbing over the huge boulders which are dispersed along its margin. 
The mountains on either side of the stream present cliffs quite per- 
pendicular to its waters, so that we were compelled to climb a spur and 
pass through the woods to avoid the obstacles which they thus offered to 
our progress. Passing through the thick woods, which are intersected by 
deep cuttings choked with fern, scrub, and masses of decayed vegetation, 
we again descended to the boulders in the bed of the river, and following 
it a short distance, merged on a small plain about a mile and a half long, 
and occupying almost the whole breadth of the valley. We encamped 
here, at the foot of a strip of mountain, which some time previous had 
been cleared of forest by the violence of a recent avalanche. A mass of 
trees torn up by the roots, and surrounded by an enormous quantity of 
rock, lay piled around us, an indication of the tremendous power which 
produced such ruin. The ascent towards the source of the Matukituki 
from this point is very rapid, and at the distance of about three miles from 
it the first glacier is met. It is very insignificant, indeed scarcely deserv- 
ing the name. From the ice cave, at its lowest extremity, a small stream 
flows to the main channel, which, both above and below their junction, is 
contracted and rocky, causing the river to assume the character of a series 
of foaming cascades. Four miles still further up the valley, we attained 
the limit of the woods ; and although early in the afternoon, we encamped 
at this place, as we should get no fuel until we had crossed the saddle and 
descended to the limit of the woods on the other side. The altitude at 
which this limit on the eastern side of the saddle is observable is about 
3500 feet above the sea. From this point to the base of the height of 
land, the river valley is extremely rugged, being occupied by old glaciers 
presenting the general chaos common to all moraines, — viz., a confused 
mass of angular and smoothly worn boulders distributed without any re 
gard of size, or order of deposit. 

" We were now at the most north-westerly portion of the province ol 
Otago, and close to the boundary line which separates it from that of 
Canterbury, having followed the largest tributary of the Molyneux to its 
source. By a steep climb, we gained the summit of the saddle, follow- 
ing the course of the larger of the minor arms of the Matukituki, travelling 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. 1. JULY 1863. Y 



170 Scientific Intelligence. 

a portion of the distance on the uppermost glacier which feeds the river. 
From this point a most magnificent view was spread out before us. The 
high mountains to our right, with their clear blue pinnacles of ice pointing 
to the sky, and shrouded in enormous glaciers, presented a truly Alpine 
scene, while the whole valley at our feet was completely filled by a 
glacier occupying an area of about five square miles. This latter, as well 
as the mountain from w r hich it descends, and the river to which it gives 
birth, Dr Hector named in honour of Mr Haast, the provincial geologist 
of Canterbury, that gentleman being the first scientific traveller to describe 
the glaciers of New Zealand. After making an examination as to the 
best way to descend, a task both perilous and laborious, owing to the 
glacialised surface of the rock composing the mountain, and the high 
angle of inclination of its side, we commenced our descent. For some 
distance we succeeded easily, but occasionally we were completely stopped 
by a peculiar blue rock interbedded with the slate, and which may be 
appropriately likened, from its undulated surface, to corrugated iron. 
Although we had started from the saddle at about 1 p.m., it was grow- 
ing dark by the time we had gained the upper part of the small glacier to 
our left, and it was at least 800 feet above the true base of the mountain, 
or 900 above the surface of Haast's Glacier. The continual fall of 
avalanches and loose stones in the valle}' - occupied by the smaller glacier 
rendered travelling very dangerous, and as night was fast approaching, 
Dr Hector thought it advisable to reascend a portion of the mountain, 
and avail ourselves of a hole in the rock for a night's lodgings, as well as 
a shelter from the falling ice. 

" The night was extremely comfortless, with a high wind that howled 
among the mountain fastnesses, and chilled us in our rocky cave ; and at 
intervals a crashing noise, like the outburst of distant thunder, told us of 
avalanches quitting their icy thrones to pay their tribute to the ocean 
king. Early next morning we descended to the small glacier alluded to 
above, and prepared to traverse it. The valley which it occupies does 
not exceed a mile and a half long, and about a quarter of a mile broad ; 
but owing to the steepness of the glacier, and the deep crevasses or rents 
that occur in the ice, a large amount of Alpine experience and skill is 
requisite before attempting to cross it. It assumes also the shape of a 
wedge, and in consequence of its sides nowhere touching the rocks that 
border it on either hand, but surrounded by wide chasms instead, its im- 
practicability is therefore rendered still more apparent. Previous to 
starting from Dunedin, Dr Hector, by his foresight, had provided a small- 
sized cord of about three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter, and eighty 
feet in length, similar to what is used as tracking-lines in canoe voyages 
on the rivers of Canada, and from its great utility to parties fording 
rapid rivers in this country, experience has taught us that it cannot be 
too strongly recommended. For instance, when crossing the strong and 
rapid current of a river, our method was to tie the cord to our waists, at 
a distance of twelve or fourteen feet the one from the other, then, while 
the leader was baffling with the force of the stream in the deepest and 
strongest part of its course, he was supported by the others until he had 
reached a portion of the river the force of which he was able to contend 
with, and at the same time afford assistance to the next in order to cross, 
and so on until all had gained the opposite bank. In descending the 
small glacier in like manner, we were thus attached the one to the other, 
to prevent any serious accident happening in case of slipping the foot or 
falling into one of those frightful crevasses, the sight of which is often 
alone sufficient to unnerve the stoutest heart. We encountered two very 
dangerous fissures in the descent. Both were too wide to leap, and we 
cleared them in the following manner. Dr Hector sought out the most 



Miscellaneous . 1 71 

practicable part, where the ice on one side approached more nearly the ice 
on the other, and with an axe cut steps to where it was possible to leap ; 
then he continued cutting steps in a slanting direction until he had gained 
the top of the ice on the opposite side of the crevasse. This being done, 
we attached the packs to the middle of the cord, and he pulled them 
across. Then with our waists carefully attached, and following the steps 
he had cut, we passed over singly in the manner he himself had done. We 
occupied two hours and a half in getting to the commencement of Haast's 
Glacier. 

" Dr Hector having carefully examined the surface with, his glass, and 
fixed upon the best route for avoiding the ' crevasses,' took the lead, three 
of us being lashed together as before by the rope. At first we had to 
ascend the glacier for some distance, to head a wide and profound crevasse 
compelling us to pass among blocks of ice and stone, the debris of ava- 
lanches which fall every ten or fifteen minutes from the higher part of 
the glacier. Luckily for us, by hurrying on we passed this danger during 
an interval, but had scarcely got beyond its reach when one of the most 
tremendous avalanches that we had witnessed came rolling down, sending 
blocks of solid ice of many tons in weight to within a few yards of where 
we stood, while the place we had so recently passed was overwhelmed 
with smaller fragments and masses of rock. The height from which, this 
ice cascade descends is about 1500 feet, and the mass of ice thus formed 
into a glacier is probably not less than 500 feet in thickness at its upper 
end, and at its lower about 100 feet. Its length is five miles, and in that 
distance the slope of its surface amounts to 1100 feet. 

''We occupied the same time in crossing Haast's Glacier as that in 
descending the smaller one already alluded to, viz., 2-J hours, and at its 
completion we encamped a few yards below where the river of that name 
commences its hurried course. Four and nine miles from its source, the 
river passes through gorges with an enormous velocity, and so rapid is the 
descent of its valley, that viewing tall trees at a comparatively short dis- 
tance off, their tops are seen on a level with the eye. Dr Hector ascer- 
tained its fall in this part of its course to be 7 in 30. Continuing our 
course for about six miles further, we were arrested in our progress by a 
precipitous cut cliff, which for about 100 feet above the surface of the river 
is quite devoid of vegetation, and presents a perpendicular smooth sur- 
face. Considering that we had been travelling the whole distance down 
the stream in a northerly direction, and thereby penetrating into the 
province of Canterbury, Dr Hector felt that he was thus on ground be- 
yond the limit of his especial duties. Having, however, taken so much 
trouble in contending with the difficulties of this district, he would obtain 
as much information as possible relative to the mountainous region to the 
westward, before proceeding any further by the valley of the Haast. 
The following morning we proceeded along the summit of the ridge to 
the highest point of the mountain, when, to our great delight, the ocean 
shore lay stretched before us at the distance of about fifteen miles. From 
this point the whole course of the river by which we had descended was 
accurately traced, and it was found to sweep through a perfect canon at a 
distance of two miles above the point at which it debouches into a river, 
the valley of which ranges from three to five miles in width, and whose 
volume of water is at least equal to the Molyneux where it leaves the 
Wanaka Lake. From careful bearings, which Dr Hector had taken 
throughout the route we had followed, we learnt that what we saw was 
Jackson's Bay ; he therefore named the river which flows into it the 
Jackson. 

" The sight of the ocean was too great a temptation for us to be satis- 
fiedthat we had proceeded far enough, and, although our provisions were 



172 Scientific Intelligence. 

almost entirely consumed, we determined to push on. Keeping along 
the ridge, which forms the northern boundary of a thickly timbered 
valley that leads into that of the Jackson, we travelled for about one and 
a half miles before commencing the descent. From the ridge, the slope 
down to the former is grassy and undulating, with no timber, but dotted 
thickly with small lakes surrounded by peat. The whole surface of this 
grassy slope is cut up by numerous rents or fissures, indicating, probably, 
that this region had been formerly visited by earthquakes. 

" It was about noon before we descended into the woods ; the thick 
masses of decayed vegetation, overgrown by mosses and undergrowth, 
served to fill up the spaces between the rugged angular masses of rock, 
which on this portion of the Pigeon Mountain seemed to be detached 
from the mountain side. Great care was taken in passing over this first 
part of the journey, as sometimes treacherous holes lay concealed beneath 
a spongy layer of moss and rotten wood. The tomatacowra, that painful 
impediment to the traveller, does not exist in the woods of the west, and 
the bayonette grass, equally cruel, is of exceedingly rare occurrence. This 
is undoubtedly owing to the woods having never been devastated by fires. 
The latter fact is remarkable, and affords a strong presumption that for a 
great number of years perhaps never have these localities been traversed 
by man. A succession of deep descents, occupied by splendid timber (the 
Totara being the forest king) led us to the edge of the most thickly-clad 
flat which occurs at the forks of the Jackson and Haast Rivers. Just as 
darkness had set in we struck the margin of the latter, and, for the first 
time since starting, retired to rest supperless. 

" The magnificence of the primeval forests of the West Coast must be 
seen to be thoroughly appreciated. Not only do the Totara and beech 
attain gigantic proportions, but the Fuchsia and Tutu become very large 
trees, averaging two feet in thickness. 

11 Our camp on the bank of the Haast was uncomfortable in the ex- 
treme; the rain poured down on us in torrents, saturating us in a short 
time, while the myriads of musquitoes made a sortie from the bush, and 
kept us in a perfect state of fever the whole night. With the dawn of 
the following morning, the 23d, in a tropical-like flood of rain, and witli 
no breakfast, we were fortunate enough to strike probably the only ford 
for some distance at about a mile above the forks, and proceeded by the 
flats about four miles down the valley of the Jackson. The rain had evi- 
dently set in for a lengthened period, and although this was the first long 
continuation of wet weather we had experienced since leaving Dunedin, 
it was a circumstance greatly to be regretted, seeing that we were now 
only about eight miles from the sea, and the rapidly increasing flood of 
the river was the greatest obstacle to our reaching its mouth. Taking 
into consideration also the density of the woods, and the distance we 
should have to travel before obtaining further supplies, Dr Hector 
thought it advisable to abandon the project of descending the valley fur- 
ther. The accomplishment of the journey to the very brink of the ocean, 
under present circumstances, would have been at a great risk ; while, on 
the other hand, with sufficient provisions and moderate weather, the work 
would have been the easiest which had fallen to our share since leaving 
the central camp on the Matukituki." 



Lift of Publications received is postponed till October Number, 



THE 



EDINBURGH NEW 

PHILOSOPHICAL JOURNAL. 



St Michael's Mount and the Phoenicians.* By E. Edmonds, 

Esq. 

To the astonishment of Oornishmen, especially of those 
best acquainted with the subject, it was at the Truro 
meeting of the Cambrian Archaeological Association in 
August last, gravely questioned whether the Phoenicians 
ever visited Cornwall. It is true that some authors have 
lately contended that the tin in Canaan in the days of 
Moses (Num. xxxi. 22) must have come from India. But 
they have done so without a tittle of evidence ; there being- 
no more reason for supposing India to have supplied Canaan 
or Egypt with tin 3000 years ago, because tin is now so 
largely exported from the Isle of Banca, than for imagining 
Cornwall to have then exported copper as well as tin be- 
cause it does so now. Other authors have contended that 
the tin then in Canaan came from Tartessus, near Cadiz, the 
Tarshish of Scripture (Jon. i. 3 ; Isa. xxiii. 6 ; Ezek. xxvii. 12). 
But if Tartessus, or any other part of Spain, had in ancient 
times produced much tin, it would in all probability, like 
Cornwall, have continued to do so to the present day. No 
tin mines, however, appear to have ever existed in Spain, 
as Dr George Smith was lately informed by the College of 

* Head (with the exception of the postscript) at the Annual Meeting of the 
Royal Institution of Cornwall on the 29th of May 1863. Communicated by 
the author. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. II. OCTOBER 1863. Z 



174 On St Michael's Mount and the Phainicians. 

Mines in Madrid in answer to his inquiries. " I cannot 
learn," says the writer from Madrid, " that Spain ever pro- 
duced any quantity of this metal. The Government do not 
work any mines of tin. The quantity being produced at 
present is very small, chiefly by streamers, near the granite 
hills in Gallicia and Zamora. I cannot learn that there is 
any tin-mining in the country." This quotation is from a 
note prefixed to an excellent little work on the Cassiterides, 
published this year by Dr Smith, wherein he shows, by the 
most satisfactory historical and other evidence, that the 
Phoenicians never procured their tin from India, but always 
from Cornwall, with the exception perhaps of a small 
portion from Tartessus. 

In addition to what has been stated by this learned author, 
I would mention a few more things worthy of being recorded. 

That Mountsbay was known to Greek historians before 
the time of Herodotus, and as far back at least as the 6th 
century B.C., is shown by the following quotation from 
Diodorus, who was evidently not aware that the locality 
described by Hecatseus and the other historians was the 
very Belerion which he himself has described, where the 
tin was dug out of the earth, and near which was the island 
Iktin. To those, however, who are familiar with Mounts- 
bay, this identity is very apparent. " Amongst them that 
have written old stories much like fables, Hecataeus and 
some others say that there is an island in the ocean, over 
against Gaul (as big as Sicily), under the arctic pole, where 
the Hyperboreans inhabit, so called because they lie beyond 
the breezes of the north wind. That the soil there is very 
rich and very fruitful, and the climate temperate, inasmuch 
as there are ttvo crops in the year." The island here re- 
ferred to can be no other than Britain ; but the only part 
of Britain to which the description applies is Mountsbay, 
where still " there are two crops in the year." Whether 
the other writers alluded to by Diodorus lived before or 
after Hecatseus, we are not informed ; but as Hecatseus was 
born 549 B.C., we may conclude that the fact recorded was 
known in Grecian history as far back at least as the sixth 
century b.c. : and from whom is it so likely to have been 
first related as by the Phoenician mariners, who were 



On St Michael 1 s Mount and the Phoenicians. 175 

then, and had been for many centuries before, the greatest 
and most extensive navigators in the world ! * 

Let us proceed with the quotation. " They say that 
Latona was born there, and therefore that they worship 
Apollo above all other gods. . . . They say, moreover, 
that Apollo once in nineteen years comes into the island, in 
which space of time the stars perform their courses and re- 
turn to the same point, and therefore the Greeks call the 
revolution of nineteen years " the Great Year." This cycle 
of nineteen years, at the end of which the new and full 
moons happen within an hour and a half of the same times 
of the year, as they did at the beginning, and by which 
Christians have always regulated their moveable festivals, 
was thus apparently known to the Druids in Britain ages 
before Meton discovered it in 430 b.c. To it, therefore (and 
not to the twelve months in the year and the seven days 
in the week, as Borlase imagined), the four " Druidical 
Temples," within six miles of Penzance, may have pointed. 
These consisted originally each of nineteen detached stones 
or unhewn pillars placed upright, from three to five feet 
above ground, in rude circles, the smallest circle being 
about sixty-five, the largest about eighty feet in diameter. 
Each circle is vulgarly, and has been immemorially, called 
the " nine maidens," an abbreviation doubtless for " nine- 
teen maidens." This I mention because some modern 
authors have, contrary to Borlase, contended that the 
original number of pillars forming each circle was more 
than nineteen, as it has a space between two of its pillars 
much wider than that between any other two. But this 
widest space may have been originally intended for the 
passing in and out of religious processions. The name 
Belerion, anciently given to the Landsend district, and the 
name Druids, by which the priests there were called, be- 
cause they performed their religious rites within groves of 
oaks (Hos. iv. 13), as did the worshippers of Bel or Baal in 
Palestine, are quite in keeping with the supposed Phoenician 
origin of these four very ancient temples. 

* Josh. xix. 29 ; Is. xxiii. 3, 7, 8 ; Ezek. xxvii. 3, 4, 12, 33. It is stated in 
Haydn's Dictionary of Dates (8th edition) under the word Tin — " The 
Phoenicians traded with England for this article more than 1100 years b.c." 



176 On St Michael* s Mount and the Phoenicians. 

As Mountsbay is the only place that answers to the de- 
scription referred to by Diodorus, so the Mount which gives 
name to that bay is the only place that coincides with 
Diodorus' description of Iktin. I say Iktin, because Diodorus 
calls it by no other name. His translators (French and 
English as well as Latin), assuming this barbarous name to 
be declinable, and finding it in the accusative case, have 
concluded Iktis to be the nominative, although, if it were 
declinable, Iktin might have been the nominative with as 
much grammatical propriety as Iktis, — particularly as the 
Greek word tis does not give tin at all for the accusative, 
but Una. Had they any doubt which it should be, a 
moment's reflection would have shown that the nominative 
here must, in order to agree with Diodorus' account of the 
mount, be Iktin, " Tin-port," inasmuch as Iktis has no 
reference whatever to tin. Were it not for this misnomer in 
the translations, no author probably would ever have con- 
tended that the Isle of Wight, the ancient Vectis, was the 
Iktin of Diodorus. Many have done so, at various times ; 
but after the richly deserved criticisms by Dr Smith, to 
which they have been subjected, none; I think, will venture 
to do so again ; not even the very bold writer in the 
Saturday Review of 8th November 1862 (p. 563), who, 
finding no place but St Michael's Mount to agree with 
Diodorus' description of Iktin, tries to stultify that author 
by alleging that he says, " not only the Isle of Wight, but 
all the islands between Gaul and Britain, can be reached 
from the mainland at low water," although, as we shall pre- 
sently see, Diodorus says no such thing. The reviewer, in 
giving us what he thought the meaning of the author, seems 
to have forgotten that Diodorus Siculus lived in an island of 
the Mediterranean, and wrote for those who knew nothing 
about the ebbing and flowing of the sea, so that after having 
described the Isle of Iktin as accessible by carts " during 
the recess of the tide," he was obliged to explain himself, 
and to illustrate the effects of the tides, by adding, — " and 
it is something peculiar that happens to the islands in these 
parts lying between Europe and Britain ; for at the full 
tide, the intervening passage being overflowed, they appear 
islands, but when the sea retires a large space is left dry. 



On St MichaeVs Mount and the Phoenicians. Ill 

and they are seen as peninsulas." This explanation of 
what his countrymen would have regarded as a most im- 
probable phenomenon, is literally true ; for he does not say, 
as the reviewer imagines, that all the islands between 
Europe and Britain came within this description — nor 
indeed that any of them did, which were in deep water like 
the Isle of Wight ; but he speaks only of those which, like 
the Mount, were in shallow water and on the coast. 

The only reason given by the reviewer for considering 
the Isle of Wight to be the ancient Iktin, is its being nearer 
than the Mount to Gaul, and because Diodorus says that at 
Iktin " the traders purchase the tin of the natives, and 
transport it into Gaul; and, finally, travelling through Gaul 
on foot, in about thirty days they bring their burdens on 
horses to the mouth of the river Rhone." This passage, 
particularly the word finally, which I have written in italics, 
leads me to conclude that the tin was carried most of the 
way from Iktin to the mouth of the Ehone by sea, and 
therefore probably to the inmost part of the Bay of Biscay, 
and from thence by land to Marseilles, at the mouth of the 
Rhone, to avoid sailing round the Spanish peninsula, as 
was the more ancient route while Tyre and Tarshish were 
flourishing. And it is remarkable that the sandy parish of 
Lelant in the Bay of St Ives, only four miles from the Mount, 
is called by the same name as Les Landes, the sandy coast of 
the Bay of Biscay (t and d being interchangeable letters), 
as if the one name had been derived from the other through 
the tin-traders, who must have been well acquainted with both 
places. Moreover, the carriage by land from the north of 
France to the Mediterranean, as the reviewer reads Diodorus, 
would, in those rude ages, have been not only more expen- 
sive, but more unsafe than by the route I have mentioned. 

As it is now established beyond all reasonable question, 
that the Phoenicians came to Mountsbay for tin, both be- 
fore and for many centuries after the time of Moses, and 
that the Mount under the name of Iktin, is the most ancient 
British port known to history ; it will be interesting, in 
conclusion, to consider the derivation of this name, and of 
the name of the island in which we live. 

Ik is the Cornish for " port ;" tin is the metal so called 



178 On St Michael's Mount and the Phoenicians. 

(as is supposed) by the Phoenicians, and the name continues 
unchanged in the Saxon, English, Dutch ancl Danish 
languages ; but the Swedish name is now tenn, the German 
zinn, the French etain, the Latin stannum, the Irish stan, 
the Cornish stean, the Armoric stean, and also staen ; the 
first letter of each of the last five names being a mere prefix, 
as in the modern word sneeze for neeze (Job xli. 18). With 
this exception, and except the termination of the Latin 
name, these eight different spellings are merely different 
ways in which different nations pronounce tin. Iktin, 
therefore, signifies " tin port ;" and the Mount was probably 
thus called by the foreign tin-traders who frequented it. 
The Cornish or ancient Britons would have called it Tinik, 
although porth, another Cornish word synonymous with 
tie, rarely follows, but almost always precedes, the word to 
which it is joined. "When other tin-ports began also to be fre- 
quented, the foreign traders may, by way of distinguishing it 
from the Falmouth or other tin-ports, have called it Bre- 
tin-ik, " the Mount-tin-port," Bre being the Cornish for 
" Mount;" and euphony as well as the British mode of col- 
locating these three words, would have prevented them from 
calling it Bre-ik-tin. Assuming this to be the true deriva- 
tion, it is a beautiful illustration of the fact of ancient 
names being originally faithful descriptions of the places or 
things to which they were given. For Bre-tin-ik, " the 
Mount- tin-port," w T as not only a mount, and one of the 
strongest natural fortresses to protect the tin carried thither 
from the mainland, but also the safest port in the bay for 
ships to remain in until laden for a foreign voyage. And 
this name, although so appropriate, was at the same time 
as uncommunicative of its locality as could have been 
desired by the Phoenicians, who, as is well known, sought to 
conceal the place whence they procured their tin. 

As a name originally confined to a very small partof a 
province or country often becomes the name of the whole, 
so the Mount, which gives its modern name to the finest bay 
in England, may have given its ancient name to all Britain, 
not only because it was the most striking object, and the 
most important place in our island known to the Phoenicians, 
but also because this ancient name (Bre-tin-ik) told no more 



On St Michael's Mount and the Phoenicians. 179 

of its locality than did the name Cassiterides, " Tin Islands," 
used by Herodotus B.C. 445. And Bre-iin-ik is almost 
literatim not only the name (Brettanike) by which Diodorus 
calls Britain, but also the original Phoenician or Hebrew 
word (Baratanac, " the land of tin") from which, accord- 
ing to the learned Bochart, our island was called. 

To Cornishmen, the last survivors in England of the 
ancient Britons, this subject must be particularly interest- 
ing, especially when we regard Tyre, in its most flourishing 
condition, as typical of England at the present time, — 
" very glorious in the midst of the seas ;" " whose merchants 
are princes ;" and who hath been for ages, and still is " the 
covering cherub" (Ezek. xxviii. 14, 16), beneath whose 
wings fugitives from their own lands, for offences not 
deemed by us " worthy of death or of bonds," have always 
found a secure asylum. 

P.S. — Since writing the above I have seen the pamphlet 
just published of Colonel Sir Henry James, E.E., director 
of the Ordnance Survey, entitled " Note on the Block of 
Tin dredged up in Falmouth harbour." This block, pre- 
sented forty years ago to the Koyal Institution of Cornwall, 
weighs about 130 lbs., and appears to be of the very form 
(acrgayaXav guditoug) into which Diodorus says the tin was 
cast before it was carried in carts to Iktin. " It is 2 feet 
11 inches long, 11 inches wide, and 3 inches thick at the 
centre, perfectly flat on one side, but curved on the other, 
and having four prolongations at the corners, each one foot 
long ;" thus resembling in its outline a London butcher- 
boy's tray, and well adapted for being carried by hand by 
two men ; for being firmly placed on the curved bottom of 
a boat for exportation, and for being afterwards strapped, 
two of them together, to a pack-saddle with their flat sides 
against the sides of the horse. A plan of it is given 
below. The boat containing this block is supposed by Sir 
Henry to have been lost on its voyage from St Michael's 
Mount to France, at the entrance of Falmouth harbour, 
where it was dredged up. This publication will be printed 
in the next Keport of the Eoyal Institution of Cornwall, 
together with a letter to Sir Henry, dated 16th June 1862, 



180 On St Michael* s Mount and the Phoenicians. 

from the late Sir George C. Lewis, stating he was satisfied 
that St Michael's Mount " was the port from which the tin 
was shipped for the coast of Gaul." The pamphlet thus 
concludes, " I do not think it necessary to discuss the claims 
of the Isle of Wight to be considered the Iktis, as the de- 
scription of the place does not now, and could not at any 
time have applied to it in any one particular." This agrees 
with my own remarks in respect of the Isle of Wight. 

Sir Henry has confined himself to the places where this 
block of tin was shipped and lost. I have elsewhere* 
pointed out the very spot where it was probably cast into 
its most singular shape before it was carried to its place 
of shipment. This spot is at the mouth of the stream, half 
a mile north of the Mount. By a temporary diversion of 
the stream in 1849, a deep section was made in the sand- 
hillock forming its western boundary. On that occasion 
my nephew (Frederic Bernard Edmonds) and myself dis- 
covered, two or three yards beneath the surface, remains of 
ancient walls rudely built of unhewn stones, and close by 
them great quantities of ashes, charcoal, slag, broken pot- 
tery of very rude manufacture, brick, and fragments of a 
bronze vessel resting with their outsides on charcoal. A con- 
siderable portion of the copper had combined with the char- 
coal during the lapse of ages, and a beautiful green sub- 
stance had resulted — the carbonate of copper. Two of the 
fragments, each about 6 inches long, 4 wide, and only 
the sixteenth of an inch thick, had been evidently parts of 
the circular top or edge of a furnace (3 feet in diameter) 
bent back into a horizontal rim, three quarters of an inch 
broad. No charcoal was on the in sides of the fragments, 
but their outsides were completly blackened and covered 
witli it. Diodorus speaks of two fusions ; the tin ore being 
no doubt, as at present, first smelted in contact with the 
fuel ; and the metal, thus purified, being afterwards melted 
in furnaces by fire applied only externally. For the latter 
process, this very ancient bronzef furnace was probably 

* The Land's End District, p. 9. 

t In Liddell and Scott's Greek-English Lexicon (abridgment), 1859, it is 
stated that " Tin was usually melted and cast upon bronze." But it is now 
melted in iron, and the diameter of the iron furnace used at Messrs Bolitho' 



Hixn 1 New Phil . Journal 



Few Series, Vol. XVUf.PLJV. 



' : 111 
1 




- -1 el * - F Huth, eiL« 



W.H.M'F 



On St Michael's Mount and the Phoenicians. 181 

brought and used by the Mediterranean traders as long as 
it continued fit for service. When the traders ceased to 
visit Mountsbay these forsaken ruins were gradually and 
completely buried beneath the sand driven in by the winds 
from the shore, and the turf had from time immemorial 
until 1849 being growing over them. 

One of the bronze fragments I presented, soon after their 
discovery, to the Museum of Economic Geology in London, 
where there is also a cast of the block of tin described by 
Sir Henry. The other fragments, with some of the char- 
coal and slag, I have now presented to the Eoyal Institu- 
tion of Cornwall, so that the block itself and a part of the 
furnace in which it may have been melted, may be seen, 
side by side, at its Museum in Truro, confirming, in a most 
singular manner, a passage in the history of Britain written 
before the Christian era. 




Descriptions of Neiv Genera and Species of Diatoms from the 
South Pacific. By E. K. Greville, LL.D., F.E.S.E., &c* 
Part II. (Plate IV.) 

Grammatophora. 

Grammatophora pusilla, n. sp. Grev. — Small ; septa un- 
dulate, with the inner ends incurved ; undulations becoming 
obsolete towards the margin ; strise obscure. Length of 
frustule about -0018". (Plate IV. fig. 15.) 

Hab. — Curteis Straits, Queensland, in a dredging com- 
municated by Dr Eoberts of Sydney. 



Melting House, near Penzance, is very nearly the same as was that of the bronze 
1 furnace now described. 

* Kead before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 9th July 1863. 
NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII NO. II. — OCTOBER 1863. 2 A 



182 Dr Greville's Descriptions of New Genera 

A very delicate little species, coming nearest to G. anguina 
of Kiitzing, but differing remarkably in the character of the 
undulations of the septa, as will be perceived at once by a 
reference to the figures. In G. anguina the undulations 
are equal, or nearly so throughout ; while in our present 
species the lower ones are scarcely perceptible, and each 
septum near the margin resembles a sort of footstalk to the 
upper (or inner) part. I find the number of the undula- 
tions to vary, the difference not apparently depending upon 
the size of the frustule. 



Amphora. 

Amphora magnifica, n. sp. Grev. — Frustules large, rec- 
tangular, slightly constricted, truncate at the ends ; outer 
portion only visible in the middle, where it is narrow and 
inflected ; nodule minute ; dorsum with numerous longi- 
tudinal lines (about 10 in *001"), and brilliant scattered 
puncta. Length -0040" to -0055". (Plate IY. fig. 1.) 

Hab. — Curteis Straits, Queensland. 

The finest species of the genus. The whole surface is 
covered with numerous longitudinal lines, which have a 
plicate appearance, and are sprinkled over with luminous 
gland-like puncta. The outer portion is inflected in the 
middle for little more than a third of the length of the 
frustule. 

Amphora pulchra, n. sp. Grev. — Frustules large, con- 
stricted, somewhat panduriform, with the ends truncate ; 
outer portion very narrow, disappearing before reaching the 
rounded corners ; dorsum with very numerous longitudinal 
lines, and four brilliant submarginal puncta on each side. 
Length •0040" to -0050". (Plate IV. fig. 2.) 

Hab. — Curteis Straits, Queensland. 

Evidently related to the preceding, but differing in the 
much greater constriction, in the more numerous longi- 
tudinal lines, and in the luminous puncta being limited to 
four on each side (two in each lobe, one of them being near 
the angle, and the other at no great distance from it). 

Amphora undulata, n. sp. Grev. — Frustules rectangular, 
with truncate shortly produced ends, and four sub-equal in- 



and Species of Diatoms from the South Pacific. 183 

flations ; striae coarse, 14 in '001". Length 'OOSO". (Plate 
IV. fig. 3.) 

Hab. — Curteis Straits, Queensland. 

This is a very conspicuous member of a little group, the 
frustules of which are distinguished by their constricted or 
sinuated margins. Three species — A, binodis, angularis, 
and lyrata — were discovered and described by my late inde- 
fatigable friend, Professor Gregory, arid one, A. Sarniensis, 
was recently added by myself, from a dredging made in 
Guernsey by Dr Wallich. The present is the most robust 
species of the section, and is rectangular in shape, with the 
corners rounded. The whole surface is undulated. 

Amphora fiexuosa, n. sp. Grev. — Frustules constricted, 
nearly linear, with truncate produced ends, and six gentle 
undulations having a marginal row of very minute puncta ; 
Nodule situated at the angle of the constriction. Length 
•0034". (Plate IY. fig. 4.) 

Hab. — Curteis Straits, Queensland. 

A comparison with the following, which has also six un- 
dulations, will show at a glance that our present diatom is a 
genuine species. 

Amphora sinuata, n. sp. Grev. — Frustules narrow, oblong- 
elliptical, with truncate shortly produced ends, and six un- 
dulations, the two middle ones being the largest ; nodules 
situated at a distance from the middle sinuation ; striae 
obscure. Length -0028". (Plate IY. fig. 5.) 

Hab. — Curteis Straits, Queensland. 

In the preceding species there is a true constriction, the 
nodule occupying the angle ; in the present one there is no 
proper constriction, but a concave sinuation, the nodule being 
situated apart from it on an inner longitudinal line. 

Amphiprora. 

Amphiprora Thivaitesiana, n. sp. Grev. — Front view 
somewhat rectangular, broadly truncate at the ends, the 
wings much rounded at the corners and then widely con- 
cave ; supplementary wings striate, convex, constricted at 
the nodule, intersecting the primary wings, so as to divide 
the whole length into about three equal parts. Length 
•0040". (Plate IY. fig. 9.) 



184 Dr Greville's Descriptions of New Genera 

Hah. — Curteis Straits, Queensland. 

A. most distinct species, and attractive from the graceful 
manner in which the wings intersect one another. The 
primary wing makes a concave sweep from the rounded 
corners, and touches the central portion at the nodule. I 
have not been able to detect the striae in this part. The 
supplementary wing makes a sweep in the opposite direc- 
tion, intersecting the primary one at two points, and is so 
constricted in the middle that the nodule lies in the angle, 
and appears to serve both wings. The striae in the supple- 
mentary wing are conspicuous. 

Amphiprora Kiitzingiana, n ; sp., Grev. — Front view 
broadly and rectangularly oblong, truncate at the ends, with 
widely rounded corners, and somewhat straight sides, sud- 
denly and deeply constricted ; supplementary wing com- 
mencing obliquely at the ends, then forming a swelling 
curve, which keeps within the margin, and passes down to 
the nodule, where it appears to be fixed ; central portion 
with point longitudinal lines ; striae obscure. Length "0050". 
(Plate IY. fig. 6.) 

Hah. — Curteis Straits, Queensland. 

Panduriform and lyre-like in its general aspect, partly 
from its shape, and partly from the peculiar curve of the 
supplementary wings, and the longitudinal lines of the cen- 
tral portion. In this, as well as in the preceding species, 
the supplementary wing does not form a single curve as 
usual, in passing either within or beyond the angle of the 
constriction, but is itself constricted, and in the present in- 
stance very nearly follows the curve of the primary wings 
as they approach the nodule. I have not been able to re- 
solve the stria3 in any part of the frustule. 

Amphiprora 3feneghiniana, n. sp., Grev. — Front view 
broadly subrectangular, the ends truncate, wings widely 
rounded at the corners, with a wide and rather deep con- 
striction ; supplementary wings narrow, convex, widely and 
very slightly concave opposite the nodule ; all the wings 
striate, striae about 15 in -001". Length 0045". (Plate IV. 
fig. 7.) 

Hah. — Curteis Straits, Queensland. 

A very fine strongly margined species, with both primary 



and Species of Diatoms from the South Pacific. 185 

and supplementary wings conspicuously striate, the striae of 
the former having the appearance of being radiate at the 
rounded corners. The supplementary wings commence with 
a curve which, if continued, would carry them beyond the 
angle of the constriction ; but it is soon arrested, and be- 
comes nearly straight, or very slightly concave, and passes 
just within the line of the nodule. The central portion is 
marked with a few wide, faint, longitudinal lines. 

Amphiprora Brebissoniana, n. sp., Grev. — Front view 
broadly panduriform, truncate at the ends ; wings widely 
rounded at the corners, and then rapidly inclined in a deep 
constriction; supplementary wings very narrow, widely, and 
slightly concave opposite the nodule, striae conspicuous only 
in the supplementary wings, about 22 in -001". Length 
•0035". (Plate IY. fig. 8.) 

Not very dissimilar in general appearance to the preced- 
ing, but marked nevertheless by the shorter frustule, and 
more abrupt and straight outline of the wing between the 
rounded corner and the constriction. A closer examination 
brings out the apparent absence of striae in the primary 
wing, and considerably more numerous striae in the much 
narrower supplementary wing. The central portion has a 
few faint longitudinal lines. 

Amphiprora rectangularis, n. sp., Grev. — Front view rec- 
tangular, the ends very slightly rounded ; wings with the 
sides nearly straight, slightly constricted ; supplementary 
wings convex, overlapping the primary ones only at the 
notch-like constriction ; striae very fine. Length *0035". 
(Plate IV. fig. 10.) 

Hob. — Woodlark Island, in a dredging communicated by 
Dr Eoberts of Sydney. 

This approaches near to A. pusilla of Gregory (Trans. 
Boy. Soc. Edin., vol. xxi., PL IV., fig. 56) ; but after 
examination, I am satisfied that it is distinct. It is con- 
siderably larger and more robust. The supplementary wings 
are stronger, and form a flattened curve, becoming parallel 
with the straight sides of the primary ones, and conse- 
quently only overlapping the notch which constitutes the 
constriction. 

Amphiprora? Babenhorstiana,x).. sp., Grev. —Front view 



186 Dr Greville's Descriptions of New Genera 

elongated-oblong ; the wings converging towards the shortly 
truncated ends, gradually constricted in the middle, and 
edged with a border of exceedingly short striae, 16 in 'OOl", 
no supplementary wing apparent. Length -0055". (Plate 
IV. tig. 12.) 

Hab. — Curteis Straits, Queensland. 

I feel so much uncertainty regarding this diatom, that its 
present position must be held as merely provisional. The 
general contour is as if it were composed of two broadly 
elliptical lobes. The coarse striae are so very short, that 
they form a mere edging, but showing at the same time a 
radiating direction. 

AmpMprora Jolisiana, n. sp., Grev. — Front view oblong, 
with perfectly rounded ends and gently constricted sides ; 
wing resembling a narrow border, with a middle row of 
puncta ; central portion oblong, with an apparently promi- 
nent edge, and marked with a few faint longitudinal lines. 
Length -0032". (Plate IV. fig 11.) 

Hab. — Curteis Straits, Queensland. 

A beautiful and distinct little species, without any evi- 
dent supplementary wing. The puncta are conspicuous, 
seven or eight in -001" ; but I cannot see any striae. 

Navicula. 

Navicula diversa, n. sp., Grev. — Oblong, slightly con- 
stricted at the middle, the lobes ovate-elliptical, obtuse at 
the ends ; striae moniliform, interrupted by a transverse bar 
composed of two elongated cellules on each side opposite 
the nodule, where an angular space is also left by the striae 
receding from the median line towards the constriction. 
Length about -0025". (Plate TV. fig. 14.) 

Hab. — Curteis Straits, Queensland. 

The most characteristic feature in this small species is 
the transverse bar, which shows an interruption of the striae 
extending to the margin. This bar is composed on each 
side of the nodule of two unequal cellules, the one next the 
nodule being much more elongated than the other. The true 
median line is very fine, while the extra ones are strongly 
marked ; striae conspicuously moniliform, 12 in 001". 



and Species of Diatoms from the South Pacific. 187 

Stauroneis. 

Stauroneis Australis, n. sp., Grev. — Elliptical-oblong, 
bluntly apiculate ; striae not reaching the median line, 22 in 
•001"; stauros very short and narrow, but well-defined. 
Length -0047". (Plate IY. fig. 13.) 

Hab. — Harvey Bay, Queensland, in a dredging sent by 
Dr Koberts. 

A rare species, and sufficiently distinguished by the ex- 
ceedingly short, narrow, and sharply defined stauros. 

Description of Plate IV. 

Fig. 15. Grammatophora pusilla, . . . front view. 

1. Amphora magnified. 

2. ,, pulchra. 

3. ,, undulata. 

4. ,, flexuosa. 

5. ,, sinuata. 



9. 


Amphiprora Thwaitesiana, 


. front view. 


6. 


„ Kiitsingiana, 


. front view. 


7. 


„ Meneghiniana, 


. front view. 


8. 


„ Brebissoniana, . 


. front view. 


10. 


„ rectangularis, 


. front view. 


12. 


„ Rabenhorstiana, 


. front view. 


11. 


„ Jolisiana, 


. front view. 


14. 


Navicula diversa, 


. side view. 


13. 


Stauroneis Australis, 

All the figures are x 400 dia 


. side view, 
meters. 



The Bee-hive British Dwellings at Bosphrennis and Chapel 
Euny, near Penzance. By E. Edmonds, Esq., Plymouth.* 

The recently discovered " Bee-hive Hut" at Bosphrennis 
in Zen nor which attracted so much attention at the Truro 
meeting of the Cambrian Archaeological Association in 
August last is described in last month's Archceologia Gam- 
brensis (pp. 120-129) by our Cambrian friend, E. L. B. 
He thinks, however, that lt no similar remains in the same 

* Read at the Annual Meeting of the Royal Ins itution of Cornwall, on the 
29th of May 1863. 



188 Mr R Edmonds on the Bee-hive British Dwellings 

perfect state are known in Cornwall." But in the Keports 
of this Institution for 1857 and 1858, and also in my pub- 
lished account of the Landsend District (p. 52), I have 
noticed a similar and probably a more perfect one five miles 
S.S.W. of it, which I accidentally met with at Chapel Euny, 
in Sancreed, and which I called a " Bee-hive cave" because 
it was originally, with the exception of its entrance, buried 
beneath thick turf. I suspect this was the case also with 
the bee-hive dwelling at Bosphrennis, and that the opening 
described as " the small window" was made merely for 
ventilation. The two dwellings resemble one another in 
most respects so closely that I see no reason why they 
should not have been likewise both caves with their en- 
trances concealed by furze or other evergreens, like the 
well-known longitudinal cave at Boleit in St Buryan. In 
fact, the little that remains of the roof at Bosphrennis is 
still covered with turf. 

It appears to me that in the Landsend District isolated 
British dwellings, having no central areas open to the sky, 
were, with the exception of their concealed entrances, gene- 
rally buried beneath heaps of earth or stones, and then 
covered with turf or growing furze, briers, and thorns, thus 
appearing externally, if they rose above the level of the 
adjoining land, as mere natural elevations, the tops or roofs 
of which were used by their occupants as watchtowers. 
This I consider to have been the original description of the 
Bosphrennis dwelling. For when thus buried, it would 
have been difficult for an enemy either to discover or to 
destroy it, whereas if it were a mere hut, with walls all 
exposed as at present, it could have been easily discovered 
and quickly pulled down. Moreover, such an unprotected 
dwelling would have been quite out of place in the Lands- 
end district, where the remains of numerous strongly forti- 
fied hill castles, cliff castles, and walled towns and villages, 
indicate a locality that was once continually exposed to 
hostile incursions. If it be asked, where are the traces of 
this dwelling having been ever thus buried ? I ask in 
return, where are the traces of the huge mound of earth 
within which we know that the large Cromlech of West 
Lanyon in Madron was completely buried until its discovery 



at Bosphrennis and Chapel Euny, near Penzance. 189 

in 1790, when the mound was removed for agricultural 
purposes ? 

The longitudinal chamber of the cave at Chapel Euny is 
on a lower level than the bee-hive chamber into which it 
leads, and is therefore furnished with an external entrance, 
as in the Irish example referred to at p. 128, whilst the bee- 
hive chamber is without any external entrance. At Bos- 
phrennis, on the contrary, the bee-hive chamber is the 
outer-room, and possesses the only external entrance, because 
that room is apparently (p. 123) on a lower level than the 
longitudinal one into which it leads. When a cave or hut 
on sloping ground has only one entrance, that entrance is, 
no doubt, generally at or near its lowest accessible part, 
whilst the highest, driest, and inmost part, is used chiefly as 
a sleeping apartment. 

The length of each dwelling is in a straight line running 
nearly north-west and south-east, of which the bee-hive 
chamber occupies about a dozen feet at the north-west end ; 
the remainder of the length is occupied by the longitudinal 
chamber, which is only 9 feet at Bosphrennis, but 18 feet 
at Chapel Euny. I do not call the latter chamber rectan- 
gular, because its side-walls are probably nearer each other 
at the roof than at the base, by reason of the stones over- 
lapping one another. As these walls and roof do not appear 
to have been ever disturbed, the Penzance Natural History 
and Antiquarian Society might, for the sake of their being 
examined and described, well lay out a few pounds in 
removing the heap within which they are now concealed. 
E. L. B.'s paper contains another passage on which anti- 
quarians will differ in opinion. It is this (p. 122) : — " Those 
members who visited the stone-works at Cam Goch, in 
Caermarthenshire, in 1855, will remember that in the thick- 
ness of the walls were discovered low galleries formed by 
horizontal and vertical slabs, which were thought to have 
been used for the passage of sheep or goats in leaving or 
returning within the works. If they were intended for 
concealed sallyports for the use of the defendants, they 
could have been passed only on the hands and knees." 
Borlase considered somewhat similar remains near Penzance 
(now entirely removed) to have been part of a British vil- 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. XVIII. NO. II. OCTOBER 1863. 2 B 



190 Mr R. Edmonds on Bee-hive British DiveUmgs. 

lage, and a like low gallery (5 feet high) within the thick- 
ness of the walls, to have been a private entrance into it.* 
But I have elsewhere f shown that such low narrow galleries 
or roofed spaces between two parallel walls, especially when 
those walls are concentric, and enclose an area open to the 
sky, leaving only one external entrance, were probably 
sleeping places, divided by transverse walls into separate 
apartments, all opening into the area — these sleeping- 
places being buried beneath an annular mound of earth or 
stones covered with turf, furze, and thorns, except where 
the apartments opened into the area. A cluster of such 
dwellings constituted a British village. 

P.S. — I saw the Bosphrennis dwelling after the above 
paper was read, but so transiently, owing to an unexpected 
fall of rain, that I mention it merely to add, that in going 
thither I observed, close to the south side of a small meadow 
called the Vineyard, into which the Bosphrennis residence J 
opens, large portions of the walls of what appeared to me to 
have been a cluster of British dwellings : and the unce- 
mented stones forming the modern high walls enclosing 
the meadow were in all probability taken from these dwell- 
ings. 



Notice of Observations by F. Cohn, Breslau, on the Con- 
tractile Filaments of the Stamens in Thistles.^ Communi- 
cated by Dr Alexander Dickson. || 

The following is the substance of a letter addressed to 
Professor G. Yon Siebold, in which the author details his 
observations on the contractility in the filaments of the 
stamens in thistles: — The five anthers cohere, forming a 

* Antiquities, p. 273. t Landsend District, pp. 45, 47. 

| The villagers of Bosphrennis would laugh at this being called a residence, 
although in its day it was doubtless no mean habitation. They call it a crow, 
which is a Cornish word (pronounced like crow in crowd) signifying a " pig- 
gery." 

§ Ueber die contractilen Staubfaden der Disteln. Ein Sendschreiben von 
Ferdinand Cohn in Breslau an C. v. Siebold. Siebold and Kolliker's Zeit- 
schrift fur Wissenschaft. Zoologie, XII. p. 366. 

|| Read before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 9th April 1863. 



Mr F. Cohn on the Contractile Filaments in Thistles. 191 

tube. At the time of flowering, this tube is shut in at the 
top, and encloses the style. About this period the anther- 
tube rises to about 4 millimeters above the extreme points 
of the corolla ; and if the same is touched, pollen in lumps 
issues from its summit, the anther-tube at the same time 
undergoing a remarkable twisting. After an interval — say- 
five minutes — the experiment may be repeated: pollen issues 
anew from the anther-tube, and twisting movements are 
executed as before. The style gradually becomes elevated 
above the summit of the anther-tube, and by the time 
it projects about 4-5 millimeters beyond, the irritability 
has completely disappeared. At this time the style be- 
comes fitted for fertilisation, since the two branches of 
the stigma now first diverge from one another. In general, 
a period of at most twenty-four hours, often less, elapses 
between the commencement and cessation of the irrita- 
bility. When the styles are visible, it is too late for insti- 
tuting experiments. 

These phenomena are produced solely by the contraction 
of the filaments of the stamens, which, on each touch, 
instantly contract, and after a little resume their former 
length. The expulsion of pollen depends upon the an- 
ther-tube being drawn downwards upon the style by the 
contracting filaments, and then pushed up again. The 
contractility of the filaments is most interestingly shown, if 
the stamens are cut away from the corolla. In such a pre- 
paration there is the anther-tube with the five filaments 
depending therefrom ; and these latter, on every touch, 
exhibit the liveliest irritability, — throw themselves back- 
wards, straighten themselves again, bend to the opposite 
side, and wind round one another. One might fancy that 
it was a Hydra, rather than a vegetable organism. These 
motions had been previously described by Cohn himself in 
1861, and subsequently by Kabsch (1861), and Unger (1862). 

This contraction may be induced by electrical stimulus. 
Weak currents produce immediate contraction of the fila- 
ments, which, however, extend themselves after an inter- 
val. Strong currents, on the other hand, kill them at 
once ; and in consequence of this, the contracted filaments 
never extend themselves again, but become further short- 



192 Mr F. Colm on the Contractile Filaments in Thistles. 

ened, so that after about an hour they are shortened by 
about one-half. 

Other means of death — as soaking in alcohol, glycerine, 
or even water — produce a like result ; showing that shrink- 
ing by evaporation cannot be the cause of the shortening. 
By death the filaments are contracted to their minimum 
length. The ultimate projection of the style to about 
5 millimeters beyond the anther- tube depends mainly upon 
the shortening of the filaments in dying. By this shorten- 
ing, the anther-tube is at last about ^-1 millimeter below 
the corolla-points ; while a few hours before it extended 
3-4 millimeters beyond them. 

The filament consists of a central bundle of annular and 
closely-wound spiral vessels, surrounded by longitudinal rows 
of long cylindrical cells with straight partition walls. Ex- 
ternally it is covered by an epidermis of similarly shaped 
cells, but which are more thickened and convex on their 
free surface, so that the filament appears uniformly chan- 
nelled. From the surface project peculiar conical hairs, 
each consisting of two flat cells applied to one another ; 
these, as well as the epidermis cells, are covered by a pretty 
thick cuticula. When the contractile filament is elongated, 
the inner cells, seen in longitudinal section or otherwise, 
appear longitudinally striated, " as if they were provided 
with longitudinal fibres." 

The contracted state of the cells is best seen when the 
anther-tube has come to be below the level of the corolla- 
points. By this time the cells of the filaments are all dead, 
as is proved by the shrunken primordial utricles. The cells 
are now all closely cross-striped — to appearance, as if the 
filament consisted of a number of spiral vessels. In those 
places where especially shorter cells occur, there is the 
closest transverse striation — almost like that of striped mus- 
cular fibre. This striation is caused by a very regular and 
close transverse corrugation of the cells, in the contraction 
of the filament ; hence the side-walls of the cells appear 
finely and closely wrinkled, so that 10-20 cross folds occur 
in every ^ j^ of a millimeter. This corrugation affects all the 
cells, — including those of the epidermis, — except some in 
the centre near the air canals, whose cells often remain 



Mr F. Colin on the Contractile Filaments in Thistles. 193 

un wrinkled. The process of contraction may be followed 
directly under the microscope, since water, or glycerine, 
kills the cells sooner or later. The edges of the cells are 
seen to become wavy. After a little, the cross-striping is 
everywhere evident. Almost instantaneously the extreme 
contraction of the filament occurs, and at the same time 
the closest corrugation of its cells. 

Although unable to follow the action of a temporary sti- 
mulus under the microscope (since the filaments soaked in 
water to render them transparent do not again extend 
themselves), the author expresses his conviction that the 
momentary shortening of the filament by stimulus, equally 
with the permanent contraction in death, depends upon a 
transverse corrugation of the cells. The filaments in short- 
ening become thicker ; the following are measurements of 
breadth before and after stimulation : — 

Before -i-*-'" After -UUL."' 

jjeiuie, 1000 -n-itci, 1000 

106_"' JUL*-."' 

>' To » 10 

>» lWo » iWo 

From the circumstance that contraction ensues upon 
death equally as upon a temporary stimulus, the author is 
induced to believe that the cells of the elongated filament 
are in a state of active expansion, while the contracted con- 
dition depends upon a relaxation, in consequence of which 
the elasticity to w r hich the expansive force was opposed now 
comes into play. This elasticity appears to reside chiefly in 
the very thick cuticula, which does not, even in the most 
contracted filament, exhibit any corrugation, thus showing 
itself to be highly elastic. 

The author believes that at least in the lowest animals 
(which possess, not muscles, but a contractile parenchyma) 
the same conditions hold as in contractile vegetable cells. 
In these animals occurs the same momentary contraction 
by stimulus, and the permanent and utmost contraction in 
death, apparently in consequence of the elasticity of their 
cuticula ; whilst their elongation and extension is a vital 
and active process. For example, the stalks of the Vorti- 
cellas become rolled up equally upon stimulation as upon 



194 Mr F. Colm on the Contractile Filaments in Thistles. 

death. Further, in Amoeba, Actinophrys, Difflugia, Arcella, 
and the Ehizopoda generally, the processes are manifestly 
actively elongated, while these organisms, by stimulus as by 
death, are contracted into globules. Similar phenomena are 
exhibited by Hydra viridis, &c. In all these organisms 
there is a permanent contraction in death, which yields 
only to diffluence of the body by decomposition. There is 
no final relaxation, as in true muscular tissue. 

The author gives some figures representing the micro- 
scopic appearances of the cells of the filament in the 
expanded and contracted conditions, but which it is unne- 
cessary to reproduce here.* 



On Muscular Power. By H. F. Baxter, Esq. 

§ 1. On the Mechanical Power of Muscles exerted during Muscular 
Contraction. § 2. On the Application of the Principle of Con- 
servation of Force or Conservation of Energy to the explanation 
of Physiological Phenomena. 

That muscular contraction is accompanied with the de- 
velopment of electrical action, I have already shown on a 
former occasion, f thus confirming the results previously 
obtained by Matteucci and Du Bois Eeymond. That heat 
is evolved during muscular contraction, has been shown by 
Breschet and Becquerel,J and by Matteucci. § That changes 
of a chemical nature take place in muscles, in consequence 
of muscular action, has been established by the experi- 
ments of Liebig, Helmholtz, and others; and Matteucci || 
has ascertained that, during muscular contraction, carbonic 

* There appears to be some mistake in the representation of the section in 
fig. d (I. c. p. 369) : it purports to be a transverse section of the filament, and 
the more or less hexagonal outline of the cells would bear out the assertion ; 
yet I do not understand how transverse corrugation could appear in a trans- 
verse section at all in the way represented in the figure, almost like the edge 
of a close frill. — A. D. 

f Philosophical Magazine, 1855. Essay on Organic Polarity, 1860. 

} Traite do l'Elcctricit6, torn. iv. p. 9. 

\ Annales de Chimie et de Physique. Juin, 1856. 

II Ibid. 



Mr H. F. Baxter on Muscular Power. 195 

acid is evolved. Here, then, we have the fact established, 
that during muscular action the three forces, heat, electri- 
city, and chemical action are manifested ; but the most 
important function connected with muscular action, and 
which remains to be considered, is undoubtedly its mecha- 
nical power ; and just as the mechanical philosopher en- 
deavours to solve the problems respecting the mechanical 
power of his machinery, so may the physiologist attempt 
the solution of similar questions respecting the mechanical 
power of the animal body ; and the question may be thus 
put, — What is the mechanical equivalent of muscular 'power 
exerted during muscular contraction ? 

§ 1. On the Mechanical Power of Muscles exerted during Muscular 
Contraction. 

Matteucci,* in a series of experiments undertaken for the 
purpose of solving this question, says, " Avec un poids de 
100 grammes attache a un gastrocnemien, qui pese a peu 
pres , 320 gr - et qu'on fait contracter, le poids est souleve a 
une hauteur de 0*84 mm * ; avec un poids de 70 grammes, 
cette hauteur est de 1130 mm ' ; avec 40 grammes, de l-270 mm * ; 
et avec 10 grammes, la hauteur est de 1412 mm *" He adds, 
" M. Helmholtz, qui employait un poids de 180 grammes, a 
obtenu une elevation qui a varie dans une serie d'experiences 
successives, de 0'88 mm - a 0'65 mm -" 

" J'adopterai done/' continues Matteucci, " pour deter- 
miner le travail mecanique d'une contraction d'un gastroc- 
nemien qui souleve un poids de 10 grammes, et son propre 
poids qui est 0'320 gr -, la hauteur de 1412 mm ' ce qui donne 
pour le travail mecanique d'une contraction 0*00001457 kilo- 
grammetres." The fact that Helmholtz obtained similar 
results, although he employed a much heavier weight, did 
not escape Matteucci's notice, and he says, " Malheureuse- 
ment pour le but de mon recherche, M. Helmholtz a fait 
Texperience avec un poids de 180 grammes attache au gas- 
trocnemien, et qui etait souleve par la contraction ; or il est 
tres-facile de prouver, et e'est, je crois, M. Schwann qui 
Fa fait le premier que le travail mecanique dune contrac- 

* Annales de Chimie et de Physique. Juin, 1856. 



196 Mr H. F. Baxter on Muscular Power. 

tion augmente dans certaines limites avec le poids attache 
au muscle, et qui est ainsi souleve ce qui necessairement 
fatigue et detruit beaucoup plus rapidement la force du 
muscle. ,, 

Professor Haughton of Dublin has recently investigated 
the question in the human subject, and has arrived at the 
conclusion, " that 1 lb. weight of a muscle is capable of 
lifting 1*56 ton through one foot before it became ex- 
hausted/'* 

Astounding as these results may appear, it is not for 
physiologists to ignore them. The circumstance that a 
great difference exists between one human individual and 
another in regard to their muscular powers, makes it diffi- 
cult to suppose that the same results would be obtained in 
every case. Professor Haughton himself has shown that 
age has great influence respecting the time in which a 
muscle becomes exhausted. The question however occurs, 
are we enabled to ascertain the muscular power of an ani- 
mal by its total weight, or are we obliged to ascertain by 
experiment the power of each individual separately. 

In the following experiments, instead of employing the 
gastrocnemius muscle of the frog separated from the animal, 
as was done by Matteucci and Helmholtz, I adopted the 
plan pursued by Schwann in his investigations on muscular 
contraction, viz., the limb remained connected with the ani- 
mal, so that the vital conditions of the muscle should be 
maintained during the experiment ; wishing also to have 
the animal as perfect as possible, in my first experiments 
the sciatic nerve was merely exposed, but not divided, and 
the muscle made to contract by stimulating it ; but from 
the frequent and general struggles of the animal, together 
with the contraction excited in other muscles by reflex 
action, this mode was soon abandoned, and the sciatic nerve 
divided. With the sciatic nerve divided, struggles on the 
part of the animal will occasionally occur ; and although 
the gastrocnemius muscle itself is not contracted, still the 
animal can elevate the limb, and raise the weight, but this 
effect can be readily discriminated from that due to the 

* Outlines of a New Theory of Muscular Action. Dublin, 1863. 



Mr H. F. Baxter on Muscular Power. 197 

contraction of the gastrocnemius alone. The importance 
of confining the contraction solely to this muscle, as 
observed by Matteucci, the perineal nerve was divided, so 
as to avoid the contraction of the extensor muscles ; this 
could be readily done, as the sciatic nerve is seen to divide 
into two large branches at the lower part of the thigh. Care, 
however, must be taken that the posterior branch be not 
divided ; to ascertain this point, the nerve was stimulated 
after the division, to see which muscles were contracted. 
Instead of keeping the frog in the horizontal position, ac- 
cording to the method pursued by Schwann, I found the 
following to be the most convenient and satisfactory mode 
of conducting the experiments : — 

The apparatus made use of was similar in principle to 
that employed and described by Matteucci in the Phil. 
Trans, for 1846, and to which I must refer. It consists of 
a glass stem fixed upon a wooden stand ; to this stem could 
be adjusted and fastened, by means of screws, several 
moveable pieces ; to the lower one the pulley was attached, 
and the scale upon the dial was divided into 80°. The cir- 
cumference of the pulley was 1^ inch, consequently 1° of 
the scale corresponded to rather more than eVd of an inch. 
The next piece above the pulley consisted of the portion 
fork-shaped, and through the holes at its extremities the 
silk passed, to prevent it from slipping off the pulley : 
to the upper end of the silk was tied a small hook ; to its 
lowest end the scale was attached which carried the weight. 
The two upper detached pieces were for the purpose of 
securing the frog ; on the lower one, which projected hori- 
zontally forwards, the frog was placed astride, one limb 
being attached to the pulley, the other limb was tied at the 
ankle, and fastened, by means of a string, to one of the arms 
of the lower piece which supported the dial ; by these means 
the two limbs were balanced when the weights were placed 
in the scale. To the upper detached piece, which projected 
horizontally outwards at right angles to the lower one, the 
fore-extremities of the animal were fastened by strings. By 
this arrangement the frog was firmly fixed without inter- 
fering with its breathing, and there was no impediment to 
the free circulation of the blood in the lower limbs. 

NEW SERIES VOL. XVIII. NO. II. OCTOBER 1863. 2 C 



198 Mr H. F. Baxter on Muscular Power. 

In my preliminary experiments I first took the weight 
of the frog, but soon found that duriDg its preparation it 
frequently ejected a quantity of fluid, amounting to 10 or 
15 grains, or more ; in subsequent experiments it was pre- 
pared in the following manner :< — The tendo-Achillis was 
exposed by removing a portion of skin ; a piece of strong 
silk was then passed beneath it by means of a needle, and 
tied on to the tendon, so as to form a loop to which the 
hook connected with the pulley could be attached. A por- 
tion of skin of the thigh, over the course of the sciatic 
nerve, was removed, and the ligatures tied on to the fore- 
extremities, and to the hind limb. The animal was then 
secured in a screw of paper and weighed ; the weight of the 
strings and paper were subsequently deducted from the total 
weight. The sciatic nerve was then exposed and divided, 
and the frog fastened on to the apparatus. 

To excite the nerve, and in order to have a constant 
power, not possessing a rheostat, one of Smee's middling- 
sized cells, with amalgamated zinc plates, was used. The 
acid employed consisted of dilute nitro-sulphuric acid (1 acid 
40 water). A thick copper wire was connected with the 
platinode, the free extremity of which passed through a 
piece of cork and was bent at right angles to the extent 
of half an inch, so as to press down upon its surface ; be- 
tween the cork and the wire was a piece of coarse bibulous 
paper, and which was folded over the extremity of the wire ; 
the paper was kept moistened, and upon it the nerve rested. 
The wire connected with the zincode was not so thick, 
and its central portion wound round in the form of a helix, 
by the elasticity thus given to it its extremity could be 
readily applied to the tendo-Achillis without moving the 
cell, and facilitated the making and breaking of contact. 
The current was always used as the direct form, i.e., it tra- 
versed the nerve and muscle to the tendo-Achillis. 

The precautions to be observed are numerous. 

1. Avoid the loss of Blood. Having carefully laid bare 
the sciatic nerve in the upper part of the thigh with a blunt 
pointed probe, it was withdrawn and divided ; but instead 
of exposing the nerve throughout its whole course by sepa- 
rating the muscles, it was again carefully dissected out at 



Mr H. F. Baxter on Muscular Poiver. 199 

the lower part of the thigh and drawn down, by these 
means the risk of wounding or lacerating the vessels cross- 
ing the nerve in the middle of the thigh was avoided. 

In tying the tendo-Achillis to form the loop, unless care 
be taken, the vessel running along its inner border will be 
wounded when passing the needle. 

2. Not to tie the Muscular Fibres. If, in tying the tendo- 
Achillis, the loop be carried too high up, the muscular fibres 
will be included ; in this case they soon become lacerated 
and torn through, when the weights are added to the scale. 

3. To keep the Sciatic Nerve away from the surface of the 
Thigh. It frequently happened that during the struggles 
of the animal the sciatic nerve would come into contact 
with the surface of the thigh, although its extremity was 
resting on the bibulous paper. Under these circumstances 
contractions may not be excited in the muscles when the 
current is passed, and this I believe to be due to the cur- 
rent instead of being transmitted along the nerve, through 
the muscle, was thus transmitted by the surface of the 
muscle or the skin of the thigh. The nerve should be kept 
straight away from the thigh. 

4. The Electrodes should be clean. This is a most import- 
ant circumstance to be attended to, especially with the 
electrode employed to touch the surface of the tendon. 
When the electrode is brought into contact with the sur- 
face of the tendon it becomes covered with the fluid, and a 
crust is soon formed upon it which acts as a non-conductor ; 
to remedy this, it is necessary to frequently scrape it, so as 
to present a fresh and clean surface ; mere wiping is not 
sufficient. The surface of the wire in contact with the 
bibulous paper should be carefully looked to and frequently 
scraped, and the paper upon which the nerve rests be kept 
moist, and the nerve itself occasionally slightly moistened. 

5. When exciting the muscles to contract, the tendo- 
Achillis should be touched lightly and quickly. If the elec- 
trode be allowed to remain too long in contact with the ten- 
don, we have two contractions, one on making, the other 
on breaking, contact. If the tendon be struck too forcibly 
the muscle will be thrown out of its perpendicular position, 
and thus elevate the weight and move the index. 



200 



Mr II . F. Baxter on Muscular Power. 



There are other precautions necessary to be observed, 
which will be better understood after detailing some of the 
experiments. 

It would have been far more satisfactory to have de- 
tailed the observations made upon each individual frog ; but 
as this would occupy too much space, including sixty expe- 
riments, I have thought it better to tabulate the results and 
give the particulars of one experiment, and describe the 
mode of proceeding in each. 

The weight (Troy weight) was first ascertained, and the 
frog then arranged for the experiments. The index having 
been pushed back as far as it could be, the degree at which 
it stood was noted ; a weight was then put into the scale, 
and the index then carried back and the degree noted — this 
gave the elongation produced by the weight. The muscle 
was then made to contract, the degree noted, and the index 
pushed back ; the muscle was again made to contract, the 
degree noted, and the index pushed back ; this was done 
three times consecutively : the weight removed, and the 
degree to which the index returned noted. Half a minute 
was allowed to elapse ; the electrode was cleaned and 
scraped, and another weight was then added to the scale, 
when similar observations were made. I could make the 
three observations, and record them, in twelve seconds ; 
but with an assistant to record them it took about five 
seconds. To render the description clearer, I will give the 
details of one experiment. 



uly 14. 


Weight of frog 3 drs. 


Struggles of the animal carried 


54 grs., 


caught yesterday after- 


the scale without the weight to 85°. 


noon. 


Index 52. 






Index 44. 




4 oz 


39 


40 


5 oz. 


34 


34| 




39 


40 




34 


34f 




38£ 


39£ 




33£ 


34£ 




Index 45. 






Index 41£. 




oz. 


35 


35* 


4 oz. 


35 


36 




34£ 


35 




35 


36 




34 


S4 \ 




35 


36 




Index 43. 






Index 11. 




4 oz. 


36 


37 


3 oz. 


35 


m 




36 


37 




35 


36J 




36 


37 




35 


36j 



Mr H. F. Baxter on Muscular Power. 201 

Struggles carried scale to 90°. 
Index 38. 



Index 45. 

5i oz. 33 33£ 

32 32£ 

32 32A 



Index 40. 

4£ oz. 32 321 

32 321 

32 32£ 

Index 38. 

3^ oz. 32 32| 

32 32| 

32 32| 

Struggles carried scale without 
weight to 92°. 



Index 41. 



3 oz. 



6oz. 



5 oz. 



4 oz. 



33 34 
33 34 
33 34 



Index 39. 



30, the index 
just moves 

Index 37. 

30 30i 

30 30i 

291 29| 

Index 35. 

29 2U 



Struggles carried scale to 92°. 
Index 38. 



3 oz. 



5 oz. 



31 32 
31 32 

311 3 2 i 



Index 35. 



29 29^ 
29 29^ 
28 28J 



Struggles carried scale to 80°. 
Index 38. 



4 oz. 



29 30 
29 30 
29 30 



3oz. 



30 31i 
30 31 1 

30^ 311 



Index 35. 

2 oz. 31 33 

31 33 

32 33 

Struggles carried scale to 80 c 

Index 38. 

4i oz. 29 29| 

29 29| 

28^ 29| 

Index 35. 

3£ oz. 29 30 

29 30 

29 30 



Index 36. 

The experiment was discontinued 
for a quarter of an hour, during 
which time struggles had taken 
place carrying the index as far as it 
could. The index was now brought 
back to 40°. 

4 oz. 



29 


30 


28^ 
28} 


29i 


291 


Index 36. 




29 


301 


29 


30i 


29i 


30i 


Index 37. 




281 


29 


28 


28i 


28 


28i 



5 oz. 



The animal was now removed, 
and its weight found to be 3 drs. 
47 grs. 

The gastrocnemius of the leg 
submitted to experiment was some 
what darker and heavier than the 
other; the slight difference just 
turned the scale of the balance. 
The weight of each 3 grs. — Sex, M. 



202 Mr H. F. Baxter on Muscular Power. 

After each experiment the plates were removed from the 
cell of the battery and rinsed in clean water. 

Judging from the results obtained in this experiment, I 
consider that the normal power of the gastrocnemius muscle 
of this frog was capable of raising 4 oz. (to which must be 
added 2 drs. for the weight of the scale) 1°, or ^d part of 
an inch. 

As the mode in which the weights are added have great 
influence over the results, it is necessary to be acquainted 
with it. If the weight be rather heavy in the first instance, 
the elongation of the muscle takes place gradually and con- 
tinuously, and unless the index be carried sufficiently back 
before the muscle is made to contract, the full amount of 
contraction will not be obtained ; and if the weight be too 
heavy for the muscle, it acts by exhausting the muscular 
power or by overstretching the muscle. If the weight be 
not sufficiently heavy to elongate the muscle, the amount 
of contraction is not greater than with a heavier weight, 
proving the correctness of the conclusion arrived at b}^ 
Schwann, that the contractile power of a muscle is greater 
the more it is elongated. There is a limit to the natural 
elongation of a muscle, and this limit it is somewhat diffi- 
cult to ascertain. It is not indicated by gradually adding 
the weights to the scale until contraction is just excited, 
but more by the permanency and constancy of the results 
when the experiment is repeated. The criterion which I 
think may be acted upon with safety is this — commence 
with a medium weight, and note the results obtained by 
increasing the weight ; if the muscle continues to elongate, 
and if the index has a tendency to recede, we are getting 
beyond the limit of its natural elongation. If by diminish- 
ing the weight the index has a tendency to advance or to 
retain its position, we have now obtained some indication 
of its natural power. In the experiment detailed I began 
with a medium weight, — 4 oz., — and the index was brought 
to 39 ; 6 oz. were afterwards added, this brought it to 35, 
and during the contraction it fell to 34 ; 4 oz. were then 
added, it arose from 35 to 36, and retained that number. 
If we cast our eye over the results, we find that the heavy 
weight evidently exhausted the power of the muscle, and 



Mr H. F. Baxter on Muscular Power. 203 

that during the time the muscle contracted there was a 
tendency on its part to become further elongated. When a 
lighter weight was substituted the tendency was to contract, 
and the degree of contraction of the muscle when excited was 
not increased in proportion. I may just observe, that the 
motion of the index is not always as if by a sudden action, 
but by a gradual advance, being carried along, as it were, 
by some progressive movement. 

There is another circumstance to be noticed, the weights 
raised do not indicate a fractional part less than the half 
ounce. I will not go so far as to say that a less weight 
than this might not be measured, but I have found that by 
adding the half ounce the effects were very doubtful. The 
best plan to elucidate the result was not by adding or sub- 
tracting the half ounce from the previous weight, but to go 
through a series of weights increasing or diminishing by 
the ounce ; for instance, begin with 3, then 4, and then 5 ; 
in the next series begin with 3J, then 4J, and then 5J. 
By this means the effect of the half ounce could be more 
readily seen than by adding it to the ounce. The addition 
of a drachm was not perceptible. 

The utmost care was taken to obtain the exact weight 
of the gastrocnemius muscle immediately after each experi- 
ment. 

The frogs were fresh caught, and if not used on the same 
day, were kept in a dark, cool cellar during the night, and 
used on the following day. 

In Table I. will be found the results of 60 experiments, 
arranged according to the date when they were performed. 
The sum total shows that 4 drs. 22 grs. weight of muscle 
were capable of raising a weight equivalent to 332 oz. ; 
in other words, 1 gr. of muscle could raise, in round num- 
bers, 608 grs. through the space of 1°, which was equivalent 
to /3d of an inch ; the extremes were 1048 (Expt. 51) and 
520 (Expt. 24). The weight of the frogs before the ex- 
periments was 34 oz. 4 drs. 18 grs. ; after the experiments 
33 oz. 3 drs. 26 grs., indicating a loss of 1 oz. 52 grs. Out of 
the 60 frogs 26 were females ; and in order to ascertain the 
sex no external character was trusted to, but the body was 
examined after the experiment. 



204 



Mr H. F. Baxter on Muscular Power. 



Table I. 



* c 

o o 
55 P- 


ft lJ 


Weight 
of Frog 
ftp/ore Ex- 
periment. 




Weight 
of Frog 
after Ex- 
periment. 












drs. 


grs. 


OS, 


dn. 


drs. 


grs. 


grs. 






1 


June 26 


4 


25 


4 


2 


4 


18 


4 


M. 


(The muscle which raised the weight heavier by 
( ?th of a grain, and more vascular. 


2 




8 


7 





2 


8 





8 


F. 


Heavier by J a grain, and more vascular. 


3 




3 


45 


4 


2 


3 


38 


4i 


F. 


Muscle more vascular, but of the same weight. 


4 




3 


20 


3 


6 


3 


14 


£! 


M. 


Slight difference in vascularity ; weight the same. 


5 


'.'.'. 29 


5 


35 


7 


2 


5 


28 


5* 


M. 


Slight difference in vascularity ; weight the same. 


6 




2 


55 


8 


2 


2 


47 


2* 


M. 


(Muscle presents spots of vascularity; weight the 

\ same. 

Heavier by £th of a grain, and more vascular. 


7 




5 


5 


6 


2 


4 


55 


4f 


F. 


8 




5 


55 


6 


6 


5 


47 


5 


M. 


Slight difference in vascularity ; weight the same. 


9 


July 1 


2 





2 


6 


1 


55 


11 


M. 


No difference in colour or weight. 


10 




2 


8 


3 


2 


2 


3 


If 


F. 


No difference in colour or weight 


11 





2 


7 


2 


G 


2 





U 


M. 


No difference in colour or weight. 


12 




2 


38 


3 


2 


2 


33 


2 


M. 


Slight difference in colour ; same weight. 


13 




4 


50 


4 


2 


4 


42 


3 


M. 


No difference in colour or weight. 

(No difference in weight or colour. This appears 


14 


... 2 


5 


55 


7 


6 


5 


46 


6 


F. 


) to be an old frog ; the thigh bone of the limb not 
j experimented upon was fractured during the 
(. struggles of the animal; muscles red. 


15 




1 


50 


2 


2 


1 


44 


u 


M. 


No difference in weight or colour. 


16 




2 


48 


3 


2 


2 


41 


2 


M. 


(Muscle apparently ecchymosed ; no difference in 
( weight. 

JMuscles of both limbs apparently ecchymosed ; 
( no difference in weight. 


17 




2 


56 


i 


6 


2 


48 


2£ 


M. 


18 




5 


12 


7 


2 


5 


1 


5J 


F. 


Heavier by £th of a grain, and more vascular. 


19 


!!! "3 


8 





9 


2 


7 


46 


7£ 


F. 


No difference in colour or weight. 


20 




8 


57 


9 


6 


8 


45 


9 


F. 


No difference in weight ; slightly darker. 


21 




9 





10 


2 


8 


48 


8| 


F. Heavier by % a grain ; no difference in colour. 


22 




4 


45 


5 


6 


4 


36 


4 


M. 


Slight difference in colour; heavier by \ a grain. 


23 


!" "4 


5 


30 


6 


2 


5 


21 


'J 4 


F. 


No difference in colour; slightly heavier. 


24 




8 


35 


10 


2 


8 


21 


91 


F. 


Heavier by % a grain, and more vascular. 


25 




6 


53 


8 


6 


6 


41 


7 


M. 


(No difference in colour; just turned the scale of 
( the balance. 

(Slight difference in colour and weight. Fluid 
( ejected during the experiment. 


26 




9 


10 


o. 


2 


7 


r . 


81 


F. 










oo 




27 




2 


53 


4 


2 


2 


48 


2£ 


M. 


No difference. 


28 


7 


5 


51 


(> 


6 


5 


44 


5 


F. 


No difference. 

r Slightly darker and heavier. Tetanic contractions 


29 




5 


49 


6 


2 


5 


40 


61 


M. 


•j when weight was removed, but subsided upon 
[ moistening the nerve. 


30 




4 


10 


4 


2 


4 


1 


3^ 


M. 


No difference. 


31 




2 


13 


3 


2 


2 


8 


2 


M. 


Somewhat darker, but of same weight. 


32 




2 


10 


3 


2 


2 


6 


2 


F. 


No difference. 


33 


.'.! "*8 


2 


20 


3 


(i 


2 


12 


2 


M. 


No difference. 


34 




3 





3 


6 


2 


55 


8J 


F. 


No difference. 


35 




2 


15 


2 


6 


2 


8 


2 


F. 


No difference. 


3fi 




3 


8 


4 


2 


2 


58 


3i 


M. 


Slightly darker and heavier. 


37 




2 


56 


4 


-' 


2 


47 


2| 


F. 


No difference. 


38 


". io 


2 


40 


3 


6 


2 


34 


2 


F. 


Slightly heavier. 


39 




3 





4 


2 


2 


55 


3 


M. 


No difference. 


40 




2 


48 


4 


2 


2 


43 


3 


M. 


No difference. 


41 




8 


25 


9 


6 


8 


17 


8 


F. 


No difference. 


42 


... i'i 


5 


36 


8 


6 


5 


25 


7 


M. 


No difference. 


43 




4 





5 


2 


3 


53 


3£ 


F. 


Darker, but weight the same. 


44 




4 


28 


6 


2 


4 


17 


41 


M. 


Darker, and slightly heavier. 


4."/ 




2 


22 


3 


! 


2 


15 


2 


if. 


No difference. 


AC, 


!!! i*4 


7 


5 


H 


2 


6 


58 


8 


F. 


No difference. 


47 




3 


50 


4 


2 


3 


45 


31 


M. 


No difference. 


48 




3 


54 


4 


2 


3 


47 


3 


M. 


Slightly darker. 


4!) 




3 


52 


4 


2 


3 


43 


8i 


M. 


Darker ; no difference in weight. 


50 




2 


28 


3 


6 


2 


23 


2 


M. 


Slightly darker. 


51 


15 


2 


5 


3 


6 


2 





If 


M. 


No difference. 


52 







20 


5 


2 


6 


15 


5 


F. 


No difference. 


53 




4 


38 


5 


2 


4 


33 


5 


M 


Darker coloured, and slightly heavier. 

r Slightly heavier. Tetanic contractions when the 


54 




7 


20 


10 


2 


7 


12 


9 


F. 


\ weight was removed, which did not subside 
[ upon moistening the nerve. 


55 




2 


32 


3 


2 


2 


2G 


2 


F. 


Darker coloured ; same weight. 


N 


..! 16 


6 


58 


fi 


6 


5 


50 


8 


M 


Slight difference in colour; same weight. 


57 




l 


48 


5 


2 


4 


42 


44 


M. 


Darker, and heavier by Jth of a grain. 


58 


Z '.'.'. i 


52 


8 


6 


6 


40 


71 


M. 


Darker, but of same weight. 


59 




4 


13 


8 


2 


4 


8 


81 


F. 


No difference. 


60 




7 


58 


9 


2 


7 


45 


8 


F. 


Slight difference in colour; same weight. 




oz. drs. gr». 


oz. 


oz. drs. (rrs. 


drs. jjrs 




Total, . 


34 4 18 


332 


33 


3 26 


4 22 








Mr H. F. Baxter on Muscular Power. 



205 



Table II. 



Males. 


Females. 


Weight 


Weight 
raised. 


Weight of 


Weight of 




Weight 


Weight 
raised. 


Weight of 


Weight of 


At 


of 


Frog before 


Frog after 


o S 


of 


Frog before 


Frog after 


c S 


Muscle. 


Experiment. 


Experiment. 




Muscle. 


Experiment. 


Experiment. 


d a> 










^ P. 










£ P. 


grs. 


oz. drs. 


drs. grs. 


drs. grs. 




grs. 


oz. drs. 


drs. grs. 


drs. grs. 




1§ 


2 2 


1 50 


1 44 


15 


If 


3 2 


2 8 


2 3 


10 


n 


2 6 


2 


1 55 


9 


2 


2 6 


2 15 


2 8 


35 


ik 


2 6 


2 7 


2 


11 


2 


3 2 


2 10 


2 6 


52 


if 


3 6 


2 5 


2 


51 


2 


3 2 


2 32 


2 26 


55 


2 


3 2 


2 13 


2 8 


31 


2 


3 6 


2 40 


2 34 


38 


2 


3 2 


2 22 


2 15 


45 


2f 


4 2 


2 56 


2 47 


37 


2 


3 2 


2 48 


2 41 


16 


si 


3 2 


4 13 


4 8 


59 


2 


3 6 


2 20 


2 12 


33 


3* 


3 6 


3 


2 55 


34 


2 


3 6 


2 28 


2 23 


50 


31 


5 2 


4 


3 53 


43 


u-2 


4 2 


2 53 


2 48 


27 


44 


4 2 


3 45 


3 38 


3 


2f 


3 6 


3 20 


3 14 


4 


4f 


5 2 


5 5 


4 55 


7 


3 


4 2 


2 48 


2 43 


40 


5 


5 2 


6 20 


6 15 


52 


3 


4 2 


3 


2 55 


39 


5 


6 6 


5 51 


5 44 


28 


3 


4 2 


3 54 


3 47 


48 


5| 


6 2 


5 30 


5 21 


23 


3 


4 2 


4 50 


4 42 


13 


6i 


7 2 


5 12 


5 1 


18 


3| 


4 2 


3 50 


3 45 


47 


6 


7 6 


5 55 


5 46 


14 


u 


4 2 


4 10 


4 1 


30 


7| 


9 2 


8 


7 46 


19 


4 


4 2 


4 25 


4 18 


1 


8 


8 2 


7 5 


6 58 


46 


4 


5 6 


4 45 


4 36 


22 


8 


9 2 


8 7 


8 


2 


H 


5 2 


4 48 


4 42 


57 


8 


9 2 


7 58 


7 45 


60 


5 


5 2 


4 3S 


4 33 


53 


8 


9 6 


8 25 


8 17 


41 


5 


6 6 


5 55 


5 47 


8 


84 


9 2 


9 10 


7 55 


26 


H 


7 2 


5 35 


5 28 


5 


8J 


10 2 


9 


8 48 


21 


7 


8 6 


5 36 


5 25 


42 


9 


9 6 


8 57 


8 45 


20 


7 


8 6 


6 53 


6 41 


25 


9 


10 2 


7 20 


7 12 


54 


7£ 


8 6 


6 52 


6 40 


58 


91 


10 2 


8 35 


8 21 


24 


dr. grs. 


oz. 


oz. drs. grs. 


oz. drs. grs. 




drs. grs. 


oz. 


oz. drs. grs. 


oz. drs. grs. 




1 30 


123 


12 2 25 


11 7 23 




2 22i 


171 


18 2 9 


17 5 27 





In Table II. will be seen the influence of sex upon the 
results, and in order to reduce the number of males to that 
of the females, and to avoid anything like a selection, every 
fourth male, as recorded in Table I., was omitted. This 
Table has also been arranged according to the weights of 
the gastrocnemius muscles; and it will be seen that the total 
weight of the female frogs before the experiment was 18 
oz. 2 dr. 9 grs., whilst that of the male frogs was only 12 oz. 
2 dr. 25 grs. The total weight raised by the female frogs 
was 171 oz., by the male frogs 123 oz. ; but the weight of 
the gastrocnemius muscles in the females was 2 dr. 22 J grs., 
that of the males 1 dr. 30 grs., indicating that the muscular 
power of the males, as compared to that of the females, 
showed that 1 gr. of muscle in the males could raise 656 
grs., whilst in the females 1 gr. raised only 579. 

From these experiments we find that the weight of the 



NEW SERIES. — VOL. XVIII. NO. II. OCTOBER 1863. 



2 D 



206 



Mr II. F. Baxter on Muscular Foiver. 



animal is no true indication of its muscular power. They 
also establish this important fact, that during muscular 
exertion there is a tendency on the part of the muscle to 
increase in weight and consequently in power. I shall 
allude to this circumstance again, and will now merely 
draw the attention of those who consider the animal body 
as bearing a strong resemblance to a steam-engine, that we 
have here, in the animal machine, the paradoxical fact of 
a machine increasing its power whilst doing work. The in- 
creased vascularity may be due, in part, to the division of 
the vaso-motor nerves. 

There can be no doubt that age would have an important 
influence over the results ; at present I know of no character 
by which the age of the animal may be ascertained, and 
consequently unable to obtain any evidence to decide this 
point satisfactorily. 

To show the importance of the healthy condition of the 
animal, I will draw up in a tabular form the results of a 
few experiments in which the frogs had been kept without 
food for three weeks, and in a comparatively warm situation. 

Table III. 



No. 

of 

Expt. 


Date. 


Weight of 
Frog be- 
fore Expt. 


Weight 
raised. 


Weight of 

Frog after 

Expt. 


Weight 

of 
Muscle. 


Sex. 

! 


1 
2 


July 16 
... 


drs. grs. 

3 18 
2 10 


oz. drs. 

1 
6 


drs. grs. 

3 10 
2 1 


93 

2 


M. 
F. 


3 


... 


4 15 


1 2 


4 8 


H 


M. 


4 




7 5 


1 6 


6 54 


8 


F. 


5 


... 


6 9 


1 2 


5 59 


n 


M. 



Table III. will not require any analysis, as the facts will 
speak for themselves. The frogs were flabby, and the 
muscles pale and soft. 

In the following experiments the limb was separated from 
the body to ascertain the influence of the circulation of the 
blood. The spine was divided in the lumbar region, and 
the whole of the viscera, together with the upper part of 
the animal, removed, leaving the pelvis and the two lower 



Mr H. F. Baxter on Muscular Power, 207 

extremities, which were fastened to the apparatus as in 
previous experiments. The results were as follow: — 
During the first five minutes the muscle could raise the 
medium weight, provided the contractions were not excited 
too often. If a heavy weight were put into the scale, the 
muscle soon became exhausted, and required time to recover 
itself. If the muscle could elevate the medium weight of 
3 oz. 1° at the commencement of the experiment, and if it 
were made to contract once in a minute, at the end of half 
an hour this was reduced to 1 ounce. The weight was not 
kept in the scale the whole time, but removed after every 
contraction. The contractility of the muscle continued 
some hours, but the power of the muscle became gradually 
weaker. In another experiment, the continual suspension 
of a heavy weight for a quarter of an hour reduced the 
power of the muscle that it only raised 2 drs. When the 
weight was removed, tetanic contractions were observed, but 
upon moistening the nerve they subsided. Tetanic contrac- 
tions were observed in two of the experiments recorded in 
Table I., in one (Exp. 29) the effect subsided upon moisten- 
ing the nerve, in the other (Exp. 54) this had not the 
desired effect, and they must therefore have been dependent 
upon other circumstances than the state of the nerve. The 
importance of maintaining the circulation of the blood 
in these experiments is very evident. As there was a ten- 
dency in the former experiments to an increase in the nutri- 
tion of the muscle, I was led to examine whether any increase 
in its electric condition occurred under these circumstances. 
A frog fresh caught, and weighing 4 drs. 25 grs., was 
taken, and 2 oz. put into the scale ; the muscle was made 
to contract every 10 seconds for a quarter of an hour. The 
two gastrocuemii were removed as quickly as possible, and 
examined ; the muscle experimented upon indicated 3°, 
that of the other limb 2°. They were then arranged into 
a circuit, to ascertain the amount of the differential current; 
the effect upon the galvanometer amounted to J° in favour 
of the former muscle. The elements were then arranged 
to form a combined current, when the effect upon the 
needle amounted to 4°. The muscle was more vascular 
than the other. The experiment was repeated upon another 



208 Mr H. F. Baxter on Muscular Power. 

frog, which weighed 7 drs. 10 grs. With a weight of 4 oz., 
after the lapse of five minutes, the muscles were examined. 
The separate muscles indicated the one acted upon 4°, the 
other 2°. When united to show the differential current, 
the effect was 1J° in favour of the muscle experimented 
with ; when the elements were arranged to show the com- 
bined current, the effect upon the needle was 5°. 

Tn other experiments, four in number, the results always 
indicated an increase on the part of the muscle experi- 
mented with. 

Not having the necessary apparatus, I could not investi- 
gate the question respecting the heat that is developed 
during muscular contraction. 

The following conclusions may be deduced from the fore- 
going inquiry : — 

1st } Out of 60 frogs taken indiscriminately, the average 
results of the experiments show that 1 grain of muscle is 
capable of raising a weight of 608 grs. 1°, or through a 
space of s^d of an inch. 

2d, That sex has an important influence over the results. 
In males it was found that 1 gr. = 656 grs., whilst in females, 
1 gr. = 579 grs. 

3d, That the weight of the animal previous to the expe- 
riment gave no indication as to the real muscular power of 
the animal that could be relied on. 

4:th, That during the experiment there was a loss of 
weight in the animal but an increase of weight in the 
muscle experimented upon. 

5th, That an increased nutrition of the muscle was indi- 
cated by its weight, its vascularity, increase in its electrical 
condition, and by the maintenance of its muscular power. 

6^, That circumstances influencing the health of the 
animal, such as absence of food, temperature, and confine- 
ment, have an important influence over the results. 

1th, That the maintenance of the circulation of the blood 
is of the utmost importance in these experiments. 

S _'. On the Application of the Principle of" Conservation of Force 
or Energy'' to the Explanation of Physiological Phenomena. 

In my concluding remarks. I will make a few observa- 



Mr H. F. Baxter on Muscular Power. 209 

tions regarding the application of the principle of " Con- 
servation Force or Energy" to organic phenomena. 

When we find it stated that the principal products of 
the light of the sun are plants, because plants can only grow 
with the help of the sun-light ; that the heat of the sun is 
the cause of vegetation upon the earth ; or that the mecha- 
nical power of a man may be ascertained by calculating the 
amount of carbonic acid evolved during respiration, in the 
same manner as we might ascertain the power of a steam- 
engine by calculating the amount of heat evolved during the 
combustion of the fuel supplied to generate the steam ; as 
physiologists we cannot help feeling that some doubt must 
exist in regard to the data upon which such conclusions are 
based. For my own part, I remember, when pursuing some 
investigations a few years ago, respecting the development 
of plants, that, upon placing some plants (beans) in a 
dark cupboard to vegetate, they grew more rapidly in the 
dark than when exposed to the light of the sun ; they were 
blanched, and therefore may not, perhaps, be considered as 
in their natural state, but nevertheless they grew without 
the influence of the sun-light. It is, I believe, considered 
to be a well-known fact amongst vegetable physiologists, 
that sun-light, under certain circumstances, retards rather 
than promotes vegetation. Although I make these obser- 
vations, I do not for one moment deny the influence of 
sun-light or of heat over vegetation, or the importance of 
estimating and ascertaining the relation that the evolution 
of carbonic acid in the animal body, during respiration, 
bears to the muscular power of the individual. It is in the 
application of these facts where the doubt exists, and not 
in the correctness of the principle upon which they are 
based. 

Professor Helmholtz,* in a lecture delivered at the Koyal 
Institution, has clearly and beautifully shown in a masterly 
manner the importance of applying this principle to organic 
nature. The observations that I shall now make will be 

* On the Application of the Law of Conservation of Force to Organic 
Nature. April 12, 1861. I must also refer to a lecture delivered by Profes- 
sor Faraday at the same Institution, " On the Conservation of Force." — Phil. 
Mag., April, 1857. 



210 Mr II. F. Baxter on Muscular Power. 

for the purpose of extending these views, and show the im- 
portance of its application in the explanation of physiolo- 
gical phenomena. Before doing so, let us endeavour to 
get a clear view of the object we have in view. In animal 
bodies, in man, for example, we have the following forces 
evolved : nerve force, muscular force, heat, and chemical 
force — now these forces are developed during growth, and 
maintained by nutrition. Nerve force and muscular force 
may be considered as the special properties of their respec- 
tive tissues, and dependent upon the peculiar compounds 
(chemical) which form them. These compounds are de- 
rived from the blood, which, on its part, is derived from the 
food, hence we must consider the food as the original source 
from whence the animal body derives its ultimate power. 
Heat and light influence the formation of the various com- 
pounds which go towards forming and maintaining the 
animal structures. Heat and light may also be given out 
and developed during the formation of organic compounds ; 
so that we have heat and light necessary for the formation 
of the organic compounds, and we also have the same forces 
generated during the disintegration of the compounds. It 
appears to me that a great deal of the misconception and 
confusion which occurs arises in consequence of not keep- 
ing clearly in view the formative actions, and the disinte- 
grating or destructive actions which take place in the animal 
body. Let us now consider for a moment the animal body 
as a machine doing work. We have nerve work (compris- 
ing mental work and nervous action in general) in which 
nerve force is exhausted ; we have muscular work (com- 
prising muscular contraction or mechanical work), in which 
muscular force is exhausted. The various secretions and 
excretions which take place in the animal body must be 
looked upon in the light of disintegrating actions ; they 
cannot be looked upon in the same light as we view the 
-< aeration of nerve force or muscular force ; the compounds 
which constitute the secretions are thrown off, and do not 
form a permanent constituent of the animal body like the 
muscular or nervous tissues, although they may be intended 
for ulterior purposes ; the principal office of the secretions 
and excretions may be to keep and maintain the blood in a 



Mr H. F. Baxter on Muscular Poiver. 211 

proper and fit state for healthy nutrition. Excessive secre- 
tion, as during lactation, many exhaust the vital powers 
in the same manner as excessive nerve action or mus- 
cular action, but we must bear in mind, when applying 
the principle of Conservation of Force in the explanation 
of natural phenomena, the distinction between the forma- 
tive action by which the force is generated and the disin- 
tegrating or destructive actions by which the force is ex- 
pended. The analogy which is drawn between the steam- 
engine and the animal body is too far fetched, if we 
compare the food and fuel on the one hand and the lungs 
and the furnace on the other : the respiratory function 
is not an act by which the vital force is generated, although 
it is one by which it is maintained. We cannot say 
that the vital force of the animal is generated, or ori- 
ginates in the combustion of the carbon which takes place 
in the lungs, as the power of the steam-engine originates 
in the combustion of the fuel which generates the heat ; 
that which is primary in one is secondary in the other. 
During muscular action — the development of muscular 
power — we have heat evolved, chemical action taking place 
and electricity evolved, but we are not justified in saying 
that the mechanical power of the muscle is converted into 
chemical force, or into heat, or into electricity. It would 
be more in unison with the facts if we say that the mus- 
cular force developed and generated during the nutrition of 
the muscle is converted into mechanical power, heat, elec- 
tricity, and chemical force, during muscular action. But we 
should naturally ask, What do we mean by muscular force ? 
In what does it differ from mechanical power ? And this 
shows us the impropriety of assuming what are mere pro- 
perties to be forces. The term conversion gives but an 
inadequate idea of what is intended to be conveyed, and 
consequently inappropriate. The relation which heat, elec- 
tricity, and chemical action bear to the power exerted by 
the muscle, in other words, their relative equivalents, is the 
point to be ascertained. 

Similar observations may be made in regard to nerve 
force. Nerve force is generated and maintained during 
nutrition, and expended during nerve action. Nerve action 



212 Mr H. F. Baxter on Muscular Poiuer. 

is no doubt accompanied with chemical changes which 
take place in its tissue, as in the muscles ; but whether heat 
and electricity are developed, as in muscles during muscular 
action, is extremely problematical. 

I have alluded in a former part of the paper to the fact 
that, during muscular action the nutrition of the muscle is 
increased, and consequently the muscular power is main- 
tained, if not increased ; here we have apparently a creation 
of force during work instead of exhaustion. If we bear in 
mind that it is during nutrition that the muscular force is 
generated and maintained, and that time must be taken 
into account in considering these phenomena, there is, not- 
withstanding the apparent creation of power, ultimately an 
exhaustion ; and consequently these facts go far to establish 
the correctness of the principle of the Conservation of 
Force ; at the same time show the extreme beauty of adap- 
tation and contrivance in the animal machine when com- 
paring it with the admirable contrivances formed and 
designed by human skill. 



Collection of the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 
By Arthur Mitchell, A.M., M.D., Member of Council 
of the Scottish Meteorological Society, &c.* 

1. Minute of Council of the Scottish Meteorological Society, 
July 1863. 

The Council had laid before them by the Marquis of 
Tweeddale, a " Collection of the Popular Weather Prog- 
nostics of Scotland," drawn up by Dr Arthur Mitchell, 
M.D., accompanied by a letter from the author, dated 15th 
December, 18G2, and addressed to his Lordship. 

The Marquis repeated to the Council, what he had stated 
to the general meeting of the Society, held on 24th ultimo, 
that he considered it would be of use to publish these prog- 
nostics, and also very important to have them explained 
and tested on scientific principles. As the general meeting 

* In connection with the paper t lio following minute and letter were 
transmitted. 



On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 213 

had expressed approval of his views, he now begged to 
intimate his readiness to offer a prize of twenty guineas 
for the best scientific explanation of the prognostics col- 
lected by Dr Mitchell ; and he would leave it to the Council 
to make all the arrangements necessary for carrying out his 
object. 

The Council agreed to record their sense of the great 
liberality of the noble Marquis in this matter, and also their 
appreciation of the importance of the subject. They are of 
opinion that the best way of bringing the prize under the 
notice of persons likely to compete for it, would be to publish 
Dr Mitchell's collection of prognostics in the " Edinburgh 
Philosophical Journal/' accompanied by a copy of this 
minute. They farther agree to intimate that the prize will 
be given in the form of a gold medal, a piece of plate, or 
otherwise as the successful competitor may desire. 

The papers intended to be given in for this competition 
must be lodged with Mr Buchan, the Society's Secretary, 
at No. 10 St Andrew Square, Edinburgh, on the 1st May 
1864. 

Any persons wishing to have separate copies of Dr Mitchell's 
paper, may obtain them by applying to Mr Buchan. 

David Milne Home, Convener. 



2. Letter to the Most Noble the Marquis of Tweeddale. 

Laverock Bank Villas, Trinity, Edinburgh, 
15th December 1862. 

To the Most Noble the Marquis of Tweeddale, Presi- 
dent of the Scottish Meteorological Society. 

My Lord, — Along with this letter I forward to you a 
collection of the weather prognostics of Scotland, which 
I have made at your Lordship's suggestion. I have con- 
fined myself to those which are strictly popular in their 
character, and which do not involve the use of scientific 
instruments. 

The object to be served by such a collection appears to 
be twofold : — 

I. These prognostics are thus presented in a form which 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. II. OCTOBER 1863. 2 E 



214 On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 

facilitates the testing of their trustworthiness by careful and 
methodical observation. 

IT. By having them collected together, we are better able 
to compare and generalize. 

In the effort to attain this object, we may find that 
phenomena, which are apparently unconnected, but which 
foretell the same change, are in reality allied through a 
common cause ; we may discover how it happens that certain 
classes of phenomena come to predict certain approaching 
conditions of the weather ; and further, it may happen that 
while sifting well-established popular beliefs, we may fall 
on the proof of important weather laws. 

I shall illustrate my meaning, and at the same time show 
how such an inquiry may become interesting and valuable, 
both in a scientific and practical sense, by reference to the 
following prognostics : — 

A heavy in-shore swell during calm weather is believed 
to foretell wind. This prognostic has been found to be very 
generally correct. The swell, in fact, is merely the product 
of a distant storm then existing, which is travelling towards 
us, and which will probably, though not certainly, reach us. 
The log-books of ships have satisfactorily established the 
truth of this explanation. We are led, therefore, to con- 
clude that storms do not always travel so fast as does their 
influence on the water ; nor is this the only important con- 
clusion concerning the progress of storms which flows from 
the examination of this single phenomenon. 

Again, when the fisherman of the Dornoch Coast, on a 
clear and calm night, hears the sound of rushing waters over 
the Gizzen-Briggs, he expects a storm from the east. Now, 
it is more than probable that this sound is merely another 
manifestation of the precursory swell of which I have just 
been speaking, and which causes it by producing broken 
waters on the sandbank at the mouth of the firth. We 
have here an illustration of how phenomena seemingly un- 
connected may possibly be due to the same cause. The 
" ebb and flow and ebb again" near high or low water mark, 
in narrow firths, a phenomenon which fishermen call leaJcies, 
may also have the same explanation, viz., the action on the 
water of a remote storm, perceived before the arrival of the 



On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 215 

storm itself, but whose coming is thus predicted. Even the 
landward flight of the sea-gull may have the same origin. 
Before the storm has come the swell may have disturbed 
his feeding-ground, and thus made his flight inland for food 
a presage of stormy weather. 

After some of the prognostics I have inserted remarks, 
suggestive or explanatory, and bearing either on a special 
phenomenon or on a class. When clouds, for instance, on 
the summits of particular mountains, are thought to foretell 
coming rain, I have indicated, as accurately as I could, the 
position of the mountain in relation to the locality in which 
the prognostic holds. The intention is obvious, being sug- 
gestive of one aspect in which phenomena of this class may 
be studied. 

While making this collection, I embraced every oppor- 
tunity which offered of conversing with those who were re- 
putedly good weather-prophets, and I found two points of 
practical importance on which all appear to agree. 

1. No sign is considered infallible. " It is not the less 
a sign, however," said a cautious and intelligent observer, 
who added, " We all trust the barometer, yet even it some- 
times fails, and the clouds, ivell understood, are only a little 
less certain." 

2. A prediction is seldom founded on a single sign. Never, 
indeed, have I seen the system of " putting that and that 
together" in more extensive operation. I have been told, 
again and again, that only by so doing can the coming 
weather with any certainty be predicted. 

I now beg to offer a few remarks on the different classes 
1 of prognostics, indicating those on which I think the least 
! reliance can be placed, pointing out the desirability of 
I minute and full descriptions, and giving several reasons 
why some prognostics, which at first sight may seem value- 
; less, deserve to be fairly considered before rejection. 

It appears to me that the accusation of fanciful can with 

ij most fairness be brought against those prognostics which are 

associated with the aurora, halos, mock-suns, thunder, &c. 



216 On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 

I have been led to form this opinion from finding that 
the same phenomenon is by different persons in the same 
locality made to presage totally different conditions of the 
weather. Appearances which are marvellous, startling, or 
uncommon, are apt to be accepted by the ignorant as pro- 
phetic of coming change of some sort. It is thus that the 
aurora has been thought to predict wind by some, and war 
by others, while the Eskimo looks on it simply as a game, 
which the spirits of departed relatives are playing. 

There is also a probability that not a few of those prog- 
nostics which are connected with the conduct and move- 
ments of animals, will have to be rejected as groundless. 
But for several reasons I think that this must be done with 
caution. For instance, when the screaming of the peacock 
is said to indicate coming rain, I find that this does not 
refer to a cry once or twice repeated, which may have a 
score of causes, but to a persistent screaming, with evidence 
of discomfort, and without manifest cause. There is a great 
difference between the simple statement that the peacock's 
screaming foretells rain, and the other statement, with its 
important qualifications. In its bare form we might pro- 
perly reject the prognostic as worthless, and as properly 
retain it when amplified. 

It becomes, therefore, exceedingly desirable that we should 
possess a full and minute description of all popular weather 
prognostics. Of but a few in the collection can I pretend 
to have given this, which I believe can only be obtained 
through the co-operation of many observers, whose atten- 
tion has been drawn to the things which should be ob- 
served by some such collection as that which I now forward. 

I frequently experienced the greatest difficulty in carrying 
away a clear understanding of the sky and cloud signs. 

II You must see the thing, sir, to know it," was often the 
end of a fruitless effort to make sure of what was meant. 
The roughest sketch in such a case would be of the greatest 
value. Of this Mr Clouston has given an illustration, which 
will be found at page 222. 

There is another reason — and one of general application 
—for caution in rejecting any old popular prognostic as 
utterly worthless. Though singly it may be of little value, 



On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 217 

yet associated with others, it may give strength, and the 
whole may be safely trusted in determining a debated course 
of action. Thus, the continued and distressed screaming 
of the peacock arrests the farmer's attention, and the first 
thing to which this leads is to his looking around for other 
signs, and he acts according to what he believes to be the 
teaching of the whole. I have said that he acts on this 
teaching, and this leads me incidentally to remark, that it 
is the fact that important operations are every day actually 
determined by such indications, which makes it so desirable 
to have the false separated from the true, so that the 
shepherd, the farmer, and the sailor, may trust only to 
prognostics which are ratified by experience, and, when 
possible, grounded on reason. 

The great antiquity of many of these weather proverbs is 
also a substantial argument against hastily dismissing them. 
Peculiarities in the flight and conduct of birds have been 
held to foretell approaching change of weather for thousands 
of years. We might suspect this to be a mere extension of 
the drawing of auguries from them. The victory at Arte- 
mesium was assured to Themistocles by the crowing of a 
cock. Indeed, ornithomancy was an actual science among 
the early Greeks. , But this doubt as to the origin of such 
weather prognostics is removed by the manner in which 
Virgil handles them. In his allusions there is nothing of 
the supernatural or mysterious. He speaks of them as 
simple deductions from the experience or observation of 
those whose occupations led to the looking for signs of 
coming storms. It is true, they may now be called tradi- 
tional, but as every generation has had the opportunity of 
testing their accuracy and value, unless they had been 
found to contain some measure of truth they would soon 
have ceased to be handed down. It must not be forgotten 
that they regulate affairs of every-day life, and lead to loss 
or gain — a test which soon deprives traditional error of its 
vitality ; and this is only a little less slowly its fate when it 
is linked to or mixed up with religious belief. 

So it is with that class of prognostics to which St Swithen's 
day belongs. In Scotland, at the present time, there is 
practically no faith placed in them. Except St Swithen's 



218 On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 

day, indeed, few are known, and with regard to it careful 
observation has proved to us that 

" Nor Paul nor Switheu rules the clouds and winds." 

I have not included in my collection the numerous prog- 
nostics of this kind drawn from festivals in the calendar, 
first, because they are not now believed in or even known to 
the people ; and, secondly, because they are manifestly not 
worthy of belief. The very uncertainty as to whether they 
should be computed by the Gregorian or Julian Calendar is 
fatal to them. For similar reasons I have not included 
those prognostics connected with certain days or months, 
as, for instance, when the direction of the wind on New 
Year's Eve is made to betoken the weather of the whole 
incoming year. It is a mistake to suppose that such prog- 
nostics are now believed in by the people of any part of 
Scotland. It is doubtful indeed if the belief in them was 
at any time general. They probably originated in the 
fancy of some prophetic rhymster, and to a quaint rhyming 
they are indebted for the life which they have had. 

The wide diffusion of many popular prognostics is the only 
other claim for consideration which I shall notice. Not a 
few of those most familiar to us in Scotland are popular 
beliefs not only throughout Europe, but also among many 
of the nations of the East and South. Many of these ap- 
pear to rest on a wide-spread faith in the steadiness of 
annual averages, and in a supposed system of compensations 
which this belief almost involves. — Witli great respect, I 
am, my Lord, your most obedient servant, 

Arthur Mitchell. 

Note. — (1.) Only strictly popular weather prognostics are in- 
cluded in this collection. None of them involve the use 
of scientific instruments. — (2.) Of the great majority I am 
able to state that they are not obsolete, being still used as 
practical guides in daily life. — (3.) I have not thought it 
right to exclude any because they seemed to me valueless, 
if others had faith in them. — (4.) Many of them are men- 
tioned in the tours of Martin, Pennant, Boswell, Johnston, 
Anderson, Maculloch, &c. ; and I have found a consider- 
ate number scattered through the Old and New Statistical 
Accounts. Between twenty and thirty have been furnished 



On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 219 

to me by Archibald Gibson, Esq., and I have extracted a 
few from the recent returns to the Scottish Meteorological 
Society, while others, so far as I am aware, are nowhere 
recorded. — (5.) I could give more than one authority for the 
greater number, and numerous authorities for many, so that 
I have thought it best to give no references where the prog- 
nostics are popular ones. — (6.) When I fell in with any popu- 
pular prognostic in the course of reading I noted it down, 
and made inquiries on the subject when I reached the locality 
in which it was said to hold. Thus I established its exist- 
ence, and at the same time put myself in the way of hearing 
of others. — (7.) The notes must be regarded as simply sug- 
gestive, and their accuracy must not be assumed. — (8.) It is 
possible that errors may have been made in taking down 
some of the prognostics. — A. M. 



I. Hills or Mountains — Local Prognostics. 

(1.) In Kilconquhar and Erie, a cloud resting on Largo Law is 
a sign of coming rain, while one on Kellie Law presages clear 
weather. This is interesting, because the first hill lies to the 
west, and the last to the east of the district. The popular version 
of this prognostic is as follows : — 

1. When Largo Law puts on his hat, 
Let Kellie Law beware of that. 

2. When Kellie Law gets on his cap, 
Largo Law may laugh at that. 

(2.) To the people of Sorbie, in Wigtownshire, a cloud on Cairns - 
muir after dry weather indicates coming rain, and in the adjoin- 
ing parish of Whithorn the same prognostic runs thus : — 

" When Cairnsmair wears a hat, 
The Machers' rills may laugh at that." 

Caimsmuir (1737) hill lies to the N.N.E. of the district in 
which this prognostic prevails. 

(3.) To the people about Stranraer there is a prognostic thus 
expressed in rhyme : — 

" There is a high wooded hill, above Lochnaw Castle, 
Take care when Lady Craighill puts on her mantle ; 
The Lady looks high and knows what is coming, 
Delay not one moment to get under covering." 

This hill lies to the north-west of the district in question. 

(4.) In Dumfries, Kirkpatrick -Fleming, and several of the in- 



220 On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 

tcrvening parishes, the rolling of clouds landward, and their 
gathering about the summit of Criflfel, is regarded as a sure indi- 
cation of approaching foul weather. 

Criffel lies to the south-west of these places. 

( 5.) Heavy clouds on Skiddaw, especially with a south wind, the 
farmer of Kirkj)atrick-Fleniing looks on as an indication of coming 
rain. 

Skiddaw lies to the south. 

(6.) A cloud on the top of the Sidlaw Hills foretells rain to the 
people of Car my lie. 

The hills lie to the west of that district. 

(7.) In New Cumnock there is a saying that, " If Corsancone 
puts on his cap, and the Knipe be clear, it will rain within twenty- 
four hours." This sign, it is said, never fails. 

Corsancone Hill (872) is to the east, and the Knipe (1260) to 
the south-west of the New Cumnock district. 

(8.) When the summit of the Bin Hill, to the south-west of 
Cullen, is covered with mist, rain is thought to be not far off. 

(9.) The natives of Gigha and Cara anticipate rain when the 
Paps of Jura (to the north-west) are capped, and if the cloud be 
white, they expect wind with it. The Mull of Kintyre to the 
south, is used in the same way. 

(10). The capping of the Paps of Jura serves also as a prog- 
nostic of rain to the people of Kilcalmonell and Kilberry, which 
lie to the east of these peaks. 

Note. — When a thick cloud on the top of a hill is observed to 
be in motion, the certainty of the prognostic is regarded as 
increased. 



II. Mists and Fogs. 

(1.) In the evenings of autumn and spring vapour arising from 
a river is regarded as a sure proof of coming frost. 

(2.) Hazy weather is thought to prognosticate frost in winter, 
snow in spring, fair weather in summer, and rain in autumn. 

(3.) Thin, white, fleecy, broken mist slowly ascending the sides 
of a mountain whose top is uncovered, predicts a fair day. 

(4.) The following is a well-known saw, common among anglers 
in Balmaclellan, and generally in Kirkcudbrightshire : — 

11 When the mist creeps up the hill, 
Fisher out and try your skill, 
When the mist begins to nod, 
Fisher then put past your rod." 

(5.) White mist in winter indicates frost. 



On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 221 

III. Appearance of the Sky. 

(1.) A small cloudless space in the north-east horizon, especially 
if the clouds generally are moving to the south or south-west, and 
if the weather has previously been wet, is regarded all over Scot- 
land, among seamen and landsmen, as a very certain precursor of 
fine weather, or a clearing up. 

(2.) In winter when the sky about mid-day has a greenish 
appearance to the east or north-east, snow and frost are expected. 

(3.) " The evening red, and the morning grey, 
Is the sign of a bright and cheery day ; 
The evening grey, and the morning red, 
Put on your hat, or you'll wet your head." 

Note. — The red after sunset must have a crimson tinge, and 
must last for some time. The red about sunrise may be 
a mere glare, and short lived. In fact, if it hold out till 
the sun is fairly above the horizon, many look for a fine 
day — though this is apparently opposed to the popular 
prognostic. 

(4.) When, in the morning, the dew is heavy and remains long 
on the grass, when the fog in the valleys is slowly dissipated, and 
lingers on the hill sides, when the clouds seem to be taking a 
higher place, and when a few loose cirro-strati float gently along, 
serene weather may confidently be expected for the greater part 
of that day. 

(5.) Continuous cirro-strati gathering into unbroken gloom, 
and also the cloud called " Goat's Hair" or the " Grey Mare's 
Tail," presage wind. 

(6.) Light fleecy clouds in rapid motion below compact dark 
cirro-strati foretell rain near at hand. 

(7.) When, after a shower, the cirro-strati open up at the 
zenith, leaving broken or ragged edges pointing upwards, and 
settle down gloomily and compactly on the horizon, wind will 
follow, and will last for some time. 

(8.) When, after a clear frost, long streaks of cirrus are seen 
with their ends bending towards each other as they recede from 
the zenith, and when they point to the north-east, a thaw and 
south-west wind may be expected. 

(9.) Cumulous clouds, high up, are said to show that south 
and south-west winds are near at hand ; and stratified clouds, low 
down, that east or north winds will prevail. 

\ '(10.) " I first observed this kind of cloud (cumulous-like fes- 
toons of drapery) on 5th March 1822, when the barometer fell 
from 29' 5 at 10 a.m. to 28 '3 at 7 p.m., and it was immediately 
followed by a storm. Since then I have seen it several times, and, 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII NO. II. — OCTOBER 1863. 2 F 



2'2'2 On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 

when properly developed, it was always followed by a storm or 
gale within twenty-four hours. It is called " Pocky Cloud" by 
our sailors. On this occasion, the gale began early next morning, 
and continued till 2 p.m." — Rev. C. Clouston, Sandwich Manse. 




Pocky Cloud, from drawing by Mr Clouston. 



(11.) Cirrus at right angles to the wind is regarded as a sign 
of rain. 

(12.) The farmers in Berwickshire say that a long stripe of 
cloud sometimes called by them a salmon, sometimes called Noah's 
ark, when it stretches through the atmosphere in an east and west 
direction is a sign of stormy weather, but when it stretches in a 
north and south direction, is the sign of dry weather. 

(13.) Along the north shore of the Sol way, from Dumfries to 
Gretna, a lurid appearance in the eastern or south-eastern horizon, 
called from its direction " a Carlisle Sky," is thought a sure sign 
of coming rain. They describe it as lurid and yet yellowish, and 
the common saying is, — 

" The Carle sky 
Keeps not the head dry." 

(14.) In Kincardine of Monteith, and in all that district of 
country, the reflection from the clouds of the furnaces of the 
Devon and the Carron (to the east) foretells rain next day. 

(15.) The glare of the distant Ayrshire ironworks being seen 
at night from Cumbrae or Rothesay, rain is expected next day. 
Similar prognostics are common all over Scotland. 

(16.) A mackerel sky denotes fair weather for that day, but 
predicts rain a day or two after. 



On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 223 



IV. Moon and Sun., Rainbow, Aurora Borealis, Falling Stars, 
and Thunder. 

(1.) A few days after full or new moon, changes of weather 
from good to bad or bad to good, are thought more probable than 
at other times. 

(2.) In winter, when the moon's horns are sharp and well 
defined, frost is expected. 

(3.) When the moon has a white look, and when her outline 
is not very clear, rain or snow is looked for. 

(4.) " Clear moon, 
Frost soon." 

(5.) If the old moon embraces the new moon, stormy weather 
is foreboded. Great confidence is placed in this old prognostic : 

" I saw the new moon late yestreen 
Wi' the auld moon in her arm, 
And if we gang to sea, master, 

I fear we'll come to harm." — Sir Patrick Spens. 

(6.) Haloes predict a storm (rain and wind, or snow and wind) 
at no great distance, and the open side of the halo tells the quarter 
from which it may be expected. 

(7.) Mock-suns predict a more remote and less certain change 
of weather. 

(8.) " A rainbow in the morning — 
Sailors take warning ; 
A rainbow at night 
Is the sailor's delight." 

Note. — In the former case the rainbow will appear in the 
west, and in the latter in the east. In studying the 
prognostic this should be borne in mind. 

(9.) The aurora borealis indicates change, especially if lurid and 
fiery. It is thought by many that a south-west wind often follows. 
Others, however, look for cold and storm when the aurora is very 
vivid. By some it is less, and by others more dreaded when seen 
low in the horizon. Many speak of it simply as indicating change 
— good to bad, or bad to good. 

(10.) Numerous falling stars presage wind next day. 

(11.) Sheet lightning, without thunder, during night, having 
a whitish colour, announces unsettled weather. In the west of 
Scotland, vivid flashes of lightning early in the morning are re- 
garded as an unfavourable sign of the weather for that day. 

(12.) A thunderstorm from the south is said to be followed by 
warmth, and from the north, by cold. When the storm disappears 
in the east, it is a sign of fine weather. 



224 On the Popukur Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 

(13.) The fragment of a rainbow in the north, which is called 
the " Boar's Head," makes the boatmen keep a look-out for wind. 
Stubs, however, are very variously interpreted. 

(14.) People speak of the new moon " lying on her back, and 
being ill made," as a prognostic of wet weather. 

(15.) " For a period of between thirty-five and forty years I have 
never known an exception to the rule, that the first great aurora, 
after a long tract of fine weather in September or beginning of 
October, is followed on the second day, and not till the second, 
about one o'clock on the cast coast, and about eleven o'clock in 
Nithsdale, by a great storm ; and that the next day after the 
aurora is line weather, fit for all agricultural purposes." — Profes- 
sor Christison. [Communicated by Thomas Stevenson, Esq.) 

Note. — Professor Christison's character as an observer gives 
great importance to this prognostic. 

V. Distant Objects seen vnth unusual Clearness. 

(1.) When to the people about Arbroath the Bell Rock light 
is particularly brilliant, rain is expected. 

(2.) About Cape Wrath, and along that part of the coast, when 
the Orkney Islands are distinctly seen, a storm or a continuation 
of bad weather is prognosticated. 

(3.) When from Ardersier and the adjoining parish on the 
south-east side of the Moray Firth, the distant Boss-shire hills 
are distinctly seen in the morning, rain is expected that day. 

(4.) To the people in Eaglesham, when the Kilpatrick hills 
appear near, a change to wet is looked for, but when they appear 
remote, dry weather will continue. 

(5.) When Ailsa Craig is distinctly seen, and seems near at 
hand, the people of Cumbrae look for change. When the weather 
is going to be fine, it lies flat, but when rain is coming it assumes 
the form of a mushroom. 

Note. — Darwin, in his " Zoonomia," thinks that the pre- 
sence of vapour in the air increases its transparency, on 
the same principle as saturating a white opaque sheet of 
paper with oil renders it transparent. 

There is a saying in Shetland, — Everytldng looks large 
in an east wind. 

VI. Unusual Sounds. 

(1.) In the Kilconquhar district of Fifeshire, when the noise 

the sea is heard coming from the direction of St Andrews or 

St Monancc, which lie to the north and cast, bad weather from that 

quarter is expected. And when, afterwards, the sound is heard 



On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 225 

coming from Kincraig, or from up the Firth, or in other words 
from the west, the wind is expected to fall, 

(2.) At Roseneath, when the tide-stream at the ferry flows 
gently, yet resounds like a cataract, though the sky be starry and 
cloudless, rain may be looked for in the morning. 

(3.) When the people of Monzie hear the sound of the water- 
falls of Shaggie, or the roar of the distant Turret clearly and 
loudly, a storm is expected ; but if the sound seems to recede from 
the ear till it is lost in the distance, and if the weather be thick, 
a change to fair may be looked for speedily. 

(4.) In Fortingall, if in calm weather the sound of the rapids 
on the Lyon is- distinctly heard, and if the sound descends with 
the stream, rainy weather is at hand ; but if the sound goes up the 
stream, and dies away in the distance, it is an omen of continued 
dry weather, or of a clearing up if previously thick. 

Note. — The course of the Turret and Lyon is from west to 
east. This note refers to the two preceding prognostics. 

(5.) Along the Dornoch coast, when the sound of the sea is 
distinctly heard as if breaking on the sandbank called the Giz- 
zen Briggs, at the mouth of the Firth of Dornoch, it forebodes 
a storm, which will probably be from the east or north-east. 
When this is reckoned on as a prognostic, it is said " that the 
weather must be calm, and the sea with nothing more than a 
swell on." 

(6.) In winter, when the sound of the breakers on the shore is 
unusually distinct, frost is indicated. This is very generally be- 
lieved in. 

(7.) If the noise of a steamer or a railway train is heard at a 
great distance, bad weather is predicted. 



VII. Underground Prognostics. 

(1.) In the collieries about Dysart, and in those of other dis- 
tricts in Scotland, it is thought by the miners that before a storm 
of wind, a sound not unlike that of a bagpipe, or the buzz of a 
bee, comes from the mineral, and that previous to a fall of rain 
the sound is more subdued. 

(2.) Before wind and rain, it is also said, that the black damp, 
extinguishing the lights, is observed at the bottom of ironstone 
pits, and through the waste. 

(3.) In Midlothian, the miners think that approaching changes 
of the weather are preceded by an increased flow of water, and 
the issue of gases and foul air from the crevices ; and when very 
bad weather is at hand, these last escape with a characteristic 
sound, like the buzz of insects. 



220 On the Popular 1 Feather Prognostics of Scotland. 



VIII.— Plants. 

(1.) The Convolvulus arvensis (small bind-weed), Anagallis ar- 
vensis (scarlet pimpernel), and Calendula pluvialis, shut up their 
{lowers before approaching rain. (The pimpernel has been called 
the poor man's weather-glass.) The same is believed to be true 
of the Anemone nemorosa (wood anemone), the Oxalls Acetosella 
(wood sorrel), Nymphcea alba (white water-lily), and Bellis per- 
ennis (common daisy). 

Note. — Light probably determines the opening of most of 

these flowers, and their being found shut at 10 or 11 a.m. 

tells of cloud and gloom, and so predicts rain. 

(2.) If Stellaria media (common chickweed) fully opens its 
flowers, no rain will fall for four hours. 

Note. — Linnseus in his " Botanica Philosophia" shows that, 
with reference to the opening and closing of their petals, 
many flowers display an extreme sensibility; and it is quite 
probable that they may be influenced by those minor 
atmospheric changes which precede by a greater or less 
length of time the greater changes, and that they thus 
become real prophets of the approach of the last. 

(3.) " Mony haws, 

Mony snaws," 

is a common saying all over Scotland, and in some districts is 
otherwise expressed thus : — 

" A haw year 
Is a snaw year." 

(4.) When the bramble blossoms early in June, an early 
harvest is expected. 

(5.) If the oak is out in leaf before the ash, it will be a dry 
summer. If the ash first, wet. 



IX. Conduct, Movements, fyc. of Animals. 

(A.) Birds. 

(1.) The low flight of crows indicates coining rain. If they 
feed busily, and hurry over the ground in one direction and in a 
compact body, a storm (wind and rain) will soon follow. When 
they sit in rows on dykes or palings, wind is looked for. When 
going home to roost, if they fly high, the next day will be fair, 
and vice versa. If, when flying high, they suddenly dart down and 
wheel about in circles, wind is prognosticated. In autumn and 



On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 227 

winter, if, after feeding in the morning, they return to the rookery 
and hang about it, rain is expected soon. 

(2.) The landward flight and flocking of sea-gulls presage wind. 
When their cry is frequently repeated, when it is more lengthened 
and dismal than usual, and when it is heard in an inland place, 
rain or snow is prognosticated. 

(3.) The frequently repeated cry of the ptarmigan low down on 
the mountains during frost and snow, indicates more snow and 
continued cold. 

(4.) The gathering of grouse into large flocks indicates snow. 
Their approach to the farm-yard is a sign of severe weather — 
frost and snow. When they sit on dykes in the moor, rain only 
is expected. 

(5.) When the cock crows at unusual times, wet or snowy 
weather is expected. 

" If the cock crows on going to bed, 
He's sure to rise with a watery head." 

(6.) When the fieldfare, redwing, starling, swan ; snowfleck, 
and other birds of passage, arrive soon from the north, it indicates 
the probability of an early and severe winter. 

(7.) Swallows and swifts fly close to the ground or water before 
rain. 

Note. — As a rule they fly lower in the evening and morning 
than during the day. Before thunder, however, they are 
often seen flying high. Such birds probably move about 
in. that stratum of air in which the insects on which they 
feed are at the time, and that stratum is selected for 
warmth and dryness. 

(8.) The drumming of the snipe in the air, and the call of the 
partridge, indicate dry weather and frost at night to the shepherds 
of Garrow. 

(9.) " When dotterel do first appear, 
It shows that frost is very near ; 
But when the dotterel do go, 
Then you may look for heavy snow." 

Common also among Hampshire shepherds. 

(10.) In severe winters the white swan visits the Orkneys. Its 
coming foretells continued severity. 

(11.) When hens are observed to pick and pluck themselves 
more than usual, rain is near. 



(B.) Quadruped 



(1.) Goats leave the high and exposed grounds, and seek shelter 
in a bield or in some recess, before a storm. 



22S On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 

(2.) Old sheep and ewes (less faith is placed in hogs) are said 
to eat greedily before a storm and sparingly before a thaw. When 
they leave the high grounds, and bleat much in the evening and 
during the night, severe weather is expected. In winter when 
they feed down the hill, a snow storm is looked for. When they 
feed up the burn, wet weather is near. 

(3.) Swine carry straw in their mouths, and toss about their 
bedding before a storm. 

(4.) Cats are observed to scratch the wall or a post before 
wind, and to wash their faces before a thaw. They sit with their 
backs to the fire before snow. 

(5.) A day or two before rain, moles raise more hillocks than 
usual, and it is a sign of thaw when, after a long frost, they begin 
to work again. 

(6.) Weasels, stoats, &c, seen running about in the forenoon, 
foretell rain in the after part of the day. 

(7.) Hares take to the open country before a snow storm. 

(C.) Insects, Worms, fyc. 

(1.) When gnats bite keenly, and when flies keep near the 
ground, we look for wind and rain. 

(2.) Insects fly low before rain. 

(3.) The earthworm appearing in large numbers on the surface 
indicates rain. 

(4.) A leech in a bottle is considered a good weather prophet by 
many people. It is thought that in dry, calm weather, be it cold 
or hot, the leech will remain at the bottom ; before rain or snow 
that it will cling to the side of the bottle at the top of the water; 
and that before wind it will be found in active motion. 

(5.) When the colour of frogs is observed to be dark, wet 
weather is thought to be very close. 

(6.) When the frog spawns in the middle of the water it is a 
sign of drought, and when at the side it indicates a wet summer. 

(7.) When bees fly to the hive and none leave it, rain is near. 

(D.) Sensations experienced by Man. 

(1.) Headache, toothache, pain in corns, rheumatism, neuralgic 
pains, &c, are felt by some people before change from dry to 
wet, or mild to cold. Before thunder a feeling of listlessncss, 
oppression, and uneasiness, is often complained of. 

X. Unclassified Prognostics. 

(1.) An honest man and a north-west wind generally go to sleep 

ilier. 



On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 229 

Note — This is a common saying, and implies that if the 
wind is from the north-west in the early part of the day, 
it will veer or fall in the evening. It is common also in 
Iceland. The Westing appears to be important, for in 
Orkney the saying is : The west wind is a gentleman, and 
goes to bed. 

(2.) Much undulation in the air near the surface of the earth 
on a hot day in May or June foretells a lowering of the tem- 
perature. This is called Startling Jack. 

(3.) It is said to be a sign of continued good weather when the 
wind so changes during the day as to follow the sun. 

(4.) There is a peculiar rippling of the wind, or broken way 
of blowing, which is said always to prognosticate heavy rain 
within a few hours. 

(5 ) Easterly gales, without rain, during the spring equinox, 
foretell a dry summer. 

(6.) Rain, with a south-east wind, is expected to last for some 
time. 

(7.) Hail, after long-continued rain, indicates a clearing up. 

(8.) Frost suddenly following heavy rain seldom lasts long." 

(9.) Short, slight showers, during dry weather, are called a 
hardening of the drought. Dust rising from the road in dry 
weather, when there is little wind, predicts change. 

(10.) The Tweed, near its mouth, sometimes rises when no rain 
has fallen there. Rain, however, may be expected, and a south- 
west wind, 

(11.) On the west coast, a gale from the west or south-west is 
frequently prognosticated by a great swell of the sea occurring 
during calm weather. The same phenomenon on the east coast 
would indicate a storm from the east or north-east, but the com- 
parative narrowness of the waters on that side of our country pro- 
bably makes this sign less valuable and less likely to occur. 

Note. — That veteran observer, the Rev. C. Clouston, has 
directed attention strongly to this, which he has himself 
often verified. 

This prognostic implies the existence of a storm in a 
distant part of the ocean, which is travelling in the direc- 
tion of our country, and it involves the notion that the 
agitation caused by the wind on the water's surface travels 
faster than the wind itself. Mr Clouston also concludes 
from it that the breeze begins to windward, and takes 
some time to reach the point to which it proceeds to lee- 
ward. 

The distant storm, which causes this agitation, may not 
actually reach our coasts, and the sign may thus fail. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. II. OCTOBER 1863. 2 G 



230 On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 

(12.) When the tide begins to ebb before high- water mark, and 
after receding a short distance, returns to high-water mark, or 
when, before low water, it flows for a short time and then ebbs 
again beyond the point from which the irregular flow started, a 
storm is believed to be near. These phenomena are vulgarly 
called Leahies. This prognostic is more particularly trusted on 
the shores of the Firth of Forth above Burntisland. 

(13.) " Lang foul, lang fair," 

Note. — This is a calculation of probabilities, and springs 

from a faith in the constancy of averages in climate, as is 

the case with many other popular prognostics. 

(14.) An unseasonably fine day in winter or spring is called 

a pet day in Scotland. The fate of pets, they say, awaits it, and 

they look for bad weather on the morrow. 

(15.) ' ' Who doffs his coat on a winter day 
Will gladly put it on in May." 

(16.) " If the grass grows in Janiveer 

It grows the worse for 't all the year." 

(17-) A green Yule makes a fat kirkyard. 

(18.) " Winter thunder 

Bodes summer hunger." 

(19.) u Long foretold, long last ; 
Short notice, soon past." 

(20.) March dust is worth its weight in gold. 

(21.) " April showers 

Bring summer flowers." 

(22.) " In April a dove's flood 
Is worth a king's good." 

(23.) " A shower of rain in July, 

When the corn begins to fill, 
Is worth a plough of oxen, 

And all that belongs theretill." 

(24.) The sailor notes the tightening of the cordage on his ship 
as a sign of coming rain. 

(25.) A lump of kelp acts as a good hygrometer, and prognos- 
ticates rain when it becomes damp. 

(26.) When walls, built of stones which have been quarried 
below high-water mark, become damp, wet weather is near. 

(27.) When from drains or soil-pipes a bad odour proceeds, 
foul weather is thought to be predicted. 

(28.) When chimneys smoke and soot falls, bad weather is at 
hand. The whistling of the wind heard within doors denotes rain. 
AVlien fires burn faster than usual, and with a blue flame, frosty 
weather may be expected. 



On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 231 

(29.) When milk becomes suddenly and inexplicably sour, a 
thunder storm is at hand. 

(30.) When spiders' webs are seen floating about in the air, 
farmers regard it as a sign of coming rain. 

(31.) Heavy dews in hot weather indicate a continuation of 
fair weather, and no dew after a hot day foretells rain. 

(32.) Addressed by Dr Jenner, in 1810, to a Lady who asked him if he thought it 
would rain to-morrow. 

" The hollow winds begin to blow, 
The clouds look black, the glass is low : 
The soot falls down, the spaniels sleep, 
And spiders from their cobwebs creep : 
Last night the sun went pale to bed, 
The moon in halos hid her head : 
The boding shepherd heaves a sigh, 
For see a rainbow spans the sky ; 
The walls are damp, the ditches smell, 
Closed is the pink-eyed pimpernel ; 
The squalid toads at dusk are seen 
Slowly crawling o'er the green ; 
Loud quack the ducks, the peacocks cry, 
The distant hills are looking nigh ; 
Hark, how the chairs and tables crack, 
Old Betty's joints are on the rack ; 
And see yon rooks how odd their flight, 
They imitate the gliding kite, 
Or seem precipitate to fall 
As if they felt the piercing ball ; 
How restless are the snorting swine, 
The busy flies disturb the kine ; 
Low o'er the grass the swallow wings, 
The cricket too, how sharp she sings, 
Puss on the hearth with velvet paws 
Sits wiping o'er her whiskered jaws ; 
The wind, unsteady, veers around, 
Or settling in the south is found ; 
The whirling wind the dust obeys 
And o'er the rapid eddy plays ; 
The leech disturbed is newly risen 
Quite to the summit of his prison ; — 
'Twill surely rain, I see, with sorrow, 
Our jaunt must be put off to-morrow." 



Appendix (A). 

The Shepherd of Banbury s Rules to Judge of the Change of the 
Weather. — Extracts from the Second Edition, printed in London 
in 1748. 

In the preface it is said, " Most of our Shepherd's observations give us a 
day's notice, many a week's, and some extend to several months' prognos- 
tication of the changes of weather ; and of how great use these may be to 
all ranks and degrees of people, — to the sedentary valetudinarian as well 



232 On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 

as the active traveller, — to the sportsman who pursues his game, as well 
as the industrious husbandman, who constantly follows his labour, — in 
short, to every man in every situation in some degree or other, is so very 
clear and intelligible, that it would be a mere waste of words, and a 
very idle display of rhetoric, to attempt the making it clearer. Every 
man living would be glad to forsee the alterations of the weather if he 
could ; and, consequently, to most people, if not to all, these observa- 
tions, grounded on no less than forty years' experience, cannot but be 
acceptable." 

I. Sun. — (].) If the sun rise red and fiery — Wind and rain. (2.) 
If cloudy, and it soon decrease — Certain fair iveather. 

II. Moon. — (1.) Horns of the moon obscure — Bain. (2.) When the 
moon is red — Wind. (3.) On the fourth day of the new moon, if bright, 
with sharp horns — No winds nor rain till the month be finished. 

III. Stars. — (1.) When stars shoot precipitant through the sky — 
Approaching wind. 

IV. Clouds. — (1.) Clouds small and round, like a dapple grey with 
a north wind — Fair weather for two or three days. (2.) Large like 
rocks — Great showe?*s. (3.) If small clouds increase — Much rain. (4.) 
If large clouds decrease — Fair weather. (5.) Clouds in summer or 
harvest, when the wind has "been south two or three days, and it grows 
very hot, and you see clouds rise with great white tops like towers, as if 
one were upon the top of another, and joined together with black on the 
nether side — Tliere tuill be thunder and rain suddenly* (6.) If two 
such clouds arise, one on either hand — It is time to make haste to 
shelter. (7.) If you see a cloud rise against the wind or side wind, 
when that cloud comes up to you, the wind will blow the same way that 
the cloud came. And the same rule holds of a clear place, when all the 
sky is equally thick, except one clear edge. 

V. Mists. — (1.) If mists rise in low ground and soon vanish — Fair 
weather. (2.) If they rise to the hill tops — Rain in a day or two. 
(3.) A general mist before the sun rises, near the full moon — Fair 
weather. (4.) If in the new moon — Rain in the old. (5.) If in the 
old — Rain in the new. 

VI. Winds. — (1.) Observe that in eight years 5 time there is as much 
south- west wind as north- east, and consequently as many wet years as 
dry. (2.) When the wind turns to north-east, and it continues two 
days without rain, and does not turn south the third day, nor rain the 
third day, it is likely to continue north-east for eight or nine days — all 

fair ; and then to come to the south again. (3.) If it turn again out of 
the south to the north-east with rain, and continue in the north east two 
days without rain, and neither turns south nor rains the third day — It 
is likely to continue north-east for two or three months. The wind will 
finish these turns in three weeks. (4.) South-west winds. After a 
north wind, for the most part two months or more, and then coming 
BOUtfa — Th< re are usually three or four fair days at first, and then on 
i Ik fourth or fifth day comes rain, or else the wind turns north ag.iin, 



On the Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland. 233 

and continues dry. (5.) If it return to the south within a day or two 
without rain, and turn north with rain, and return to the south in one or 
two days as before, two or three times together after this sort — Then it 
is like to he in the south or south-west two or three months together, as 
it was in the north before. The winds will finish these turns in a 
fortnight. (6.) Fair weather for a week, with a south wind, is like to 
produce a great drought, if there has been much rain out of the south 
before. The wind usually turns from north to south, with a quiet wind 
without rain, but returns to the north with a strong wind and rain ; the 
strongest winds are when it turns from south to north by west. (7.) 
When the north wind first clears the air, be sure of a fine day or two. 

VII. Rains. — (1.) Sudden. rains never last long; but when the air 
grows thick by degrees, and the sun, moon, and stars shine dimmer and 
dimmer — Then it is like to rain six hours usually. (2.) If it begin to 
rain from the south, with a high wind, for two or three hours, and the 
wind falls, but the rain continues — It is like to rain twelve hours or 
more, and does usually rain till a strong north wind clears the air. 
These long rains seldom hold above twelve hours, or happen above once 
a year. (3.) If it begins to rain an hour or two before sun-rising — It 
is like to he fair hefore noon, and so continue that day ; but if the rain 
begin an hour or two after sun-rising — It is like to rain all that day, 
except the rainbow be seen before it rains. 

VIII. Spring and Summer. — If the last eighteen days of February 
and ten days of March be for the most part rainy, then the spring and 
summers quarters are like to be so too ; and I never knew a great drought 
but it entered in that season. 

IX. Winter. — If the latter end of October and beginning of Novem- 
ber be for the most part warm and rainy, then January and February 
are like to be frosty and cold, except after a very dry summer. If in 
October and November there be snow and frost, then January and Feb- 
ruary are like to be open and mild. 

X. Animals. — (1.) Cormorants swiftly returning from sea to land, 
making a great noise — Winds. (2.) The heron forsaking the fens and 
soaring aloft — Winds. (3.) Cranes forsaking the valleys, heifers snuf- 
fing the air, swallows fluttering about the lakes, frogs croaking, ants con- 
veying their eggs from their cells, ravens flocking together and making 
a great noise, bees in clusters humming about the hive — Bain. 



Appendix (B). 

The three following popular Prognostics are discussed hy 

M. Arago : — 

1. If the horns of the lunar crescent, on the third day after new moon, 
are sharply and clearly defined, the weather may be expected to be fair 
during the ensuing month. 

2. If on the fourth day the moon project no shadow, we are to expect 
bad weather during the month. 

3. A change of weather accompanies a change of the moon. 



234 



On Revolving Storms. By Joseph John Murphy, Esq.* 

When the temperature of the air is in a state of con- 
vective equilibrium, or, in other words, when the difference 
between the temperatures of any two strata is that which is 
due to the difference of pressures, it is obvious that any de- 
crease in the specific gravity of the lower stratum, whether 
from expansion by heating, or by mixture with watery 
vapour, which is lighter than air, will give that stratum a 
tendency to rise ; but as an entire stratum cannot rise in 
mass, the air will flow upwards in vertical columns, the 
place of which may be determined by the smallest inequality 
in the ground, or motion on it. If the ascending force is 
powerful and the ground very dry, the ascending columns of 
air will be marked by clouds of dust or sand, and it is thus 
that the " dust-storms" of Western India, and the " sand- 
spouts" of the African desert, are produced. 

Professor Hennesy has observed that such vertical circu- 
lation is shown to exist in our climate by the rapid fluctuation 
of a thermometer exposed to the free air in warm sunshiny 
weather ; and cumulous cloud is produced when the watery 
vapour contained in such an ascending column is condensed 
by the cold of diminished pressure. 

When condensation takes place in an ascending column, 
the cooling from diminished pressure will be retarded by the 
heat liberated in condensation, and the ascending column, 
at any altitude higher than that at which condensation has 
begun, will be warmer than the surrounding air on the same 
level, supposing, as at first, that the temperatures of the 
surrounding air are in a state of convective equilibrium. 

When unity of weight of vapour is condensed, heat 
enough is liberated to raise the temperature of an equal 
weight of water by 1178° Fahr., minus the temperature at 
which condensation takes place. To estimate the effect of 
this in heating air, the quantity must be divided by "2377, 
which is the specific heat of air at constant pressure ; and 
to estimate the effect of the condensation of unity of volume 

mmunicated t<> tin Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society, 
20th October 1862 and 7 January V*<>?>. 



Mr Joseph J. Murphy on Revolving Storms. 235 

of vapour, we take fths of the quotient, as watery vapour 
has only fths of the specific gravity of air. Supposing con- 
densation to take place at 80°, the heating effect will be 

5 1178-80 
8 -2377 

In other words, the condensation of any given volume of 
vapour will liberate as much heat as, if concentrated, would 
raise the temperature of an equal volume of air by 2877° 
Fahr. 

This heat will expand the air. The addition of a degree 
Fahr. of temperature expands air at 32° by a 492d of its 
volume, and at 80° by a 540th. Consequently the expanding 
effect at 80° will be, after deducting the destroyed volume 
of the condensed vapour, 

In other words, for every cubic foot of vapour condensed, 
4*35 cubic feet will be added to the volume of the air. This 
expansion will increase the ascending force of the column, 
and produce an outward flow of air at its top, a fall of the 
barometer at its base, and an inward flow towards its base 
to fill up the void. 

The foregoing reasoning is identical with that of " Espy's 
Philosophy of Storms." In order, however, to estimate the 
force of indraft at the base of such an ascending column, it 
would be necessary to know not only the temperature at 
every height in the column itself, which is a matter of cal- 
culation when that at its base is known, but also the tem- 
perature of the surrounding air at every height, a subject 
on which very little is known for any given time and place ; 
for the ascending force of one mass of fluid in another de- 
pends on the difference of specific gravity, and this with 
air depends almost entirely on the temperature. 

It has been stated by Professor Thomson of Glasgow, in 
a paper lately read at the Manchester Philosophical Society, 
that the temperature of air saturated with moisture, when 
in a state of convective equilibrium (as an ascending current 
of such air must necessarily be), will diminish at the rate of 



236 Mr Joseph J. Murphy on lievolviny Storms. 

1° Fahr. for every 294 feet of ascent ; but the temperature of 
dry or not saturated air will diminish at the rate of 1° for every 
183 feet. Suppose that the air is nearly saturated in its lowest 
strata, and cloudless above, and that for the first few thousand 
feet of ascent the temperature diminishes at the rate due to 
convective equilibrium in dry air (conditions that sometimes 
occur in summer weather), the slighest increase of the tem- 
perature of the lowest stratum will produce an ascending 
current, in which the cold of diminished pressure will cause 
condensation to begin at a moderate height, and from that 
height upwards, the decrease of temperature will be at the 
rate of 1° Fahr. for 294 feet, while in the surrounding air it 
is at the rate of 1° Fahr. for 183 feet ; so that, at any given 
level, the air in the ascending column will be warmer and 
lighter than the surrounding air at the same level, and a 
powerful upward current will be produced, with a powerful 
indraft at its base. Of this nature, apparently, are many 
violent storms of small extent ; they are usually, perhaps 
always, accompanied by heavy rain or hail from the vapour 
condensed above. 

Revolving storms or cyclones differ from these, primarily, 
in their larger extent. A cyclone cannot be formed unless 
the radius, within which the indraft due to the central baro- 
metric depression is felt, has a sensible magnitude in com- 
parison with the earth's quarter-circumference. At its 
centre is an area of dense cloud, great barometric depression, 
and no wind. The air revolves round this, and has also an 
inward motion, producing a spiral resultant. The wind is 
most violent near the calm centre, and grows less so out- 
ward. They rotate in opposite directions in the northern and 
southern hemispheres ; in each hemisphere they rotate in 
the same direction in which the earth rotates round an axis 
drawn perpendicular to its surface, as shown in Foucault's 
pendulum experiment, that is to say, against the direction of 
the hands of a watch in the northern hemisphere, and with it 
in the southern. This is caused by the earth rotating under 
the currents of air, as it does under Foucault's pendulum, 
and deflecting their paths on its surface to the right in the 
northern hemisphere, to the left in the southern ; thus, in the 
northern hemisphere, the current from N towards an area 



Mr Joseph J. Murphy on Revolving Storms. 237 



of rarefaction will be deflected toward W, that from W 
towards S, that from S towards E, and that from E towards 
N. As these deflections are all in the same direction round 
a circle, they combine and produce a vortex. All these 
directions are, of course, reversed in the opposite hemi- 
spheres. The rotation of the storm is in the opposite direction 
to the deflection, or 

what Dove calls the N 

gyration, of the sepa- 
rate winds, as will 
be obvious from the 
diagram, where the 
cross represents the 
converging paths 
which the winds 
would take in the 
absence of any de- 
flecting force, and 
the arrows the di- 
rections in which 
they are deflected. 
Of course it is not 

accurate to draw the arrows straight. Were there no friction, 
the velocity would be regulated by the law of the conserva- 
tion of areas, and its tangential component in any part of 
the cyclone would be inversely as the distance from the 
centre. Cyclones never cross the equator, and are never 
formed on it, because the deflecting force is in opposite direc- 
tions in opposite hemispheres, and null on the equator. 

Such are the forces that move the cyclone. But the 
manner in which it is originally set agoing has not hitherto 
been fully explained. The following explanation is founded 
on that contained in Dove's recently translated " Law of 
Storms/' and is partly identical with it : — 

Cyclones are local and temporary phenomena : they occur 
chiefly in, 1st, The West Indian Seas ; 2d, The Indian Ocean 
west of India ; 3c?, The South Indian Ocean ; Mh, The Chinese 
Sea ; and 5th, The Bay of Bengal : in all these they occur 
oftenest in the end of summer, except in the last, where 
they are most frequent twice a year, at the change of the 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. II. OCTOBER 1863. 2 H 




238 Mr Joseph J. Murphy on Revolving Storms. 

monsoons. They are certainly not formed in the South 
Atlantic, and we have no evidence of their existence in the 
Pacific, except perhaps off the coast of California. 

They are formed only over tropical seas, because there 
only the air contains watery vapour enough to furnish their 
motive power by its condensation. But they originate in 
eddies formed in the general circulation of the atmosphere. 

The heated air that rises up during summer over the 
warm regions of Asia and Africa flows out over the Atlantic 
as an upper current, where it meets the upper return trade 
wind. The direction of the former is nearly towards W., that 
of the latter nearly towards N.E., so that the resulting current 
will be N.N.W. ; and on its right-hand side, towards Europe, 
eddies will be formed rotating with the hand of a watch, and 
on its left hand, or West Indian side, will be eddies rotating 
in the opposite direction. Any one may make such a pair of 
eddies by moving a teaspoon forward through a cup of liquid. 
At the centre of every eddy is a depression, produced by cen- 
trifugal force, and in an aerial eddy this will be marked by a 
diminution of barometric pressure. When the eddy rotates 
in the opposite direction to that of the cyclones of the 
hemisphere in which it occurs, no cyclone can be produced ; 
but when it rotates in their direction, and other circum- 
stances are favourable, the barometric depression at the 
centre produces cold — the cold of diminished pressure : this 
condenses part of the vapour in the air: heat is liberated, 
and an upward current produced, as explained at the begin- 
ning of this notice : an outflow of air takes place above 
and an indraft below : these radial motions combine with 
the rotatory motion of the eddy, and thus the eddy is con- 
verted into a cyclone. 

The cyclones of the Indian Ocean west of India are 
produced in exactly the same way, by the meeting of the 
upper currents from the heated regions of Asia and Africa: 
and those of the South Indian Ocean, by the upper current 
from the heated regions of Australia meeting the upper 
return trade wind. 

In these cases the eddy is formed originally in the upper 
strata of the air. In the Chinese Sea and the Bay of Ben- 
gal, on the contrary, it is formed on the surface of the sea, 



Mr Joseph J. Murphy on Revolving Storms. 239 

by the meeting of the N.E. trade wind and the S.W. mon- 
soon ; this takes place over the Chinese Sea in summer, 
and over the Bay of Bengal after the equinoxes. 

Besides their rotation, cyclones have a motion of transla- 
tion, and this, within the tropics, is always towards W. ; 
sometimes N.W., sometimes S.W., but always W. In the 
Chinese Sea this is contrary to the prevalent wind at the 
time they occur, which is the S.W. monsoon. This has 
not hitherto been accounted for. It is probably due to the 
fact that the rotation of the earth round an axis drawn per- 
pendicular to its surface, as illustrated by Foucault's pen- 
dulum, varies as the sine of the latitude, and is consequently 
most rapid in the highest latitude ; so that the higher the 
latitude from which the air in any part of a cyclone is 
drawn, the more it will have been deflected, and the greater 
will be its centrifugal force. Now, a glance at the diagram 
will show that the air on the west side of every cyclone comes 
from a higher latitude, and that on the east from a lower ; 
the former has consequently the most centrifugal force, and 
determines the motion of the whole cyclone towards west. 

It might be supposed that the motion in question is a 
resultant of the motions of the upper and lower currents 
of air, which in the tropical regions are usually different. 
This, however, could scarcely be reconciled with the fact 
that in the West Indian region the lower current (the trade 
wind) is from N.E., while in that of the Chinese Sea, 
during the prevalence of cyclones, it is from S.W. Little 
is known of the direction of the upper current in either 
case ; it is probably rather fluctuating, but more nearly 
opposed to the lower currents than coincident with them. 
It appears probable that the resultant of the motions of the 
upper and lower currents in the West Indian region is more 
likely to be in the opposite direction to the same resultant 
in the Indian and Chinese region, than in nearly the same 
direction. 

The cyclones of the West Indian Sea and South Indian 
Ocean, besides their motion to west, generally move towards 
the Pole. On reaching a latitude of about 28°, they lose 
much of their force, widen rapidly, and, losing their motion 
towards west, drift eastward and Pole-ward, with nearly the 



240 Mr Joseph J. Murphy on Revolving Storms. 

general motion of the lower strata of the atmosphere in the 
middle latitudes. These changes have not been satisfac- 
torily accounted for. Perhaps they are due to the fact that 
in tropical latitudes the general direction of the upper and 
lower air-currents is usually very different, while in higher 
latitudes it is usually nearly identical ; in the former the 
cyclone, extending from the lower into the upper current, 
is as it were compressed between them : when it gets into 
the latter, being no longer thus compressed, it expands by 
its own centrifugal force, loses force by expansion, and 
drifts in the general motion of the air. Its motion, how- 
ever, is more Pole-ward than this, and is perhaps a resultant 
of the general motion of the air, and a remaining westward 
tendency of the cyclone, due to the cause already explained. 



Description of a Plant-house at Bockville, Blackrock, near 
Dublin. By Mr James Bewley.* 

My fern-house is a triple-span roof standing north and 
south, 60 feet wide — i.e., three spans of 20 feet each; the 
length is 48 feet ; the height of the sides to the spring of 
the roof is 13 feet 6 inches — of this, 7 feet is a wall ; in 
the lower part are ventilators near the ground, which are 
opened and shut from the outside ; the rest of the sides is 
glazed with fine ribbed glass. I think it is called Hartley's 
rough plating. The centre span is supported by three 
pillars, 12 feet apart from centre to centre. These pillars 
are rough brown slate, square, about 3 feet each way. The 
stones are laid horizontally, with ample spaces between, 
from the mortar being picked out for plants. From pillar 
to pillar are Gothic arches of the same material, covered 
with ferns, lycopods, &c. Thus there are two rows of four 
arches each. Each side has in addition a row of eight 
arches of 6 feet each, planted in the same manner, each roof 
rises about 7 feet ; so the highest part of the house is 21 
feet. The north end is a wall, against which is a mass of 

* Communicated by Mr N. B. Ward to the British Association Meeting ftt 
Xf weastle-oij -Tvne, August 18G3. 



Mr James Bewley's Description of a Plant-house. 241 

irregular rockwork about 10 feet high, with concealed steps 
to the top, and from these a path from side to side to enable 
a view to be had of the plants below, there being a number 
of tree ferns standing on the floor. This path is depressed 
so as to allow a person to pass under the lowest part of the 
roof. On the north side of the path, the rockwork is car- 
ried up to the top of the house, so that when viewed from 
below, the rockwork is seen to extend from the ground to 
the glass. An irregular rockwork is also carried round the 
south end, and along the east and west sides, up to the 
glass (7 feet) ; but it is separated from the outer walls by 
a space of 6 inches to allow ventilation from the outside, 
and also for the circulation of heat, from a pair of 4-inch 
water-pipes which run round the house. This is the only 
heating power. In order to promote a circulation of air, 
there are openings, in fact small concealed arches in the 
rockwork, on the ground level, passing through it to the 
narrow space next to the outer wall. Thus the hot-water 
pipes being next to the outer walls, and there being venti- 
lators in these, and openings on the ground level inside, 
through the rockwork, there is a perfect circulation of air 
maintained — a matter all important to the health of plants. 
The roof is one of ordinary construction ; wooden rafters 
4 feet apart, with three light iron sash bars between. (I 
may here remark, I prefer the combination of wood and 
iron to either exclusively. All iron has too uniform an 
appearance to please me. Wooden rafters 4, 5, or 6 feet 
apart break the dull uniformity into spaces, and are of 
great practical convenience, by enabling a nail, screw, or 
hook to be put in whenever wanted.) The inner glass is 
common 21 oz. ; it is put in about 7 inches on the under side 
of the rafter ; so that, the rafter being about 6 inches in 
depth, 5 inches of it are outside. Now, on these rafters 
the outer roof rests — simple framed sashes, 4 feet wide, — 
and for the convenience of moving, in two lengths. They 
are glazed with the same glass as the sides, and are fixed 
in their places by a screw bolt, so as to be removed when 
required. Thus the inner and outer glass are from 5 to 6 
inches apart. I do not think the distance is important ; 
anything from 4 to 6 inches will do ; but what is all im- 



242 Mr James Bewley's Description of a Plant-house. 

portant is, that the outer sashes should fit close, so as to 
admit of no circulation of air between. I do not like 
moveable sashes for top ventilation in any house, and there- 
fore in mine I carry up the glass only to within one foot 
from the top of the ridge ; above this are wooden shutters 
or panels for ventilation, and by a very simple contrivance 
they can be opened or shut. 

Now, as to temperature. My fern-house being 60 feet 
by 48, with a mean height of about 16 feet, contains 46,000 
cubic feet of space ; and there being a pair of 4-inch hot- 
water pipes running round it, the heating power is 430 feet 
of pipe, or about 1 foot of pipe to 100 of cubic contents. 
In a single roofed house, I do not think this heating power 
would do more than exclude frost in severe winter weather, 
but with the double roof, the thermometer rarely goes below 
48. 1 think I once saw it at 46. My estimate is that I 
gain 14 or 15 degrees of heat from the double roof. The 
loss of heat is very slow in cold weather ; I think it would 
take three or four nights of severe frost to bring the heat of 
the house down from 52 to 48 ; and probably thirty-six hours 
to cause the same reduction were the fire to be left out 
altogether. With a single roof, this would be expected in, 
I think, about six hours. It is a great comfort to know 
that if, in any house I have, the fire was let out, or neglected 
in the depth of winter for a whole night, its contents would 
suffer no damage. The reverse effects are equally interest- 
ing, — the very slow increase of heat in warm weather. 
This has been a hot summer, yet the heat of the fern-house 
has never, that I am aware of, gone up to 70 ; with a single 
roof, and the same amount of ventilation, the house would 
run up to 80 or 85 in a single hot morning. There is 
another interesting fact, and one of great importance in 
plant-growing : there is a steady uniform increase of tem- 
perature in the house according as we ascend from the floor, 
day and night. This arises from the non-transmission of 
heat through the roof. Thus, while I have native ferns and 
other temperate plants growing below, I have tropical plants, 
ferns, and palms, &c. growing on the higher portions of the 
rockwork. And while, in ordinary houses, we remove tender 
plants from near the glass in severe weather, the nearer I 



Mr James Bewley's Description of a Plant-house. 243 

place them to it, the warmer they are. This is curiously 
indicated by the little creeping Ficus and other plants cling- 
ing to the under size of the inner glass, and spreading over 
it, apparently in great enjoyment. Another important re- 
sult takes place from the non-radiation of heat through the 
roof. In ordinary houses, where moisture forms a requisite 
of good plant-growing, no matter how freely we use the 
syringe in the evening, we find the house dry in the morn- 
ing, arising from the great condensation of moisture on the 
roof, and running off when thus condensed. The cooled 
air having parted with its moisture in the morning when 
the temperature rises a little, it becomes absolutely dry, to 
the great detriment of the plants. With the double roof, 
there is very little condensation on the roof, the blanket of 
non-conducting air between the two roofs of glass prevent- 
ing it ; and consequently, as the air cools down a little at 
night, the condensation takes place on the plants themselves, 
exactly according to nature. I have gone into my orchid- 
house, which has a double roof and sides, of a morning, and 
have seen the plants as beautifully covered with dew as a 
plot of cabbages on a May morning. Is not this nearly the 
perfection of plant-growing ? We generally commence fire 
heat in the fern-house when the cold weather sets in, in the 
latter end of October, and leave it off in March, when the 
house gets about 54. Thus we have fire for about five 
months only in the year, and during these five months, the 
consumption of fuel is not more than one-half of what it 
would be if the house had but a single roof. Now, using 
only half fuel for five months, and none during the other 
seven, causes a very large saving, and to this must be added 
the saving from no fire attendance during the same seven 
months, — no small item. These together I calculate to 
amount to about 20 per cent per annum, on the extra cost 
expended on the double roof. But this is trifling compared 
with the enhanced value of the plants grown in a double- 
roofed house. The effect is astonishing. Plants which 
with difficulty held their own, or but slowly improved in an 
ordinary house, have grown and improved with me in a way 
that would surprise plant-growers in general. I should 
add, there is one point on which great caution is requisite 



214 Mr James Bewley's Description of a Plant-house. 

by any one wlio adopts double-roofed houses : from the uni- 
formity of temperature, and the consequent non-condensation 
of moisture, very moderate waterings and syringes are suffi- 
cient to keep the plants in health. A beginner will be very 
apt to overdo it. My fern-house has nothing done to it for 
weeks together beyond a very light syringing each morning 
in summer, two or three times a week in spring and autumn, 
and once every week or ten days in winter. 

My large plant-house is about 130 feet long, 19 wide, and 
11 high. It had shelves at either side 3 feet wide, then 
paths of equal width, and a central stand 7 feet wide ; 
beneath each of the side shelves there were two 4-inch flow 
pipes and two returns, twelve pipes in all. When I double- 
roofed it, the heat was too much, so I built a low brick 
wall on either side, and also enclosed in the same way the 
central 7 feet, and filled up the spaces with gravel, &c, to 
about 3 inches over the pipes ; the gravel is kept damp, 
and on it the plants stand — on a hotbed, in fact, and they 
delight in it. I think any one who will cover up all his 
heating power in this way will soon find that it is superior 
to exposure ; the heat is so gradually diffused and the 
moisture also, the gravel beds being frequently watered. 
The peculiarity and advantage of double-roofed houses may 
be summed up thus : — Great economy of heating power, 
and great uniformity of temperature and moisture ; and con- 
sequently remarkable facility in growing plants in perfect 
health and beauty. So far as my experience has gone — 
and I have now been trying it for some years, — I can have 
no hesitation in recommending the system to every person 
for the cultivation of any description of plants. 



The Great Mixed Forests of North America in Connection 
with Climate. By J. B. Hurlburt, LL.D.* 

This vast forest, composed principally of deciduous trees, 
covers an area of about 2,000,000 square miles, extending 
from the Gulf of Mexico to the northern boundary of 
Canada, and from the Atlantic to the prairies of the west, 

* Read at the Meeting of the British Association at Newcastle, 1863. 



Dr J. B. Hulburt on the Forests of North America. 245 

in some places beyond, and in others not to the Mississippi. 
From this to near the Pacific, within the limits of the 
United States, intervene the naked interior plains for nearly 
4000 miles, succeeded on the Pacific coasts by the forests 
of Coniferge. From about the 98th meridian west, the 
forests of deciduous trees extend in a north-west direction 
high up into British America, with a belt of low evergreens 
around Hudson's Bay, and to the east of the northern parts 
of the valley of Mackenzie's Kiver. 

This vast compact forest, made up mainly of deciduous 
trees, is interspersed with large areas covered with conifers, 
and with others covered with deciduous trees and coniferse 
intermixed, and to the south with tropical evergreens. 

These peculiar forests, prairies, and desert areas, no 
doubt express some distinctive features of climate. Two 
conditions of climate — heat and humidity — marked in a 
high degree, seem essential for the development of those 
gigantic forests of deciduous trees. High summer tempe- 
ratures and abundance of summer rains, are characteristics 
of the whole of the area covered by these forests. The 
temperatures for the three summer months over all these 
forest areas within the United States, Canada, and British 
America, are above 65°, and mostly above 67° of Fahr., — 
temperatures high enough and long enough continued to 
mature maize, or Indian corn, and the grape ; for the wild 
vine (Vitis cordifolia) matures its fruit to the northern 
limits of the deciduous forests. Twenty inches of rain in 
the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico, and ten inches in 
the north and through Canada, give, in general terms, about 
the quantities that fall during the three hottest months — 
June, July, and August. Similar high summer tempera- 
tures prevail over the western prairies and interior desert 
areas, but with a partial or total failure of the summer rains, 
and here we find the absence first of all forests, and then 
of all vegetation. On the Pacific coast, in high latitudes 
especially, the summer rains are abundant, but the summer 
temperatures are low, falling to 57° and 60° ; and here are 
the most extraordinary examples of the coniferse, but the 
deciduous trees are wanting. 

Within the limits of these three great divisions we meet 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. II. OCTOBER 1863. 2 I 



24b' Dr J. B. llurlburt on the Forests of North America. 

with many modifications, which, however interesting, as 
illustrating the effects of climate upon the flora of that con- 
tinent, it forms no part of the objects of this short paper to 
particularise ; but an example or two may be given. We 
have upon the White Mountains of New England an in- 
stance of the failure of all forest trees above an altitude of 
5000 feet. The summits of the Black Mountains of North 
Carolina, as the swartz wold, or black forest of the hills of 
Badan, are covered with balsam firs, and the shores of Hud- 
son Bay with low evergreen forests. In all such localities 
the results are what the lower summer temperatures might 
have been expected to produce, as the higher temperatures 
of the coasts of the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic as far 
north as Virginia have caused other varieties of forest trees, 
such as the evergreen oaks, magnolias, palms, cypress, giant 
laurels, wild orange, satinwood, mahogany, and mangroves. 

The principal trees of these great mixed forests are of 
the Deciduous kind — the maple (Acer saccharinum and A. 
dasycarpum) , the beech, the elm, ash, oaks, basswood or 
American linden (Tilia americana), chestnut, cherry, but- 
ternut, walnut, hickory, poplars, magnolias ; and of the 
Coniferce — the pines, balsams (Abies), tamarac (Larix 
americana), cedars {Thuja occidentalis) and (Juniperus 
virginiana), hemlock spruce (Abies canadensis). 

The most important of these great mixed forests are in 
Canada, extending from the northern shores of Lake Erie, 
in lat. 42°, to the northern limits of Canada. Some of 
these trees have a very extensive range north and south. 
The sugar maple (Acer saccharinum), is found near Lake 
Winnipeg, in lat. 50°, and the black sugar maple (A. ni- 
grum), in lat. 32°, in Louisiana. The beech and elms have 
a range quite similar to the maple. The American linden 
also goes as far northward. The white pine (Pinus Strobus), 
prevails in the northern parts of these forests, and the red 
pine (P. resinosa), in the southern. The red cedar (Juni- 
perus virginiana), has the greatest range, extending from 
lat. 26° in Florida to 67° within the arctic circle. The 
wild cherry, too (Prunus americana), a large forest tree, and 
the shad-bush (Amelanchier canadensis), extend over nearly 
as many degrees. The trembling poplar (Populus tremu- 



Dr J. JB. Hurlburt on the Forests of North America. 247 

hides), ranges from 37° to 69°. The red current (Ribes 
rubrum), which is found in all the American and Canadian 
forests, Sir John Eichardson discovered growing on the 
shores of the Arctic Ocean, within the polar circle. 

Through all this range of latitude, wherever these de- 
ciduous trees are found, these two conditions of climate 
prevail — high summer temperatures and abundant summer 
rains ; the cold of winter, with the thermometer even at 
40° below zero, seeming to produce no effect upon such 
plants. 



On the Colour of the Salmon. By John Davy, M.D., F.R.S., 
London and Edinburgh, &<;.* 

All that relates to fish of so much importance as the 
salmon and its allied species naturally excites our interest. 
Amongst the many peculiarities of the genus, when the in- 
dividuals are in their highest condition and best state for 
the table, is their colour — the colour of their muscles gene- 
rally — the well-known salmon colour. No other fish that 
I am aware of, whether in the sea or fresh water, possesses 
this colour, not even those which are associated with it so 
often, and the food of which is very similar. Of fresh- 
water fish, the pike may be mentioned as an example ; of 
salt-water, the Perca marina. 

On what does this colour depend ? Commonly I have 
heard it attributed to an oil. The circumstance, that the 
colour is seen only in fish in their highest condition, and 
that in river and brook-trout it is often absent, seem favour- 
able to this opinion, and the more so, as we know that the 
same trout which have pale muscles in streams where there 
is but scanty feed, if removed into ponds or lakes where 
there is abundance of food, whilst they rapidly increase 
there in size, acquire also the peculiar hue distinctive of 
their improved condition. The fact, too, that the salmon 
loses this colour during its lengthened sojourn in fresh 
water after spawning, when it becomes lank and out of con- 

* Eead at the Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science (Newcastle, 1863). 



248 Dr John Davy on the Colour of the Salmon. 

dition, eating during the period, if anything, but very little, 
seems likewise to favour the opinion. Yet I am doubtful 
that this opinion is correct, and will bear being inquired 
into. If an examination be made of the salmon in its 
highest condition and richest colour, when taken in the sea, 
or immediately after entering fresh water, what, in relation 
to colour, are its several parts ? Whilst the muscles of the 
superior section of the body, the thick part, where, compara- 
tively, there is very little fatty or oleaginous matter, exhibits 
the peculiar colour in perfection, those of the inferior sec- 
tion — the thin portion of the fish — are comparatively pale, 
and yet there there is a superabundance of oleaginous matter, 
and of a colourless kind. Moreover, there are certain 
muscles, those connected with the eyes and the jaws, and 
the great dorsal fin, which are altogether destitute of the 
colour in question. Those of the eye, in the midst of cel- 
lular tissue, loaded with white adipose matter, are almost 
colourless. Those of the jaws, where there is very little 
fatty matter, are of a brownish hue. Those connected with 
the fin, where, too, there is little fat, are of a dark brown. 
There is another fact, with the same negative bearing. 
This is, that the air-bladder of the charr is of a pink colour, 
often of a beautiful tint (a refinement, as it were, of the 
salmon-colour r and of the colour of its own muscles), though 
altogether destitute of oily or fatty matter ; and I have seen 
it thus coloured in fish which, though in good condition, 
and cutting red, like the salmon, have not been remarkable 
for richness. 

The conclusion I am disposed to come to is, that the 
salmon-colour is unconnected with oil or fatty matter, and 
that it belongs to the coloured muscles after the analogy of 
the colouring of the muscles of various other animals, as 
witnessed in the instances which come under our observa- 
tion in the way of meats. In beef, mutton, venison, the 
hare of proper age, how dark is the muscular fibre. The 
same colour is seen in the goose, and still more strikingly 
in the swan, and in most wild birds, and also in certain 
fishes, especially of the tunny family. 

The results of the few chemical experiments which I have 
made seem to favour the same conclusion. The coloured 



Dr John Davy on the Colon?' of the Salmon. 249 

muscle of the salmon is rendered paler by the action of 
a strong solution of ammonia — the aqua ammonias — the 
solution itself remaining colourless. By strong nitric acid 
it is rendered yellow ; by strong sulphuric, brown ; by a 
solution of potash — the liquor potassse — brown ; by strong 
muriatic acid a slight change of colour is produced ; whilst 
rendered paler, it acquires a brownish tint. Both the strong 
acids, the nitric and the sulphuric, it may be remarked, and 
also the solution of potash, have a disorganising, decomposing 
effect, to which the change of colour they occasion may 
principally be attributed. Alcohol and ether render the 
muscle of a lighter hue, but do not deprive it entirely of 
colour. Both become very slightly coloured, and on cooling 
and evaporation deposit and leave a colourless liquid oil. 

Granting that the colour belongs to the muscular fibre, — 
i.e., that the colouring matter is seated in the muscle irre- 
spectively of fat, — the further conclusion I would submit 
is, that it is of an organised kind. It may be a peculiar 
colouring matter nowise essential to the muscle (some of 
the muscles, as I have pointed out, being without this 
colour), and analogous to those colouring matters which 
exist in plants, especially their leaves and flowers, and in the 
tegumentary parts of mammalia, birds, and fishes, — such as 
the hair of the first, the feather of the second, and the 
epidermis of the third. 

Whether the peculiar colour or colouring matter owes its 
formation to some particular kind of food, or to a special 
secreting power, I am not aware of any well-marked facts 
to guide one to a conclusion. So far as probabilities are 
concerned, I am rather inclined to the belief that it depends 
partly on the one partly on the other. 



Some Observations on the Eggs of Birds. By John Davy, 
M.D., F.K.S., Lond. & Edin., &c* 

Although few objects have received more attention from 
the physiologist and chemist than the egg of the common 

* Read at the Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of 
Science (Newcastle, 1863.) 



250 Dr John Davy on the Eggs of Birds. 

fowl, the eggs of other birds have been much neglected, — 
indeed, I am not acquainted with any researches that have 
been published with the intent of ascertaining either the 
proportions of their constituents, or the qualities of these 
constituents, from a comparative point of view. 

The observations I am about to make, I can offer only as 
a small contribution to so large a subject, — a subject of 
especial interest, considering the vast variety of products, — 
that is, the numerous species of the feathered tribe which 
are evolved, each distinct, yet as soon as hatched, though 
developed from similar elements, displaying the form, tastes, 
and habits characteristic of its kind. I shall first advert to 
some of the general properties of eggs. 

Without exception, the laying birds, whatever their 
species, when in a healthy state and supplied w r ith a suffi- 
ciency of lime, have their eggs enveloped in a resisting shell 
composed of membranes strengthened by an earthy incrusta- 
tion, consisting chiefly of carbonate of lime. The thickness 
of this incrustation in eggs of different birds is very various. 
It seems to bear some relation to the weight of the incubat- 
ing bird, and the time of incubation and hatching. Gene- 
rally, the smaller the bird, and the shorter the period of 
fcetal development, the thinner is the incrustation, — the 
elasticity of the shell increasing with its diminution of size. 
I shall give a few instances in illustration, in which, were 
the thickness carefully measured, it would bear, I believe, 
a near proportion to the circumstances mentioned, — of each 
of the following birds, the incubating time is given in 
days : — 

The swan, . 
The common goose, 
The common duck, 
The common fowl, 
The turkey, 
The guinea-fowl, 30- 
Th e partridge, . . 

These periods are given from such information as I have 

been able to collect from poulterers, bird-fanciers, and 

keepers.* They may not be all quite correct, were they 

The time of incubation of the following birds, is copied from H. L. Meyer's 



42 days 
35 „ 
28 „ 
21 „ 


The pheasant, . 
The red grouse, 
Pigeon, . 
Turtle-dove, 


. 23 days 

• 23 „ 

• H „ 
. 14 „ 


28 „ 
-31 „ 


Canary bird, 
Wren, . . . 


. 13 „ 
• io „ 


27 „ 







Dr John Davy on the Eggs of Birds. 251 

so, the ratio referred to certainly would not be one of perfect 
exactness. Probably there is another specific element con- 
cerned — vital force ; thus, though the egg of the bantam is 
very much smaller than that of the barn-door fowl, yet the 
same time is required for its hatching. 

Whatever the degree of thickness of the shell, it is in- 
variably pervious to air, and chiefly, I believe, through 
minute apertures — foramina — in the crust. In the egg of 
the common fowl these are tolerably conspicuous. In every 
instance that I have put an egg under water deprived of air 
by the air-pump, on fresh exhaustion air has been seen to 
rise in currents from particular points, affording proof of 
the existence of such foramina. Granting their existence, 
they are certainly covered internally with membrane, 
through which the air must pass, it may be inferred, by 
pores of such minuteness as to escape detection under the 
highest power of the microscope. In a solitary instance, 
on removing an abortive egg which had been twenty-one 
days under a hen, on breaking the shell I found it's inner 
membrane covered in part with mould (Mucor mucedo) the 
spores of which must have entered, it may be presumed, 
through the foramina in the crust and the insensible pores 
just referred to. 

In accordance with the necessity for the aeration of the 
embryo and foetus in process of development, the egg of 
every kind of bird has an air-cell formed by the separation 
of the two layers of the internal lining membrane, and this 
at the end which is generally largest, and first presents in 
the act of being laid. The contained air, in every instance 
that I have examined it, has been found to differ but little 
from atmospheric air ; and this whatever the age of the egg 

"British Birds and their Eggs." London, 1842. — The Martin (Hirundo 
urbica), from 12 to 13 days ; Swift (H. apus), 16 to 17 ; Eagle-owl {Bubo 
maximus), 21 ; Goshawk (Astur palumbarius) , 21 ; Sparrow-hawk (Accipiter 
fringillarius), 21 ; Stockdove (Columbo oenas) 17 ; Turtledove (C. turtur), 16 to 
17 ; Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), 24 to 26 ; Cock-of-the-wood (Tetrao urog alius), 
28; Black Grouse (T. tetrix), 21 ; Partridge (T. perdix), 21 ; Swan {Cygnus olor), 
35 to 42 ; Wild Duck (Anas boschas), 29. The variation as to time, as in the 
well-known instance of the common fowl, depends probably on the tempera- 
ture of the atmosphere and the quality of the parent bird, whether a good or 
bad sitter. 



252 Dr John Davy on the tiygs of Birds. 

or the time of its incubation, — another proof of the great 
porosity of the shell and its membranes. 

Without any exception yet known, the eggs of all birds 
consist of albumen and yolk. These in the egg of the 
common fowl exhibit different and opposite reactions, and 
different electrical states, — the albumen being alkaline, the 
jolk acid ; and in the instances of the eggs of the smaller 
birds, I have, as regards the reaction, observed the same ; I 
have had no opportunity to test their electrical condition ; 
but judging from analogy, that also may be inferred to be 
similar. 

I shall now briefly advert to some points of difference. 
I need hardly notice that of form, and that each kind has 
commonly a specific shape as well as size, and that though 
one pole is commonly bigger than the other, the one, as 
already mentioned, which, in the act of laying, is first pro- 
truded, and which contains the air-vesicle, is never, that I 
am aware of, smaller than its opposite, seemingly a happy 
provision, securing the successful propulsion of the egg 
without delay under the influence of an adequate impelling 
power : did the smaller end first present, it might act as a 
wedge, and the processes of distension and of laying might 
be protracted, and the projecting pole in danger. 

As is well known, the colour of eggs varies with the 
species. White may be mentioned as the prevailing 
colour ; next, blue, or bluish-green of different shades ; 
next, brown of different shades, passing into red. Even of 
the same species, the colour, as of the eggs of the common 
fowl, is not precisely the same — some being distinguished 
for their whiteness, as those of the dorking and game-fowl ; 
some for their brown hue, as those of Cochin-china variety. 
In lustre and polish, too, the several kinds exhibit differ- 
ences — some having a lustre approaching almost that of 
the pearl, as the egg of the common pigeon ; others being 
destitute of lustre, giving them a dull appearance. The 
markings, spots, and partial colouring are so various as to 
almost baffle description, as any one may satisfy himself by 
referring to any work in which they are depicted. 

These diverse markings — these different colours of eggs — 
from such experiments as I have made, I am induced to 



Dr John Davy on the Eggs of Birds. 253 

attribute, not to any mineral colouring matter, but to an 
organic or animal colouring matter, and that, in part at 
least, connected with molecular arrangment, analogous to 
what is witnessed in flowers. As examples, I may give the 
results of the examination I have made of the dark-brown, 
almost black, colouring matter of the egg of the common 
grouse, and of the green of the egg of the starling, and of 
the green with dark-brown spots, these, too, almost black, 
of the common thrush. Of all these, the colouring matter 
has been destroyed before the blowpipe, the shell being 
rendered perfectly white. In the instance of the thrush's, 
it is remarkable that, after incandescence, in cooling it re- 
covers in a slight degree its greenish hue, and yet loses it 
when quite cold ; a circumstance this favourable to the idea 
of the colour, as before remarked, depending in part on 
molecular arrangement. The green of neither of the eggs 
is altered by the weak acids, nor by solutions of the alkalies. 
In strong nitric acid it changes to yellow. In strong 
muriatic acid it resists change for many hours, fading and 
disappearing under the continued action of the acid. Chlo- 
rine has a similar effect ; and bright sunshine, after many 
days' exposure, renders it fainter : sulphurous acid does not 
bleach it. On the colour of the grouse's egg strong muriatic 
acid has no perceptible effect ; strong nitric acid changes 
it to a light dirty yellow. That the colour of this egg is 
not in any way owing to the presence of iron seemed to be 
indicated by the following experiment : — A minute portion 
of blood was applied to the shell ; on exposure to the blow- 
pipe, the spot was marked by a slight ochrey stain, the 
cloured portions becoming, after the destruction of the 
animal matter, quite white. 

The contents, the albumen and yolk, of the several kinds 
of eggs, though so very similar, are found, even on slight 
examination, to have points of difference. I shall now re- 
strict myself to three, — viz., the proportional weight of the 
albumen and yolk, including the shell and its membranes ; 
the density of the two, or rather the proportion of solid 
matter which each afforded after the dissipation of their 
aqueous portion by thorough drying ; and the effects of 
heat and its degree in producing the coagulation of the 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. XVIII. NO. II. OCTOBER 1863. 2 K 



254 Dr John Davy on the Eggs of Birds. 

albumen. I shall give the results, merely premising that 
in each instance the yolk was separated as much as possible 
from the white, by rolling it, when that could be done, on 
a fine linen cloth, stretched ; weighing it thus apart, 
weighing the shell next, after washing it carefully inside 
and drying it in the air. The weight of the albumen was 
inferred to be that which was required to complete the 
weight of the entire egg, previously ascertained. For the 
sake of comparison, the proportions in the egg of the com- 
mon fowl, thus examined, may be given :— 

1. Egg, newly laid, of a pullet of the Barn-door fowl. 
— Weight 764-5 grs. 

Solid matter, 
per cent. 
Shell and membranes. 78*5 grs., or per cent., 10*13 

Yolk, ' 192-8 „ „ 25-21 55-00 

Albumen, . . . 493-2 „ „ 64-51 1019 

2. Jays egg. — Weight 127*3 grs. 

Shell, &c., ... 6-4 grs., or per cent., 5-03 

Yolk, 342 „ „ 26-86 30'4 

Albumen, . . . 86'7 „ „ 68-11 12-8 

The liquid albumen, in a thin glass tube, immersed in 
water at 169° Fahr., falling to 140°, acquired a slight 
milky appearance, with little diminution of its fluidity. 
At 184° falling to 140°, a soft coagulation formed, milk- 
white and tremulous, hardly bearing inversion. At 195° 
falling to 80°, the coagulum became somewhat firmer, but 
much less than the albumen of the common fowl at the 
same temperature, and it was translucent. 

3. Hedge-Sparrows. — Weight, 34*5 grs. 

Solid matter 
per cent. 
Shell, &c, 2*0 grs., or per cent., 5*79 
Yolk, . 74 „ „ 21-45 581 

Albumen, 25-9 „ „ 72-46 12 2 

The albumen at 168° falling to 110°, became pretty firmly 
coagulated ; the coagulum was of a distinct greenish hue ; 
transparency but little impaired, nor was it lessened at 212°. 

4. Golden-crested Wrens. — Of five from the same nest, 



Dr John Davy on the Eggs of Birds. 255 

the weight of each was as follows : 14*8 grs., 144, 14*3, 14*35, 
15-2. That which weighed 14'3 grs. was examined. 

Solid matter 
per cent. 
Shell, &c, 7 grs., or per cent., 4 90 
Yolk, . 3-44 „ „ 24-05 436 

Albumen, 10-16 „ „ 71*05 9-9 

One of the eggs was put into water at 200° falling to 140°. 
On removal of the shell its albumen was found coagulated. 
The coagulum was soft, semi-transparent, slightly opalescent, 
and in water had a bluish tinge. The yolk was more firmly 
coagulated. 

5. Robin's. — Two were examined ; one weighed 38*8 grs., 
the other 73 "8 grs. I believe they were from the same nest. 

Solid matter 
per cent. 
Shell, &c. of the first, 21 grs., or per cent., 5-43 

Yolk, 9-4 „ „ 24-22 

Albumen, . . . 27*3 „ „ 70-33 

Shell, &c, of second, 20 „ „ 271 

Yolk 16-3 „ „ 2208 16-5 



»j 



Albumen, . . . 555 „ „ 75-20 8-2 



57 





The albumen of the first at 170 falling to 145 , became 
of a milky whiteness, with little diminution of fluidity. At 
187° falling to 150°, a soft coagulum formed, of the con- 
sistence of blanc-mange, and milk-white, nor was it rendered 
harder by boiling. 

6. Missel-Thrush's. — Weight of egg, 124*6 grs. 

Shell, &c, 6 4 grs., or per cent., 5 13 
Yolk, . 16-9 „ „ 12-84 

Albumen, 101-3 „ „ 3130 

The albumen at 169° falling to 148°, had its fluidity 
slightly impaired, acquiring a slight degree of milkiness. 
At 179° falling to 150°, a soft coagulum was formed, tremu- 
lous, with a bluish hue, and barely admitting of inversion. 
At 188° falling to 160°, it became firmer, remaining trans- 
parent, nor was its transparency destroyed by boiling ; even 
then it was softer than the coagulated white of the hen's egg. 

Its yolk at 190° yielded a soft coagulum, which was 
rendered only a little firmer by boiling. 



256 Dr John Davy on the Eggs of Birds. 

7. Starling s. — Three eggs were obtained from the same 
nest; one weighed 1151 grs., another 103*6 grs., the third 
102*6 grs. The first of these was examined. 

Shell, &c, 8*2 grs., or per cent., 7*12 
Yolk, . 16-4 „ „ 14-25 

Albumen, 905 „ „ 78*62 

The yolk of the third egg yielded 45*1 per cent, solid 
matter ; the white, 13*5. 

The albumen of No. 1 at 165° falling to 135°, formed a 
soft milk-white coagulum. Another portion of the same 
white at 160° falling to 100°, became slightly thickened, 
flowing on inversion. 

8. Pigeons egg. — Weight, 278 grs. 

Solid matter 
per cent. 
Shell, &c., 22*4 grs., or per cent., 8*05 
Yolk, . 50-0 ., „ 17-94 39-3 

Albumen, 205-6 „ „ 73-95 11-5 

The albumen at 158° falling to 130°, formed a soft co- 
agulum, of a light bluish hue by reflected light, of a wine 
yellow by transmitted light. At 162° falling to 125°, the 
consistence of the coagulum was but little increased, it 
hardly bore inversion without flowing. At 189° falling to 
140°, it became much firmer. At 212° it became tougher, 
scarcely harder, was translucent, and of a bluish hue. 

By boiling for an hour the coagulum became transparent, 
and of a rich brown colour ; a similar change is produced 
in the albumen of the egg of the common fowl, but hardly 
so strongly marked. On the albumen of the eggs of other 
birds I have not tried the effects of continued boiling ; from 
analogy it may be inferred that it will be similar. 

It may here be worthy of remark that the albumen of all 
the eggs I have experimented upon, when evaporated to 
dryness at a temperature below the coagulating point, or 
allowed to dry slowly in the open air, has always exhibited 
a symmetrical appearance, not unlike that of the beautiful 
microscopical object the Arachneidiscus Ehrenbergii, this 
organic-like arrangement evidently depending on the fissures 
formed from contraction of the solid parts with the loss of 
its aqueous portion. 



Dr John Davy on the Eggs of Birds. 
The following is a tabular view of the results : — 



257 





1 


03 _t3 

"5 u 
3^ 




03" "E 


en g 


03" C 
43 03 


ri 

•3 u 
** § 


Consistence. 


Colour, <fcc. 


Common Fowl's) 

Egg . . . .; 

Pigeon's . . . 
Jay's .... 


7645 


10-13 


25-21 


64-5 


55-0 


10-19 


-160° 


Hard. 


White. 


278*0 
127-3 


8-05 
5-03 


17-94 

26-86 


73-95 
68-11 


39 3 
30-0 


11-5 

12-8 


-189° 
-184° 


Pretty firm. 
Soft. 


Bluish. 

(White, translu- 
"1 cent. 
Transparent. 
White. 

White. 


Missel Thrush's 
Starling's . . . 

Robin's . . . -j 


124 6 
115- 

73-8 
38-8 


5-53 
7-12 
2 71 
5-43 


12-84 
14-25 

22-08 
24-22 


81-30 
7862 
55-50 
70-33 


24 3 
16-5 


102 

8 : 2) 


—188° 
—195° 

-187° 


Soft. 
Firm. 

Soft, 


Hedge Sparrow's 


34-5 


5*791 21-45 


7246 


581 


12-2 


—168° 


Pretty firm. 


(Greenish, trans- 
< parent. 


Golden-crested \ 
Wren's . . .]" 


143 


4-90 24-05 


43 6 


43-6 


9-9 




Soft. 


(Bluish, semi- 
( transparent. 



The differences, as shown by these results, are not great. 
So far as they allow of inference, they seem to show — 1. (as 
already remarked), That the smaller the egg, the smaller 
the bird, the shorter the period of incubation, the thinner 
is the shell, and the more elastic and the smaller the pro- 
portion of calcareous incrustation, and in consequence the 
more pervious to the air, essential to life and development ; 
though even as to this there seems to be no exact ratio, and 
there appear to be exceptions.* 

2. That the albumen in quantity greatly • exceeds the 
yolk, but in no regular proportion ; whilst the quantity of 
solid matter in the yolk is proportionally much larger per 
cent, than in the albumen. 

3. That the temperature at which coagulation takes place 
varies in almost every instance ; and that the firmness of 
the coagulum does not appear to be regulated by the pro- 
portion of solid matter obtained by evaporation. 

4. That the coagulum of each has an aspect of its own, 
varying in the different instances as to kind and degrees of 
translucency. 

Though all the experiments were made with care, I must 

* Probably the size of the egg, the quantity of nutritive matter it contains 
(as suggested in my "Physiological Researches," p. 159), bears some relation 
to the condition of the young bird on leaving the egg, and its habits, espe- 
cially as to feeding, i.e., whether it has to find its food after the manner of 
the offspring of the Natatores and Rasores, immediately on starting into 
active life, or is provided with food till fully formed and capable of taking 
wing, by the parents, after the manner of the Columbfe, Passores, and Raptores. 



258 Dr John Davy on the Eggs of Birch. 

remark, in conclusion, that I can offer their results only as 
approximations, the sources of error being so many, and of 
these not the least, the difficulty of ascertaining how long 
the eggs had been laid. All that I examined, however, 
appeared to be fresh ; none of them bore marks of having 
been sat on, judging from the total absence of the vascular 
membrane.* 



Description of the Fruit and Seed of Clerodendron Thom- 
son*. By Professor Balfour. (Plate V.) f 

In the Transactions of the Society for 1862, I described 
a Yerbenaceous plant which had been transmitted from Old 
Calabar by the Eev. W. C. Thomson, and which I named 
Clerodendron Thomsonce. At that time the plant had 
flowered (fig. 2) in the Botanic Garden, but it had not per- 
fected fruit. It has now ripened its seeds, and they have 
germinated in the hot-houses (fig. 1). I therefore com- 
plete my description of the species by giving a few de- 
tails as to the fructification. The style in the young state 
is terminal, and the four achenes are concrete, so as to ap- 
pear as a syncarpous tetracarpellary ovary (fig. 4). As the 
carpels advance in growth they separate, and the style falls 
off. The young fruit then appears as four green-coloured 
achenes, partially united and surrounded by the large per- 
sistent calyx, which has changed from a white to a pinkish 
hue (fig. 3). On cutting across the four achenes at their 
junction, we observe on the inner surfaces a bright red 
cellular coat (fig. 7). When ripe, the achenes assume a 
shining black colour externally, and the red cellular cover- 
ing becomes much enlarged, and by its growth separates 
the achenes completely, which ultimately appear as four 
distinct seed-vessels, covered on their upper surface (which 

* Those eggs in which this membrane appeared were laid aside. One of 
these was the Corncraik's ; in it the vascular area had just become distinct ; 
its vessels contained florid blood, the corpuscles in which were of an unusual 
magnitude, some elliptical, some circular without a nucleus ; the elliptical of 
largest size were about ?( J T inch in diameter by I0 1 ^. 

t Bead before the Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 9th July 1863. 



EdznFNew TML Jourrval;. 



New Series, YoV. SHUT. PI. V. 




"W .H.M?Tarl<m.e,Li(hT E3i 



■Fruit and Seed of Clerodendron Thomsonae/Balf.) 



EckaiTlffw FhH, Jew 




PHOTOGLYPHIC ElTGRAVrMG GF A FEE.N. 
H F.Tarbot. 



On the Fruit and Seed of Clerodendron Thomsons. 259 

corresponds to their commissure) with a succulent mass of 
cells of a bright scarlet colour (fig. 5). This mass covers 
two-thirds of the surface of each achene, and finally assumes 
an orange colour. The mass exhibits grooves and eleva- 
tions on its surface, and has a rugose appearance, not unlike 
the convolutions of the brain (fig. 8). On examining this 
cellular coat, we find that the scarlet colour is produced by- 
globules apparently of an oily nature, filling the interior of 
the external cells, and that the cells below are deficient in 
colour, being clear and transparent (fig. 9). This scarlet 
succulent mass, increasing very rapidly in the axis, separates 
the achenes from each other, so that they finally spread 
out in a cruciate manner, being united only at their bases 
(fig. 6). The cells of the succulent part of the pericarp are 
beautiful objects under the microscope, and they are repre- 
sented in fig. 10. The rapid development of this cellular 
coat seems almost akin to that in some Fungi, Bovista for 
example, which is one of the marvels of vegetative pow T er. 
The scarlet colour stains paper beyond remedy ; nothing 
but scratching removes it. The oil-globule-bearing cells 
look like glands. The minute globules of oil (fig. 11), 
when pressed out of the cells in water, exhibit molecular 
movements. When the cells are put into water, the oil 
globules run together, so as to form a homogeneous mass. 
The beautiful scarlet covering of the achenes renders the 
plant scarcely less showy in fruit than it was in flower. 
(Specimens of the pistil and fruit in various states were ex- 
hibited.) 

Explanation of Plate V. 

Fig. 1. Seed of Clerodendron Thomsonce germinating, showing epigeal cotyle- 
dons and radicle. 

Fig. 2. Flower with white-coloured calyx, scarlet corolla, and didynamous 
stamens. 

Fig. 3. Large calyx surrounding the young fruit, separated into four carpels. 
The style has fallen off. The calyx is at first white, and finally 
assumes a pinkish hue. 

Fig. 4. Young pistil, showing terminal style with the four united carpels. 

Fig. 5. Four achenes, with black shining outer coat, and succulent inner 
covering of a scarlet colour. 

Fig. 6. Four achenes still more separated, apparently by the rapid growth 
of the scarlet cellular mass at the commissure, which now becomes 
the upper surface. The achenes arranged in a cruciate manner. 



260 On the Fruit and Seed of Clerodendron Thomsons. 

Fig. 7. Young ovary cut across, showing four ovules and scarlet coat in its 

early development. 
Fig. 8. One of the ripe achenes cut transversely, showing the dark episperm 

on the outside, and the succulent scarlet cellular rr>as3 on the 

inside. 
Fig. 9. Coloured cells of the commissure with oil globules, surmounting 

other cells which are colourless. 
Fig. 10. Cells containing scarlet or orange oil-like globules. 
Fig. 11. Oil-like globules shown separately. 



Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 

Reform of the Nomenclature of Zoology was a subject which 
occupied much of the time of the late Hugh E. Strickland.* It 
was his object that this reform should be brought forward under 
the auspices of the British Association, and at a meeting of the 
Council of that body, held in London upon 11th February 1842, 
it was resolved — " That with a view of securing attention to the 
following important subject, a committee, consisting of Mr C. 
Darwin, Professor Henslow, Rev. L. Jenyns, Mr W. Ogilby, Mr 
J. Phillips, Dr Richardson, Mr H. E. Strickland (reporter), Mr 
J. O. Westwood, be appointed, to consider of the rules by which 
the nomenclature of zoology may be established on a uniform and 
permanent basis ; the report to be presented to the Zoological 
Section, and submitted to its committee at the Manchester meet- 

ting."t 

This committee met at various times in London, and the follow- 
ing gentlemen were added to it, and assisted in its labours : W. 
J. Broderip, Professor Owen, W. E. Shuckard, G-. R. Waterhouse, 
and W. Yarrell. An outline of the proposed code of rules was 
drawn up and circulated, and many valuable suggestions were 
received from eminent zoologists at home and abroad. The 
" plan" was farther considered by the committee during the meet- 
ing at Manchester, " and the committee having thus given their 
best endeavours to maturing the plan, beg now to submit it to the 
approval of the British Association under the title of — ' Series of 
Propositions for rendering the Nomenclature of Zoology uniform 
and permanent.' "J 

The propositions were printed in the Reports of the British 
Association, and a grant of money was voted to print copies for 

* See Memoirs of Hugh Edwin Strickland, by Sir W. Jardine, Bart., 
p. clxxv. 

t Report of Twelfth Meeting of British Association held at Manchester, 
June 1842, p. 105. 

\ Report of Twelfth Meeting, 1842, p. 106. 



Proposed Beform of Zoological Nomenclature. 261 

circulation. The rules thus laid down were very generally adopted 
by zoologists, both in this country and abroad ; but having been 
only printed in the volumes of the British Association, " Annals 
of Natural History," and " Philosophical Magazine,"* or depend- 
ing on private circulation only, it was deemed advisable that 
greater publicity should be given to them, and at the meeting at 
Oxford in 1860 it was resolved, that "The surviving members 
of the committee appointed in 1842 — viz., Mr C. Darwin, Rev. 
Professor Henslow, Rev. L. Jenyns, Mr W. Ogilby, Professor 
Phillips, Sir John Richardson, Mr J. 0. Westwood, Professor 
Owen, Mr W. E. Shuckard, and Mr G. Waterhouse — for the pur- 
pose of preparing rules for the establishment of a uniform zoolo- 
gical nomenclature, be re-appointed, with Sir W. Jardine, Bart., 
and Mr P. L. Sclater. That Sir W. Jardine be the Secretary, and 
that the sum of L.10 be placed at their disposal for the purpose 
of revising and reprinting the rules." "j" 

From the difficulty of bringing such a committee together, 
nothing was done since the time of its appointment ; but the reso- 
lution and the grant of money were again renewed at the late meet- 
ing in Newcastle, as follows : — " That Sir W. Jardine, A. R. 
Wallace, J. E. Gray, C. C. Babington, Dr Francis, P. L. Sclater, 
C. Spence Bate, P. P. Carpenter, Dr J. D. Hooker, Professor 
Balfour, H. T. Stainton, J. Gwyn Jeffreys, A. Newton, Professor 
T. H. Huxley, Professor Allman, and Mr Bentham, be a com- 
mittee, with power to add to their number, to report on the 
changes which they may consider it desirable to make, if any, in 
the rules of nomenclature drawn up at the instance of the Asso- 
ciation by Mr Strickland and others, with power to reprint these 
rules, and to correspond with foreign naturalists and others on 
the best means of insuring their general adoption. — L. 15." 

Accordingly the rules, as originally circulated, are now re- 
printed, and zoologists are requested to examine them carefully, 
and to communicate any suggestions for alteration or improve- 
ment, on or before 1st June 1864, to Sir William Jardine, Bart., 
Jardine Hall, by Zockerby, N.B., who will consult with the mem- 
bers of the committee, and report upon the subject at the next 
meeting of the British Association appointed to be held at Bath. 

Jardine Hall, 8th Sept. 1863. 

* At the Scientific Congress held in 1843 at Padua, the late Prince C. L. 
Buonaparte submitted to the meeting an Italian translation of the " British 
Association's Code of Rules," which was generally approved of. A French 
translation of the report appeared in the scientific journal " L'Institut," in 
which paper much stress was laid on the importance of the measure. A 
review of it was also printed in the "American Journal of Science." 

t Reports of the British Association held at Oxford, I860, p. xlvi. 

NEW SERIES. — VOL. XVIII. NO. II. OCTOBER 1863. 2 L 



262 Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature, 

Series of Propositions for rendering the N omenclature of 
Zoology uniform and permanent. 
[Reprinted from the Report of the British Association for 1842.] 

PREFACE. 

Ali persons who are conversant with the present state of Zoology 
must be aware of the great detriment which the science sustains 
from the vagueness and uncertainty of its nomenclature. We do 
not here refer to those diversities of language which arise from 
the various methods of classification adopted by different authors, 
and which are unavoidable in the present state of our knowledge. 
So long as naturalists differ in the views which they are disposed 
to take of the natural affinities of animals there will always be 
diversities of classification, and the only way to arrive at the true 
system of nature is to allow perfect liberty to systematists in this 
respect. But the evil complained of is of a different character. 
It consists in this, that when naturalists are agreed as to the 
characters and limits of an individual group or species, they still 
disagree in the appellations by which they distinguish it. A 
genus is often designated by three or four, and a species by twice 
that number of precisely equivalent synonyms ; and in the absence 
of any rule on the subject, the naturalist is wholly at a loss what 
nomenclature to adopt. The consequence is, that the so-called 
commonwealth of science is becoming daily divided into indepen- 
dent states, kept asunder by diversities of language as well as by 
geographical limits. If an English zoologist, for example, visits 
the museums and converses with the professors of France, he finds 
that their scientific language is almost as foreign to him as their 
vernacular. Almost every specimen which he examines is labelled 
by a title which is unknown to him, and he feels that nothing 
short of a continued residence in that country can make him con- 
versant with her science. If he proceeds thence to Germany or 
Russia, he is again at a loss ; bewildered everywhere amidst the 
confusion of nomenclature, he returns in despair to his own 
country and to the museums and books to which he is accustomed. 

If these diversities of scientific language were as deeply rooted as 
the vernacular tongue of each country, it would of course be hope- 
less to think of remedying them ; but happily this is not the case. 
The language of science is in the mouths of comparatively few, 
and these few, though scattered over distant lands, are in habits of 
frequent and friendly intercourse with each other. All that is 
wanted, then, is, that some plain and simple regulations, founded 
on justice and sound reason, should be drawn up by a competent 
body of persons, and then be extensively distributed throughout 
the zoological world. 

The undivided attention of chemists, of astronomers, of anato- 



Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 263 

mists, of mineralogists, has been of late years devoted to fixing their 
respective languages on a sound basis. Why, then, do zoologists 
hesitate in performing the same duty 1 at a time, too, when all 
acknowledge the evils of the present anarchical state of their science. 

It is needless to inquire far into the causes of the present con- 
fusion of zoological nomenclature. It is in great measure the 
result of the same branch of science having been followed in distant 
countries by persons who were either unavoidably ignorant of 
each other's labours, or who neglected to inform themselves suffi- 
ciently of the state of the science in other regions. And when we 
remark the great obstacles which now exist to the circulation of 
books beyond the conventional limits of the states in which they 
happen to be published, it must be admitted that this ignorance 
of the writings of others, however unfortunate, is yet in great 
measure pardonable. But there is another source for this evil, 
which is far less excusable, — the practice of gratifying individual 
vanity by attempting, on the most frivolous pretexts to cancel the 
terms established by original discoverers, and to substitute a new 
and unauthorised nomenclature in their place. One author lays 
down as a rule, that no specific names should be derived from 
geographical sources, and unhesitatingly proceeds to insert words 
of his own in all such cases ; another declares war against names 
of exotic origin, foreign to the Greek and Latin ; a third excom- 
municates all words which exceed a certain number of syllables ; 
a fourth cancels all names which are complimentary of individuals, 
and so on, till universality and permanence, the two great essentials 
of scientific language, are utterly destroyed. 

It is surely, then, an object well worthy the attention of the 
Zoological Section of the British Association for the Advancement 
of Science to devise some means which may lessen the extent of 
this evil, if not wholly put an end to it. The best method of 
making the attempt seems to be, to entrust to a carefully selected 
committee the preparation of a series of rules, the adoption of 
which must be left to the sound sense of naturalists in general. 
By emanating from the British Association, it is hoped that the 
proposed rules will be invested with an authority which no indi- 
vidual zoologist, however eminent, could confer on them. The 
world of Science is no longer a monarchy, obedient to the ordinances, 
however just, of an Aristotle or a Linnseus. She has now assumed 
the form of a republic, and although this revolution may have 
increased the vigour and zeal of her followers, yet it has destroyed 
much of her former order and regularity of government. The 
latter can only be restored by framing such laws as shall be based 
in reason, and sanctioned by the approval of men of science ; and 
it is to the preparation of these laws that the Zoological Section 
ol the Association have been invited to give their aid. 



264 Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 

In venturing to propose these rules for the guidance of all 
classes of zoologists in all countries, we disclaim any intention of 
dictating to men of science the course which they may see fit to 
pursue. It must of course he always at the option of authors to 
adhere to or depart from these principles ; but we offer them to 
the candid consideration of zoologists, in the hope that they may 
lead to sufficient uniformity of method in future to rescue the 
science from becoming a mere chaos of words. 

We now proceed to develope the details of our plan ; and in 
order to make the reasons by which we are guided apparent to 
naturalists at large, it will be requisite to append to each pro- 
position a short explanation of the circumstances which call for it. 

Among the numerous rules for nomenclature which have been 
proposed by naturalists, there are many which, though excellent 
in themselves, it is not now desirable to enforce.* The cases in 
which those rules have been overlooked or departed from are so 
numerous and of such long standing, that to carry these regula- 
tions into effect would undermine the edifice of zoological nomen- 
clature. But while we do not adopt these propositions as 
authoritative laws, they may still be consulted with advantage 
in making such additions to the language of zoology as are 
required by the progress of the science. By adhering to sound 
principles of philology we may avoid errors in future, even when 
it is too late to remedy the past, and the language of science will 
thus eventually assume an aspect of more classic purity than it 
now presents. 

Our subject hence divides itself into two parts ; the first con- 
sisting of Rales for the rectification of the present zoological 
nomenclature, and the second of Recommendations for the improve- 
ment of zoological nomenclature in future. 



PART I. 

RULES FOR RECTIFYING THE PRESENT NOMENCLATURE. 

[Limitation of the Plan to Systematic Nomenclature.'] 
In proposing a measure for the establishment of a permanent 
and universal zoological nomenclature, it must be premised that 
we refer solely to the Latin or systematic language of zoology. 
We have nothing to do with vernacular appellations. One great 
cause of the neglect and corruption which prevails in the scientific 
nomenclature of zoology, has been the frequent and often exclusive 
use of vernacular names in lieu of the Latin binomial designa- 

* See especially the admirable code proposed in the "Philosophia Botanica" 
of Linnfflus. If zoologists had paid more attention to the principles of that 
code, th<' present attempt at reform would perhaps have been unnecessary. 



Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 265 

tions, which form the only legitimate language of systematic 
zoology. Let us then endeavour to render perfect the Latin or 
Linnagan method of nomenclature, which, being far removed from 
the scope of national vanities and modern antipathies, holds out 
the only hope of introducing into zoology that grand desideratum, 
an universal language. 

[Law of Priority the only effectual and just one.] 
It being admitted on all hands that words are only the con- 
ventional signs of ideas, it is evident that language can only attain 
its end effectually by being permanently established and generally 
recognised. This consideration ought, it would seem, to have 
checked those who are continually attempting to subvert the 
established language of zoology by substituting terms of their own 
coinage. But, forgetting the true nature of language, they persist 
in confounding the name of a species or group with its definition ; 
and because the former often falls short of the fulness of expres- 
sion found in the latter, they cancel it without hesitation, and 
introduce some new term which appears to them more character- 
istic, but which is utterly unknown to the science, and is therefore 
devoid of all authority.* If these persons were to object to such 
names of men as Long, Little, Armstrong, Golightly, &c, in cases 
where they fail to apply to the individuals who bear them, or 
should complain of the names Gough, Lawrence, or Harvey, that 
they were devoid of meaning, and should hence propose to change 
them for more characteristic appellations, they would not act 
more unphilosophically or inconsiderately than they do in the 
case before us ; for, in truth, it matters not in the least by what 
conventional sound we agree to designate an individual object, 
provided the sign to be employed be stamped with such an autho- 
rity as will suffice to make it pass current. Now in zoology no 
one person can subsequently claim an authority equal to that 
possessed by the person who is the first to define a new genus or 
describe a new species ; and hence it is that the name originally 
given, even though it may be inferior in point of elegance or 
expressiveness to those subsequently proposed, ought as a general 
principle to be permanently retained. To this consideration we 
ought to add the injustice of erasing the name originally selected 
by the person to whose labours we owe our first knowledge of the 
object ; and we should reflect how much the permission of such 
a practice opens a door to obscure pretenders for dragging them- 
selves into notice at the expense of original observers. Neither 
can an author be permitted to alter a name which he himself has 
once published, except in accordance with fixed and equitable laws. 

* Linnaeus says on this subject, " Abstinendum ab hac innovatione quse 
nunquam cessaret, quin indies aptiora detegerontur ad infinitum." 



266 Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 

It is well observed by Decandolle, " L'auteur meme qui a le 
premier etabli un nom n'a pas plus qu'un autre le droit de le 
changer pour simple cause d'impropriete. La priorite en effet 
est vin terme fixe, positif, qui n'admet rien, ni d'arbitraire, ni de 
partial." 

For these reasons, we have no hesitation in adopting as our 
fundamental maxim, the "law of priority," viz., 

§ 1. The name originally given by the founder of a group 
or the describer of a species should be permanently retained, 
to the exclusion of all subsequent synonyms (with the ex- 
ceptions about to be noticed.) 

Having laid down this principle, we must next inquire into the 
limitations which are found necessary in carrying it into practice. 

[Not to extend to authors older than Linnceus.'] 

As our subject matter is strictly confined to the binomial system 
of nomenclature, or that which indicates species by means of two 
Latin words, the one generic, the other specific, and as this invalu- 
able method originated solely with Linnaeus, it is clear that, as far 
as species are concerned, we ought not to attempt to carry back the 
principle of priority beyond the date of the 12th edition of the 
" Systema Naturae." Previous to that period, naturalists were wont 
to indicate species not by a name comprised in one word, but by 
a definition which occupied a sentence, the extreme verbosity of 
which method was productive of great inconvenience. It is true 
that one word sometimes sufficed for the definition of a species, 
but these rare cases were only binomial by accident and not by 
principle, and ought not therefore in any instance to supersede the 
binomial designations imposed by Linnaeus. 

The same reasons apply also to generic names. Linnaeus was 
the first to attach a definite value to genera, and to give them a 
systematic character by means of exact definitions ; and therefore, 
although the names used by previous authors may often be applied 
with propriety to modern genera, yet in such cases they acquire a 
new meaning, and should be quoted on the authority of the first 
person who used them in this secondary sense. It is true, that 
several of the old authors made occasional approaches to the 
Linnaean exactness of generic definition, but still these were but 
partial attempts ; and it is certain that if in our rectification of 
the binomial nomenclature we once trace back our authorities into 
the obscurity which preceded the epoch of its foundation, we shall 
find no resting-place or fixed boundary for our researches. The 
nomenclature of Kay is chiefly derived from that of Gesner and 
Aldrovandus, and from these authors we might proceed backward 



Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 267 

to iElian, Pliny, and Aristotle, till our zoological studies would 
be frittered away amid the refinements of classical learning.* 

We therefore recommend the adoption of the following pro- 
position : — ■ 

§ 2. The binomial nomenclature having originated with 
Linnaeus, the law of priority, in respect of that nomen- 
clature, is not to extend to the writings of antecedent 
authors. 

[It should be here explained, that Brisson, who was a contem- 
porary of Linnaeus and acquainted with the ' Systema Naturae,' 
defined and published certain genera of birds which are additional 
to those in the twelfth edition of Linnaeus 's works, and which are 
therefore of perfectly good authority. But Brisson still adhered 
to the old mode of designating species by a sentence instead of a 
word, and therefore while we retain his defined genera, we do not 
extend the same indulgence to the titles of his species, even when 
the latter are accidentally binomial in form. For instance, the 
Perdix rubra of Brisson is the Tetrao rufus of Linnaeus ; therefore 
as we in this case retain the generic name of Brisson and the 
specific name of Linnaeus, the correct title of the species would be 
Perdix rufa.] 

[Generic names not to be cancelled in subsequent subdivisions.'] 
As the number of known species which form the groundwork 
of zoological science is always increasing, and our knowledge of 
their structure becomes more complete, fresh generalisations con- 
tinually occur to the naturalist, and the number of genera and 
other groups requiring appellations is ever becoming more exten- 
sive. It thus becomes necessary to subdivide the contents of old 
groups, and to make their definitions continually more restricted. 
In carrying out this process, it is an act of justice to the original 
author that his generic name should never be lost sight of; and 
it is no less essential to the welfare of the science, that all which 
is sound in its nomenclature should remain unaltered amid the 
additions which are continually being made to it. On this 
ground we recommend the adoption of the following rule :— 

§ 3. A generic name, when once established, should never 
be cancelled in any subsequent subdivision of the group, 
but retained in a restricted sense for one of the constituent 
portions. 

[Generic names to be retained for the typical portion of the 
old genus. ~\ 
When a genus is subdivided into other genera, the original 

* " Quis longo sevo recepta vocabula commutaret hodie cum patrum?" — Linnceus. 



268 Projiosed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 

name should be retained for that portion of it which exhibits in 
the greatest degree its essential characters as at first defined. 
Authors frequently indicate this by selecting some one species as 
a fixed point of reference, which they term the " type of the 
genus." When they omit doing so, it may still in many cases be 
correctly inferred that the first species mentioned on their list, if 
found accurately to agree with their definition, was regarded by 
them as the type. A specific name, or its synonyms, will also 
often seiwe to point out the particular species which by implica- 
tion must be regarded as the original type of a genus. In such 
cases we are justified in restoring the name of the old genus to its 
typical signification, even when later authors have done otherwise. 
We submit therefore that 

§ 4. The generic name should always be retained for 
that portion of the original genus which was considered 
typical by the author. 

Example. — The genus Picumnus was established by Temminck, 
and included two groups, one with four toes, the other with three, 
the former of which was regarded by the author as typical. 
Swainson, however, in raising these groups at a later period to 
the rank of genera, gave a new name, Asthenurus, to the former 
group, and retained Picumnus for the latter. In this case we 
have no choice but to restore the name Picumnus, Temm., to its 
correct sense, cancelling the name Asthenurus, Sw., and imposing 
a new name on the 3-toed group which Swainson had called 
Picumnus. 

[When no type is indicated, then the original name is to be kept 
for that subsequent subdivision which first received it.] 

Our next proposition seems to require no explanation : — 

§ 5. When the evidence as to the original type of a genus 
is not perfectly clear and indisputable, then the person who 
first subdivides the genus may affix the original name to 
any portion of it at his discretion, and no later author has 
a right to transfer that name to any other part of the 
original genus. 

[A later name of the same extent as an earlier to be wholly 
cancelled.] 
When an author infringes the law of priority by giving a new 
name to a aenus which has been properly defined and named 
already, the only penalty which can be attached to this act of 
negligence or injustice, is to expel the name so introduced from 
the pale of the science. It is not right, then, in such cases to 



Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 269 

restrict the meaning of the later name so that it may stand side 
by side with the earlier one, as has sometimes been done. For 
instance, the genus Monaulus, Vieill. 1816, is a precise equi- 
valent to Zophophorus, Temm. 1813, both authors having adopted 
the same species as their type, and therefore, when the latter genus 
came in the course of time to be divided into two, it was incorrect 
to give the condemned name Monaulus to one of the portions. 
To state this succinctly, 

§ 6. When two authors define and name the same genus, 
both making it exactly of the same extent, the later name 
should be cancelled in toto, and not retained in a modified 
sense.* 

This rule admits of the following exception : — 

§ 7. Provided however, that if these authors select their 
respective types from different sections of the genus, and 
these sections be afterwards raised into genera, then both 
these names may be retained in a restricted sense for the 
new genera respectively. 

Example — The names (Edemia and Melanetta were originally 
co-extensive synonyms, but their respective types were taken from 
different sections which are now raised into genera, distinguished 
by the above titles. 

[No special rule is required for the cases in which the later of 
two generic names is so defined as to be less extensive in significa- 
tion than the earlier, for if the later includes the type of the earlier 
genus, it would be cancelled by the operation of § 4 ; and if it 
does not include that type, it is in fact a distinct genus.] 

But when the later name is more extensive than the earlier, the 
following rule comes into operation : — 

\A later name equivalent to several earlier ones is to be cancelled.'] 
The same principle which is involved in § 6 will apply to § 8. 

§ 8. If the later name be so defined as to be equal in 
extent to two or more previously published genera, it must 
be cancelled in toto. 

Example. — Psarocolius, Wagl. 1827, is equivalent- to five or 
six genera previously published under other names, therefore 
Psarocolius should be cancelled. 

If these previously published genera be separately adopted (as 

* These discarded names may, however, be tolerated, if they have been 
afterwards proposed in a totally new sense, though we trust that in future no 
one will knowingly apply an old name, whether now adopted or not, to a new 
genus. (See proposition q. infra.) 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. II. OCTOBER 1863. 2 M 



270 Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 

is the case with the equivalents of Psarocolius) , their original 
names will of course prevail; but if we follow the later author in 
combining them into one, the following rule is necessary : — 

[A genus compounded of tiuo or more previously proposed genera 
whose characters are now deemed insufficient, should retain the 
name of one of them.] 

It sometimes happens that the progress of science requires two 
or more genera, founded on insufficient or erroneous characters, 
to be combined together into one. In such cases the law of 
priority forbids us to cancel all the original names and impose a 
new one on this compound genus. We must therefore select 
some one species as a type or example, and give the generic name 
which it formerly bore to the whole group now formed. If these 
original generic names differ in date, the oldest one should be the 
one adopted. 

§ 9. In compounding a genus out of several smaller ones, 
the earliest of them, if otherwise unobjectionable, should be 
selected, and its former generic name be extended over the 
new genus so compounded. 

Example. — The genera Accentor and Prunella of Vieillot not 
being considered sufficiently distinct in character, are now united 
under the general name of A ccentor, that being the earliest. So 
also Cerithium and Potamides, which were long considered distinct, 
are now united, and the latter name merges into the former. 



We now proceed to point out those few cases which form excep- 
tions to the law of priority, and in which it becomes both justifi- 
able and necessary to alter the names originally imposed by 
authors. 

[A name should be changed when previously applied to another 

group which still retains it.~\ 
It being essential to the binomial method to indicate objects in 
natural history by means of two words only, without the aid of 
any further designation, it follows that a generic name should 
only have one meaning, — in other words, that two genera should 
never bear the same name. For a similar reason, no two species 
in the same genus should bear the same name. When these cases 
occur, the later of the two duplicate names should be cancelled, 
and a new term, or the earliest synonym, if there be any, sub- 
stituted. When it is necessary to form new words for this purpose, 
it is desirable to make them bear some analogy to those which 
they are destined to supersede, as where the genus of birds 



Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 271 

Pleetorhynchus, being preoccupied in Ichthyology, is changed to 
Plectorhamphus. It is, we conceive, the bounden duty of an 
author, when naming a new genus, to ascertain by careful search 
that the name which he proposes to employ has not been pre- 
viously adopted in other departments of natural history.* By 
neglecting this precaution he is liable to have the name altered 
and his authority superseded by the first subsequent author who 
may detect the oversight, and for this result, however unfortunate, 
we fear there is no remedy, though such cases would be less fre- 
quent if the detectors of these errors would, as an act of courtesy, 
point them out to the author himself, if living, and leave it to 
him to correct his own inadvertencies. This occasional hardship 
appears to us to be a less evil than to permit the practice of giving 
the same generic name ad libitum to a multiplicity of genera. 
We submit, therefore, that 

§ 10. A name should be changed which has before been 
proposed for some other genus in zoology or botany, or for 
some other species in the same genus, when still retained 
for such genus or species. 

[A name whose meaning is glaringly false may be changed.] 
Our next proposition has no other claim for adoption than that 
of being a concession to human infirmity. If such proper names 
of places as Covent Garden, Lincoln's Inn Fields, Newcastle, 
Bridgewater, &c, no longer suggest the ideas of gardens, fields, 
castles, or bridges, but refer the mind with the quickness of 
thought to the particular localities wRich they respectively desig- 
nate, there seems no reason why the proper names used in natural 
history should not equally perform the office of correct indication, 
even when their etymological meaning may be wholly inapplicable 
to the object which they typify. But we must remember that the 
language of science has but a limited currency, and hence the 
words which compose it do not circulate with the same freedom 
and rapidity as those which belong to every-day life. The at- 
tention is consequently liable in scientific studies to be diverted 
from the contemplation of the thing signified to the etymological 
meaning of the sign, and hence it is necessary to provide that the 
latter shall not be such as to propagate actual error. Instances 
of this kind are indeed very rare, and in some cases, such as that 
of Monodon, Caprimulgus, Paradisea apoda and Monoculus, they 
have acquired sufficient currency no longer to cause error, and are 
therefore retained without change. But when we find a Batrachian 
reptile named in violation of its true affinities Mastodon saurus, a 

* This laborious and difficult research will in future be greatly facilitated 
by the very useful work of M. Agassiz, entitled '•• Nomenclator Zoologicus." 



272 Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 

Mexican species termed (through erroneous information of its 
habitat) Picus cafer, or an olive-coloured one Muscicapa atra, or 
when a name is derived from an accidental monstrosity, as in Picus 
semivostris of Linnseus, and Helix disjuncta of Turton, we feel 
justified in cancelling these names, and adopting that synonym 
which stands next in point of date. At the same time we think 
it right to remark, that this privilege is very liable to abuse, and 
ought therefore to be applied only to extreme cases and with great 
caution. With these limitations we may concede that 

§ 11. A name may be changed when it implies a false 
proposition which is likely to propagate important errors. 

[Names not clearly defined may be changed.'] 
Unless a species or group is intelligibly defined when the name 
is given, it cannot be recognised by others, and the signification of 
the name is consequently lost. Two things are necessary before 
a zoological term can acquire any authority, viz., definition and 
'publication. Definition properly implies a distinct exposition of 
essential characters, and in all cases we conceive this to be indis- 
pensable, although some authors maintain that a mere enumera- 
tion of the component species, or even of a single type, is sufficient 
to authenticate a genus. To constitute publication, nothing short 
of the insertion of the above particulars in a printed book can be 
held sufficient. Many birds, for instance, in the Paris and other 
continental museums, shells in the British Museum (in Dr Leach's 
time), and fossils in the Scarborough and other public collections, 
have received MS. names which will be of no authority until they 
are published.* Nor can any unpublished descriptions, however 
exact (such as those of Forster, which are still shut up in a MS. 
at Berlin), claim any right of priority till published, and then only 
from the date of their publication. The same rule applies to 
cases where groups or species are published, but not defined, as in 
some museum catalogues, and in Lesson's " Traite d'Ornitho- 
logie," where many species are enumerated by name, without any 
description or reference by which they can be identified. There- 
fore, — 

§ 12. A name which has never been clearly defined in 
some published work should be changed for the earliest 
name by which the object shall have been so defined. 

[Specific names, when adopted as generic, must be changed.] 

The necessity for the following rule will be best illustrated by 

* These MS. names are in all cases liable to create confusion, and it is 
therefore much to bo desired that the practice of using them should be avoided 
in future. 



Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 273 

an example. The Corvus pyrrhocorax, Linn., was afterwards ad- 
vanced to a genus under the name of Pyrrhocorax. Temminck 
adopts this generic name, and also retains the old specific one, so 
that he terms the species Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax. The inele- 
gance of this method is so great as to demand a change of the 
specific name, and the species now stands as Pyrrhocorax alpinus, 
Vieill. We propose, therefore, that 

§ 13. A new specific name must be given to a species 
when its old name has been adopted for a genus which in- 
cludes that species. 

N.B. — It will be seen, however, below, that we strongly ob- 
ject to the further continuance of this practice of elevating specific 
names into generic. 

\Latin orthography to be adhered to.] 

On the subject of orthography it is necessary to lay down one 
proposition,. — 

| 14. In writing zoological names, the rules of Latin 
orthography must be adhered to. 

In Latinizing Greek words there are certain rules of ortho- 
graphy known to classical scholars which must never be departed 
from. For instance, the names which modern authors have 
written Aipunemia, Zenophasia, poiocephala, must, according to the 
laws of etymology, be spelt JEpycnemia, Xenophasia, and pceoce- 
phala. In Latinizing modern words the rules of classic usage do 
not apply, and all that we can do is to give to such terms as 
classical an appearance as we can, consistently with the preser- 
vation of their etymology. In the case of European words whose 
orthography is fixed, it is best to retain the original form, even 
though it may include letters and combinations unknown in Latin. 
Such words, for instance, as Woodivardi, Knighti, Bullock/, 
Eschscholtzi, would be quite unintelligible if they were Latinized 
into Vudvardi^ Cnichti, Bullocci, Essolzi, &c. But words of bar- 
barous origin, having no fixed orthography, are more pliable, and 
hence, when adopted into the Latin, they should be rendered as 
classical in appearance as is consistent with the preservation of 
their original sound. Thus the words Tochus, awsuree, argoondah, 
kundoo, &c, should, when Latinized, have been written Toccus, 
ausure, argunda, cundu, &c. Such words ought, in all practi- 
cable cases, to have a Latin termination given them, especially if 
they are used generically. 

In Latinizing proper names, the simplest rule appears to be to 
use the termination -its, genitive -i, when the name ends with a 



•J74 Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 

consonant, as in the above examples ; and -ius, gen. -ii, when it 
ends with a vowel, as Latreille, Latreillii, &c. 

In converting Greek words into Latin the following rules must 
be attended to : — 



jreel 




Latin. 


Greel 




Latin. 


a/ 


becomes 


se. 





becomes th. 


g/ 


>j 


i. 


9 


55 


ph. 


os 


terminal, 


us. 


X 


55 


ch. 


ov 


55 


urn. 


% 


55 


c. 


ov 


becomes 


u. 


7X 


3) 


nch 


0/ 


55 


03. 


77 


» 


ng. 


u 


55 


y. 


' 


55 


h. 



When a name has been erroneously written and its orthography 
has been afterwards amended, we conceive that the authority of 
the original author should still be retained for the name, and not 
that of the person who makes the correction. 



PART II. 



RECOMMENDATIONS FOR IMPROVING THE NOMENCLATURE 
IN FUTURE. 

The above propositions are all which, in the present state of the 
science, it appears practicable to invest with the character of laws. 
We have endeavoured to make them as few and simple as pos- 
sible, in the hope that they may be the more easily comprehended 
and adopted by naturalists in general. We are aware that a large 
number of other regulations, some of which are hereafter enume- 
rated, have been proposed and acted upon by various authors who 
have undertaken the difficult task of legislating on this subject ; 
but as the enforcement of such rules would in many cases under- 
mine the invaluable principle of priority, we do not feel justified 
in adopting them. At the same time we fully admit that the 
rules in question are, for the most part, founded on just criticism, 
and therefore, though we do not allow them to operate retrospec- 
tively, we are willing to retain them for future guidance. Although 
it is of the first importance that the principle of priority should 
be held paramount to all others, yet we are not blind to the desir- 
ableness of rendering our scientific language palatable to the 
scholar and the man of taste. Many zoological terms, which are 
now marked with the stamp of perpetual currency, are yet so far 
defective in construction, that our inability to remove them with- 
out infringing the law of priority may be a subject of regret. 
With these terms we cannot interfere, if we adhere to the prin- 
ciples above laid down ; nor is there even any remedy, if authors 



Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 275 

insist on infringing the rules of good taste by introducing into the 
science words of the same inelegant or unclassical character in 
future. But that which cannot be enforced by law may, in some 
measure, be effected by persuasion ; and with this view we sub- 
mit the following propositions to naturalists, under the title of 
Recommendations for the Improvement of Zoological Nomenclature 
in future. 

[The best names are Latin or Greek characteristic words.] 
The classical languages being selected for zoology, and words 
being more easily remembered in proportion as they are expres- 
sive, it is self-evident that 

§ A. The best zoological names are those which are de- 
rived from the Latin or Greek, and express some distin- 
guishing characteristic of the object to which they are 
applied. 

[Classes of objectionable names.] 

It follows from hence that the following classes of words are 
more or less objectionable in point of taste, though, in the case of 
genera, it is often necessary to use them, from the impossibility of 
finding characteristic words which have not before been employed 
for other genera. We will commence with those which appear 
the least open to objection, such as 

a. Geographical names. — These words being for the most part 
adjectives can rarely be used for genera. As designations of 
species they have been so strongly objected to, that some authors 
(Wagler, for instance) have gone the length of substituting fresh 
names wherever they occur ; others (e.g. Swainson) will only to- 
lerate them where they apply exclusively , as Lepus hibernicus, Tro- 
glodytes europceus, &c. We are by no means disposed to go to 
this length. It is not the less true that the Hirundo javanica is 
a Javanese bird, even though it may occur in other countries also, 
and though other species of Hirundo may occur in Java. The 
utmost that can be urged against such words is, that they do not 
tell the whole truth. However, as so many authors object to this 
class of names, it is better to avoid giving them, except where 
there is reason to believe that the species is chiefly confined to the 
country whose name it bears. 

b. Barbarous names. — Some authors protest strongly against 
the introduction of exotic words into our Latin nomenclature, 
others defend the practice with equal warmth. We may remark, 
first, that the practice is not contrary to classical usage, for the 
Greeks and Romans did occasionally, though with reluctance, 
introduce barbarous words in a modified form into their respective 
languages. Secondly, the preservation of the trivial names which 



276 Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 

animals bear in their native countries is often of great use to the 
traveller in aiding him to discover and identify species. We do 
not therefore consider, if such words have a Latin termination 
given to them, that the occasional and judicious use of them as 
scientific terms can be justly objected to. 

c. Technical names. — All words expressive of trades and pro- 
fessions have been by some writers excluded from zoology, but 
without sufficient reason. Words of this class, when carefully 
chosen, often express the peculiar characters and habits of ani- 
mals in a metaphorical manner, which is highly elegant. We 
may cite the generic terms, Arvicola, Lanius, Pastor, Tyrannus, 
Regulus, Mimus, Ploceus, &c, as favourable examples of this 
class of names. 

d. Mythological or historical names. — When these have no per- 
ceptible reference or allusion to the characters of the object on 
which they are conferred, they may be properly regarded as un- 
meaning and in bad taste. Thus the generic names, Lesbia, 
Leilus, Remus, Corydon, Pasiphce, have been applied to a Hum- 
ming bird, a Butterfly, a Beetle, a Parrot, and a Crab respectively, 
without any perceptible association of ideas. But mythological 
names may sometimes be used as generic with the same propriety 
as technical ones, in cases where a direct allusion can be traced 
between the narrated actions of a personage and the observed 
habits or structure of an animal. Thus when the name Progne 
is given to a Swallow, Clotho to a Spider, Hydra to a Polyp, 
Athene to an Owl, Nestor to a grey-headed Parrot, &c, a pleas- 
ing and beneficial connection is established between classical lite- 
rature and physical science. 

e. Comparative names. — The objections which have been raised 
to words of this class are not without foundation. The names, 
no less than the definitions of objects, should, where practicable, 
be drawn from positive and self-evident characters, and not from 
a comparison with other objects, which may be less known to the 
reader than the one before him. Specific names expressive of 
comparative size are also to be avoided, as they may be rendered 
inaccurate by the after discovery of additional species. The 
names Picoides, Emberizoides, Pseudoluscinia, rubeculoides, maxi- 
mus, minor, minimus, &c, are examples of this objectionable 
practice. 

/. Generic names compounded from other genera. — These are 
in some degree open to the same imputation as comparative words ; 
but as they often serve to express the position of a genus as inter- 
mediate to, or allied with, two other genera, they may occasionally 
be used with advantage. Care must be taken not to adopt such 
compound words as are of too great length, and not to corrupt 
them in trying to render them shorter. The names Gallopavo, 



Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature, 217 

Tetraogallus, G-ypaetos, are examples of the appropriate use of 
compound words. 

g. Specific names derived from persons. — So long as these 
complimentary designations are used with moderation, and are 
restricted to persons of eminence as scientific zoologists, they may 
be employed with propriety in cases where expressive or charac- 
teristic words are not to be found. But we fully concur with 
those who censure the practice of naming species after persons of 
no scientific reputation, as curiosity-dealers (e. g. Caniveti, Bois- 
soneauti), Peruvian priestesses (Cora, Amazilid), or Hottentots 
(K las si). 

h. Generic names derived from persons. — Words of this class 
have been very extensively used in botany, and therefore it would 
have been well to have excluded them wholly from zoology, for 
the sake of obtaining a memoria technica by which the name of a 
genus would at once tell us to which of the kingdoms of nature it 
belonged. Some few personal generic names have, however, crept 
into zoology, as Cuvieria, Mulleria, Rossia, Lessonia, &c, but 
they are very rare in comparison with those of botany, and it is 
perhaps desirable not to add to their number. 

i. Names of harsh and inelegant pronunciation. — These words 
are grating to the ear, either from inelegance of form, as Huhua 
Yuhina, Craxirex, Eschscholtzi, or from too great length, as 
chirostrongylostinus, Opetiorhynchus, brachypodioides, Thecodon- 
tosaurus, not to mention the Enaliolimnosaurus crocodilocephaloides 
of a German naturalist. It is needless to enlarge on the advan- 
tage of consulting euphony in the construction of our language. 
As a general rule it may be recommended to avoid introducing 
words of more than five syllables. 

k. Ancient names of animals applied in a wrong sense. — It has 
been customary, in numerous cases, to apply the names of animals 
found in classic authors at random to exotic genera or species 
which were wholly unknown to the ancients. The names Cebits, 
Callithrix, Spiza, Kitta, Struthus, are examples. This practice 
ought by no means to be encouraged. The usual defence for it 
is, that it is impossible now to identify the species to which the 
name was anciently applied. But it is certain that if any 
traveller will take the trouble to collect the vernacular names 
used by the modern Greeks and Italians for the Vertebrata and 
Mollusca of southern Europe, the meaning of the ancient names 
may in most cases be determined with the greatest precision. It 
has been well remarked that a Cretan fisher boy is a far better 
commentator on Aristotle's ' History of Animals' than a British 
or German scholar. The use however of ancient names, when 
correctly applied, is most desirable, for " in framing scientific 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIIT. NO. II. OCTOBER 1863. 2 N 



278 Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 

terms, the appropriation of old words is preferable to the formation 
of new ones."* 

I. Adjective generic names. — The names of genera are in all 
cases essentially substantive, and hence adjective terms cannot 
be employed for them without doing violence to grammar. The 
generic names Hians, Criniger, Cursor ius, Nitidula, &c, are ex- 
amples of this incorrect usage. 

m. Hybrid names. — Compound words, whose component parts 
are taken from two different languages, are great deformities in 
nomenclature, and naturalists should be especially guarded not 
to introduce any more such terms into zoology, which furnishes 
too many examples of them already. We have them compounded 
of Greek and Latin, as Dendrofalco, Gymnocorvus, Monoculus, 
Arborophila Jiavigaster ; Greek and French, as Jacamaralcyon, 
Jacamerops ; and Greek and English, as Bullockoides, Gilbert- 
socrinites. 

n. Names closely resembling other names already used. — By 
Rule 10 it was laid down, that when a name is introduced which 
is identical with one previously used, the later one should be 
changed. Some authors have extended the same principle to 
cases where the later name, when correctly written, only ap- 
proaches in form, without wholly coinciding with, the earlier. We 
do not, however, think it advisable to make this law imperative, 
first, because of the vast extent of our nomenclature, which 
renders it highly difficult to find a name which shall not bear 
more or less resemblance in sound to some other ; and, secondly, 
because of the impossibility of fixing a limit to the degree of ap- 
proximation beyond which such a law should cease to operate. 
We content ourselves, therefore, with putting forth this pro- 
position merely as a recommendation to naturalists, in selecting 
generic names, to avoid such as too closely approximate words 
already adopted. So with respect to species, the judicious 
naturalist will aim at variety of designation, and will not, for ex- 
ample, call a species virens or virescens in a genus which already 
possesses a viridis. 

o. Corrupted words. — In the construction of compound Latin 
words, there are certain grammatical rules which have been 
known and acted on for two thousand years, and which a natu- 
ralist is bound to acquaint himself with before he tries his skill in 
coining zoological terms. One of the chief of these rules is, that 
in compounding words all the radical or essential parts of the 
constituent members must be retained, and no change made ex- 
cept in the variable terminations. But several generic names 
have been lately introduced which run counter to this rule, and 

* Whcwell, Phil. Ind. Sc. v. i. p. lxvii. 



Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 279 

form most unsightly objects to all who are conversant with the 
spirit of the Latin language. A name made up of the first half 
of one word and the last half of another, is as deformed a monster 
in nomenclature as a Mermaid or a Centaur would be in zoology ; 
yet we find examples in the names Corcorax (from Corvus and 
Pyrrhocorax), Cypsnagra (from Cypselus and Tanagra), Merulaxis 
(Merula and Synallaxis), Loxigilla {Loxia and Fringilla), &c. 
In other cases, where the commencement of both the simple words 
is retained in the compound, a fault is still committed by cutting 
off too much of the radical and vital portions, as is the case in 
Bucorvus (from Buceros and Corvus) , Ninox (Nisus and 
Noctua), &c. 

p. Nonsense names. — Some authors having found difficulty in 
selecting generic names which have not been used before, have 
adopted the plan of coming words at random without any deri- 
vation of meaning whatever. The following are examples : 
Viralva, Xema, Azeca, Assiminia, Quedius, Spisula. To the 
same class we may refer anagrams of other generic names, as 
Dacelo and Cedola of Alcedo, Zapomia of Porzana, &c. Such 
verbal trifling as this is in very bad taste, and is especially cal- 
culated to bring the science into contempt. It finds no precedent 
in the Augustan age of Latin, but can be compared only to the 
puerile quibblings of the middle ages. It is contrary to the 
genius of all languages, which appear never to produce new words 
by spontaneous generation, but always to derive them from some 
other source, however distant or obscure. And it is peculiarly 
annoying to the etymologist, who, after seeking in vain through the 
vast storehouses of human language for the parentage of such 
words, discovers at last that he has been pursuing an ignis fatuus. 

q. Names previously cancelled by the operation of § 6. — Some 
authors consider that when a name has been reduced to a 
synonym by the operations of the laws of priority, they are then 
at liberty to apply it at pleasure to any new group which may be 
in want of a name. We consider, however, that when a word 
has once been proposed in a given sense, and has afterwards 
sunk into a synonym, it is far better to lay it aside for ever than 
to run the risk of making confusion by re-issuing it with a new 
meaning attached. 

r. Specific names raised into generic. — It has sometimes been 
the practice in subdividing an old genus to give to the lesser 
genera so formed, the names of their respective typical species. 
Our Rule 13 authorizes the forming a new specific name in such 
cases ; but we further wish to state our objections to the practice 
altogether. Considering as we do that the original specific names 
should as far as possible be held sacred, both on the grounds of 
justice to their authors and of practical convenience to naturalists, 



280 Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 

we would strongly dissuade from the further continuance of a 
practice which is gratuitous in itself, and which involves the 
necessity of altering long established specific names. 

We have now pointed out the principal rocks and shoals which 
lie in the path of the nomenclator ; and it will be seen that the 
navigation through them is by no means easy. The task of con- 
structing a language which shall supply the demands of scientific 
accuracy on the one hand, and of literary elegance on the other, 
is not to be inconsiderately undertaken by unqualified persons. 
Our nomenclature presents but too many flaws and inelegancies 
already, and as the stern law of priority forbids their removal, it 
follows that they must remain as monuments of the bad taste or 
bad scholarship of their authors to the latest ages in which 
zoology shall be studied. 

[Families to end in idae, and Subfamilies in inae.] 
The practice suggested in the following proposition has been 
adopted by many recent authors, and its simplicity and con- 
venience is so great that we strongly recommend its universal use. 

§ B. It is recommended that the assemblages of genera 
termed families should be uniformly named by adding the 
termination idee to the name of the earliest known, or most 
typically characterized genus in them ; and that their sub- 
divisions, termed subfamilies, should be similarly con- 
structed, with the termination ince. 

These words are formed by changing the last syllable of the 
genitive case into idee or irue, as Strix, Strigis, Strigidce, Buceros, 
Bucerotis, Bucerotidai, not StrixidcP, Buceridce. 

[Specif c names to be written tuith a small initial.] 
A convenient memoria technica may be effected by adopting our 
next proposition. It has been usual, when the titles of species 
are derived from proper names, to write them with a capital letter, 
and hence when the specific name is used alone it is liable to be 
occasionally mistaken for the title of a genus. But if the titles 
of species were invariably written with a small initial, and those of 
genera with a capital, the eye would at once distinguish the rank 
of the group referred to, and a possible source of error would be 
avoided. It should be further remembered that all species are 
equal, and should therefore be written all alike. We suggest, 
then, that 

§ C. Specific names should always be written with a small 
initial letter, even when derived from persons or places, and 
generic names should be always written with a capital. 



Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 281 

[The authority for a species, exclusive of the genus, to be followed 
by a distinctive expression ] 

The systematic names of zoology being still far from that state 
of fixity which is the ultimate aim of the science, it is frequently 
necessary for correct indication to append to them the name of 
the person on whose authority they have been proposed. When 
the same person is authority both for the specific and generic 
name, the case is very simple ; but when the specific name of one 
author is annexed to the generic name of another, some difficulty 
occurs. For example, the Muscicapa crinita of Linmeus belongs 
to the modern genus Tyrannus of Vieillot ; but Swainson was 
the first to apply the specific name of Linnaeus to the generic 
one of Vieillot. The question now arises, Whose authority is 
to be quoted for the name Tyrannus crinitus ? The expression 
Tyrannus crinitus, Linn., would imply what is untrue, for Linnseus 
did not use the term Tyrannus; and Tyrannus crinitus, Vieill., 
is equally incorrect, for Vieillot did not adopt the name crinitus. 
If we call it Tyrannus crinitus, Sw., it would imply that Swainson 
was the first to describe the species, and Linnseus would be robbed 
of his due credit. If we term it Tyrannus, Vieill., crinitus, Linn., 
we use a form which, though expressing the facts correctly, and 
therefore not without advantage in particular cases where great 
exactness is required, is yet too lengthy and inconvenient to be 
used with ease and rapidity. Of the three persons concerned with 
the construction of a binomial title in the case before us, we con- 
ceive that the author who first describes and names a species 
which forms the groundwork of later generalisations, possesses a 
higher claim to have his name recorded than he who afterwards 
defines a genus which is found to embrace that species, or who 
may be the mere accidental means of bringing the generic and 
specific names into contact. By giving the authority for the 
specific name in preference to all others, the inquirer is referred 
directly to the original description, habitat, &c, of the species, 
and is at the same time reminded of the date of its discovery ; 
while genera, being less numerous than species, may be carried 
in the memory, or referred to in systematic works without the 
necessity of perpetually quoting their authorities. The most 
simple mode then for ordinary use seems to be, to append to the 
original authority for the species, when not applying to the genus 
also, some distinctive mark, such as (sp.), implying an exclusive 
reference to the specific name, as Tyrannus crinitus (Linn.) (sp.), 
and to omit this expression when the same authority attaches to 
both genus and species, as Ostrea edulis t Linn.* Therefore, 

* The expression Tyrannus crinitus (Linn.) would perhaps be preferable from 
its greater brevity. 



282 Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature, 

§ D. It is recommended that the authority for a specific 
name, when not applying to the generic name also, should be 
followed by the distinctive expression (sp.) 

[New genera and species to be defined amply and publicly.] 
A large proportion of the complicated mass of synonyms which 
has now become the opprobrium of zoology, has originated either 
from the slovenly and imperfect manner in which species and 
groups have been originally defined, or from their definitions 
having been inserted in obscure local publications which have 
never obtained an extensive circulation. Therefore, although 
under § 12, we have conceded that mere insertion in a printed 
book is sufficient for publication, yet we would strongly advise 
the authors of new groups always to give, in the first instance, 
a full and accurate definition of their characters, and to insert the 
same in such periodical or other works as are likely to obtain an 
immediate and extensive circulation. To state this briefly, 

§ E. It is recommended that new genera or species be 
amply defined, and extensively circulated in the first instance. 

[The names to be given to subdivisions of genera to agree in 
gender with the original genus.] 

In order to preserve specific names as far as possible in an 
unaltered form, whatever may be the changes which the genera to 
which they are referred may undergo, it is desirable, when it can 
be done with propriety, to make the new subdivisions of genera 
agree in gender with the old groups from which they are formed. 
This recommendation does not, however, authorise the changing 
the gender or termination of a genus already established. In brief, 

§ F. It is recommended that in subdividing an old genus 
in future, the names given to the subdivisions should agree 
in gender with that of the orginal group. 

[Etymologies and types of new genera to be stated.] 

It is obvious that the names of genera would in general be far 
more carefully constructed, and their definitions would be rendered 
more exact, if authors would adopt the following suggestion : — 

§ G. It is recommended that in defining new genera the 
etymology of the name should be always stated, and that 
one species should be invariably selected as a type or 
standard of reference. 



In concluding this outline of a scheme for the rectification of 
zoological nomenclature, we have only to remark, that almost 



Proposed Reform of Zoological Nomenclature. 283 

the whole of the propositions contained in it may be applied with 
equal correctness to the sister science of botany. We have pre- 
ferred, however, in this essay to limit our views to zoology, both 
for the sake of rendering the question less complex, and because 
we conceive that the botanical nomenclature of the present day 
stands in much less need of distinct enactment than the zoological. 
The admirable rules laid down by Linnaeus, Smith, Decandolle. 
and other botanists (to which, no less than to the works of 
Fabricius, Illiger, Vigors, Swainson, and other zoologists, we 
have been much indebted in preparing the present document), 
have always exercised a beneficial influence over their disciples. 
Hence the language of botany has attained a more perfect and 
stable condition than that of zoology ; and if this attempt at refor- 
mation may have the effect of advancing zoological nomenclature 
beyond its present backward and abnormal state, the wishes of its 
promoters will be fully attained. 

(Signed) H. E. Strickland. J. S. Henslow. 

John Phillips. W. E. Suckhard. 

John Richardson. G. R. Waterhouse. 

Richard Owen. W. Yarrell. 

Leonard Jenyns. C. Darwin. 

W. J. Broderip. J. O. Westwood. 

June 27, 1842. 



PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. 



British Association for the Advancement of Science, held at 
Newcastle, August 1863. 



Section A.— MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. 

President — Professor W. J. Macquorn Rankine. 

" Report of the Committee on Electrical Standards." By Mr Fleeminu 
Jenkin. — The Committee report that the system of so-called absolute 
electrical units, based on purely mechanical measurements, is the only 
system consistent with our present knowledge, both of the relations ex- 
isting between the various electrical phenomena, and of the connection be- 
tween these and the fundamental measurements of time, mass, and space. 
The doubts felt as to the accuracy with which this system could be reduced 
to practice have been dispelled by the success of experiments made for 
the Committee by Prof. Maxwell, Mr Stewart, and Mr Jenkin on the 
measurement of the absolute resistance of a conductor, by a method due 
to Prof. W. Thomson. Standard resistance coils will shortly be issued 
based on these experiments, which will, however, be repeated, with en- 
tirely new data, before this final step is taken, so as to avoid every chance 



284 Proceedings of Societies. 

of error. The other electrical measurements in the absolute system offer 
comparatively little difficulty. 

" .Researches on the Moon." By Prof. Phillips. — The author having 
on previous occasions presented his views as to the methods and objects 
of research in the moon, was desirous now to state a few results, and ex- 
hibit a few drawings, the fruit of recent examinations of the moon by 
means of a new equatorial by Cooke, with an object-glass of 6 inches. 
In sketching ring mountains, such as Theophilus and Posidonius, the 
author has been greatly interested by the changes of aspect which even a 
small alteration in the angles of elevation and azimuth respectively pro- 
duce in the shadow and lights. Taking an example from Cyrillus, with 
its rocky interior, and fixing attention on the nearly central mountain, it 
always appears in the morning light to have two principal imperforated 
masses. By a slight change in the direction of the light, the division of 
these masses is deeply shaded on the north or deeply shaded on the south, 
and the figure of the masses, i.e. the limit of light and shade , seems 
altered. A slight change in the angle of elevation of the incident light 
makes more remarkable differences. On Posidonius, which is a low, 
nearly level plateau, within moderately raised borders, the mid morning 
light shows with beautiful distinctness the shield-like disc of the moun- 
tain, with narrow broken walls, and in the interior, broad, easy undu- 
lations, one large and several smaller craters. In earlier morning more 
craters appear, and the interior ridges gather to form a broken terrace 
subordinate to the principal ridge. This circumstance of an interior 
broken terrace, under the high main ring of mountain, is very frequent, 
but it is often concealed by the shadow of the great ridge in early morning 
shadows. To see it emerge into half-lights, and finally to distinct digita- 
tions and variously directed ridges, as the light falls at increasing angles, 
is a very beautiful sight. But it is chiefly to the variations in the central 
masses of lunar mountains and their physical bearings that the author 
wishes to direct attention. Many smaller mountains are simply like cups 
set in saucers, while others contain only one central or several dispersed 
cups. In Plato is a nearly central very small cup, bright, and giving a 
distinct shadow on the grey ground, as seen by Mr Lockyer, Mr Birt, and 
Professor Phillips himself. But in the centre of many of tl^e larger moun- 
tains, as Copernicus, Gassendi and Theophilus, is a large mass of broken 
rocky country, 5,000 or 6,000 feet high, with buttresses passing off into 
collateral ridges, or an undulated surface of low ridges and hollows. The 
most remarkable object of this kind which the author has yet observed with 
attention is in Theophilus, of which mountain two drawings are given, 
in which the author places equal confidence, except that the later drawing 
may have the advantage of more experience. The central mass is seen 
under powers of 200-400 (the best performance is from 200 to 300), and 
appears as a large conical mass of rocks about fifteen miles in diameter, 
and divided by deep chasms radiating from the centre. The rock-masses 
between these deep clefts are bright and shining, the clefts widen towards 
the centre, the eastern side is more diversified than the western, and like 
the southern side has long excurrent buttresses. As the light grows on 
the mountain, point after point of the mass on the eastern side comes out 
of the shade, and the whole figure resembles an uplifted mass which broke 
with radiating cracks in the act of elevation. Excepting in steepness, 
this resembles the theoretical Mont d'Or of De Beaumont ; and as there 
is no mark of cups or craters in this mass of broken ground the author is 
disposed to regard its origin as really clue to the displacement of a solidi- 
fied part of the moon's crust. He might be justified by Prof. Secchi's 
drawing of Copernicus, in inquiring if the low excurrent buttresses may 



British Association. 285 

indicate issues of lava on the southern and western sides ? On the whole, 
the author is confirmed in the opinion he has elsewhere expressed, that 
on the moon's face are features more strongly marked than on pur own 
globe, which, rightly studied, may lead to a knowledge of volcanic action 
under grander and simpler conditions than have prevailed on the earth 
during the period of subaerial volcanoes. The author also exhibited a 
drawing of Aristarchus, showing some undescribed features in the aspect 
of that, the highest part of the moon's surface. 

" On Sun Spots and their Connection with Planetary Configuration." 
By Mr Balfour Stewart. — The author of this note having recently found 
in the course of conversation with Prof. P. G. Tait of Edinburgh, that they 
had both, independently, and by different trains of reasoning, been led to 
suspect the existence of a new principle in Natural Philosophy, which, 
however, must of course stand or fall by appeal to experiment and ob- 
servation, — it fell to his lot to endeavour to ascertain if there be any 
connection between sun-spots and planetary configurations. In a pre- 
liminary inquiry with this object in view, he was led to observe the 
changes with regard to size which take place in sun-spots, from a remark 
by Mr Beckley of Kew Observatory, that, during a certain period, he did 
not observe any spots break out on the visible disc of our luminary. 
Besides about six months' records of these phenomena, made by means of 
the Kew photoheliograph at the Kew Observatory, the author has had the 
opportunity of investigating a year's records made by the same instru- 
ment at Mr De La Rue's private Observatory at Cranford. All of these 
are collodion negatives, and besides embracing a few months in the end of 
1859, they give an almost continuous record of the state of the sun's disc 
between February 1862 and the present date. There is little difficulty 
in finding from these, by means of a comparison of two or three conse- 
cutive pictures, approximately, at what portion of the sun's disc any spot 
ceases to increase and begins to wane, or, on the other hand, breaks out 
into a visible appearance. Now it appears to be a law nearly universal, 
that if we divide the disc of the sun roughly into longitude by vertical 
diameters, and if there be a number of spots on the surface of the sun, 
these will all behave in the same manner as they cross the same longitude ; 
that is to say, if one spot decreases another will decrease also, and so on. 
This law can, of course, be only approximately ascertained by means of 
a preliminary examination of this nature ; but the impression produced 
upon the author is very strong, that if one spot decreases before coming 
to the central line, another does the same; if, on the other hand, one 
spot breaks out on the right half and increases up to the border, another 
will do the same. The author thinks, moreover, that he has noticed a 
connection between this behaviour of sun-spots, and the configuration of 
the nearer planets, Mercury and Venus, and it would seem to be of this 
nature. Remembering that all motions are from left to right, let us sup- 
pose that Mercury and Venus are both in a line considerably to the left 
of the Earth ; then spots will decrease as they come round from the left- 
hand side, and before they reach the centre of the disc. On the other 
hand, if these two placets are considerably to the right of the Earth, 
there will be a tendency for spots to form on the right half of the disc, 
and to increase up to the border. The author would, however, guard 
himself against the supposition that he attributes all the phenomena of 
spots to the agency of these two planets. 

" On the Path of a Meteoric Fireball relatively to the Earth's Centre." 
By Prof. Coffin. 

"On the changing Colours of the Star 95 Herculis." By Prof. C. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. II. OCTOBER 1863. 2 O 



286 Proceedings of Societies. 

Piazzi Smyth. — The star 95 Herculis is a double star, of which the two 
members are nearly of equal magnitude, about the ,5th, and are six 
seconds apart, in R.A. 17h. 55' 33" and D 21° 25' 56" in 1860. It 
has hitherto been catalogued as a diversely coloured pair of stars to an 
extreme degree, one member being called " apple green" and the other 
11 cherry red." These colours have moreover been looked upon, as are 
the colours of all ordinary stars, as constant features sensibly. Being 
observed, however, by the author, when he was on the peak of TenerifFe, 
in 1856, they were found nearly colourless, and without any diversity of 
tint, the one from the other. This observation appears to have been 
considered anomalous, and was so to a certain extent ; but on examining 
older authorities the author has met with two other instances of an 
equality of pale colour being observed on the two components of 95 
Herculis — one by Sostini, in 1844-5, and the other by Struve in 1832-53 ; 
and remarks that while these two epochs are separated by twelve years 
exact to a tenth, the latter of them precedes the TenerifFe observation in 
1856-58 by almost exactly the same quantity. Now this looks like a 
regular periodic change, and in a very short period, for it is not impro- 
bable but that the twelve years is a multiple of a shorter period still, and 
during which the change of tint of the stars is so marked that from being 
merely grey at a certain time, one star has been described as becoming 
an "astonishing yellow green," and the other "an egregious red." 
Although this is the first instance of this kind yet detected in the sky, 
the author thinks that it will not be found a solitary one ; and that its 
phenomena may bear some relation to the " eclipse" pink prominences of 
our sun, and to auroral displays about the earth. 

" On a New Revolving Scale for Measuring Curved Lines." By Mr 
H. Schlagintw'eit. — This instrument consisted of a small brass wheel re- 
volving in a short handle, the circumference about two inches round, 
having a number of very short steel pins inserted radially, the number 
depending on the scale to which it was desired to measure the curve ; and 
the side of the wheel having graduations corresponding to the pins on the 
circumference, the zero and other remarkable divisions being distinguished 
from the lesser graduations. 

" On some Phenomena produced by the Refractive Power of the Eye." 
By Mr A. Claudet. — This paper was to explain several effects of the re- 
fraction through the eye, one of which is, that objects situated a little be- 
hind us, are seen as if they were on a straight line from right to left. 
Another, that the pictures of external objects which are represented on 
the retina, are included in an angle much larger than one-half of the 
sphere at the centre of which the observer is placed ; from this point of 
view a single glance encompasses a vast and splendid panorama extending 
to an angle of 200°. This is the result of the common law of refraction. 

Mr B. S. Proctor read a paper " On the Focal Adjustment of the Eye." 

M. Claudet exhibited his " Star Chromatoscope," a small telescope 
fixed upon a stand, and revolving. It is used to observe stars, and the 
effect produced is, that on looking through the instrument a luminous 
ring is seen reflecting the particular colour or colours of the star observed. 

Dr Akin read a paper "On the Transmutation of Spectral Rays," 
including some curious speculations on the luminosity of the sun and stars. 

The Abbe* Moiono exhibited and explained the " Tenebroscope" in- 
vented by M. Soleil to illustrate the principle of the invisibility of light. 
The Abbe* humorously observed that this term was somewat of an Irishism, 
but nevertheh as it was a fact that light is quite invisible, for celestial space 



British Association. 287 

was perfectly dark until the appearance of a celestial body, and then it 
became perfectly illuminated. 

The instrument is formed in the manner of a common spy-glass, with 
a break in the centre of the tube to admit light. Below is a spring, with 
a small ivory ball attached. The observer looks through one end of the 
instrument and sees that all is dulness ; but when the spring is raised, 
the space becomes illuminated with light, showing that the introduction 
of the ball is necessary to render the light visible. 

Professor C. Piazzi Smyth then entered into a history and explanation 
of the time-signals. 

"On a Printing-Telegraph." By Professor D. E. Hughes. — This in- 
strument possesses special merits not only for land lines, but for long 
sub-marine lines, from the fact of its requiring but one wave to each 
letter, and the sensitiveness and simplicity of the electrical arrangements. 
The following rates of speed were obtained in different lengths of cables : — 

Atlantic cable, 2500 miles, 4 words per minute. 

Red Sea, do., .2000 „ 6 „ 

Do. do., 1000 „ 10 

Do. do., 500 „ 24 „ 

Denmark do., 360 „ 22 

Tasmania do. , 240 „ 30 „ 

On aerial lines the average speed of good operators is forty words per 
minute. 

Mr W. Cook read a paper on the Printing-Telegraph invented by 
M. le Chevallier Bonelli (the former Director of Telegraph in Italy), 
in which the messages are printed by means of types. — The telegraph 
transmitted a message in six seconds, and it was quite possible to work it 
at a long distance. 

Mr W. Ladd exhibited a new form of Syren, adapted for the lecture- 
table, to illustrate acoustics and harmony. 

Mr Ladd exhibited an acoustic telegraph for the transmission of 
musical notes and sounds between distant points, this ingenious con- 
trivance being the invention of a schoolmaster at Frankfort, whom Mr 
Ladd had nitt with in his travels. 

Mr Ladd also exhibited a small electromotive engine, constructed by 
himself on a new principle, and calculated to lift a weight of twenty-two 
lbs. eight inches per minute. 

Professor Chevallier introduced a new series of numbers, invented by 
Mr R. S. Browne, for expressing the distances between the planets. 

Professor C. W. Siemens read a paper " On the Electrical Resistance 
and the Electrification of India-rubber under a pressure of 300 tons," 
detailing experiments he had made with the Malta and Alexandria sub- 
marine cable, &c. — The Professor explained that, as Mr Jenkin had pre- 
viously discovered that electrification is not influenced by temperature, 
so his own experiments went to show that it. was not affected by pressure ; 
but the latter exercised this abnormal influence on these materials, that it 
increased the resistance in gutta percha, but decreased it in India-rubber. 

" Report on Luminous Meteors." By Mr J. Glaisher. 

" Description of a Solar Eye-piece," made by the Rev. Mr Dawes, 
F.R.A.S. By Dr Lee. — The peculiarity of the instrument consisted in 
having a metallic slide, with perforations of different sizes, which crossed 
the eye-tube at right angles, just at the focus of the object-glass, and 



288 Proceedings of Societies. 

though the slide would become greatly heated while viewing the sun, the 
conduction was cut off by interposing a plate of ivory. 

"On the Relationship between the Variation of the Earth's Eccentricity 
and that of the Moon's Mean Motion in Longitude." By Dr Hincks. 

"On the Connection that exists between Admiral Fitzroy's 'Caution 
Telegrams' and the Luminosity of Phosphorus." By Dr Moffat. 

" Report of Balloon Committee." By Dr Lee. 

" Report on Balloon Ascents." By Mr J. Glaisher. 

" On the Selenographical Relations between the Chain of Lunar 
Mountains ' the Alps/ with the ' Mare Imbrium,' and the ' Mare 
Frigoris.' " By Mr W. R. Birt. 

Professor Chevallier described a New Instrument for Ascertaining 
the Height of a Cloud by taking the Measure of the Shadow Projected — 
the instrument being formed something like a " two-foot rule " with an 
upright piece attached. 

" On the Distribution of Heat on the Sun's Surface, and the Currents 
of his Atmosphere." By Mr J. J. Murphy. 

" On Ozone, more especially on Ozone Tests." By Mr E. J. Lowe. 

" Comparisons of Curves afforded by Self-recording Magnetographs 
at Kew and Lisbon." By Mr Balfour Stewart. 

"Description of the Experimental Series of Rain-Gauges erected at 
Came." By Mr G. J. Symons. 

"Meteorological Observations." By Rev. J. Rankine. 

"On a New Kind of Miniature, possessing Apparent Solidity by 
Means of a Combination of Prisms." By Mr H. Swan. 

Dr Lee read a paper descriptive of certain Mountains and Craters in 
the Moon, discovered by himself and Mr Birt. One they had named 
"Mare Smythii," in honour of Professor C. Piazzi Smyth. Another 
portion of the lunar landscape had been named "the Phillips Walled 
Plain," in honour of Professor Phillips, who had bestowed much atten- 
tion on the physical features of the lunar surface. Thirdly, they had 
given to an elevated range the name of the " Percy Mountains," in 
compliment to His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, who had been 
the only nobleman to go through a complete course of university study 
of three years in astronomy. The Duke had also rendered the important 
service of presenting to the University of Cambridge their large North- 
umberland Telescope. 

"On the System of Forecasting the Weather pursued in Holland." 
By Dr Buys Ballot. 

" Account of Preliminary Experiments on Chalcescence." By Dr 
Akin. 

"On Spectral Analysis." By Professor Plucker. 

"On Specific Refractive Energy." By Dr Gladstone and Mr Dale. 

" On the Quantity and Centre of Gravity of Figures given in Perspec- 
tive, or Homography." By Professor Sylvester. 

" On the Augmentation of the Apparent Diameter of a Body by 
Atmospheric Refraction." By Mr S. Alexander. 

M On the Conditions of the Resolvability of Homogeneous Algebraical 
Polynomials into Factors." By Mr J. J. Walker. 

11 On the Elasticity of the Vapour of Sulphuric Acid." By Mr T. Tate. 



British Association. 289 

" On the Result of Reductions of Curves obtained from the Self-record- 
ing Electrometer at Kew." By Professor W. Thomson. 

" On the Mathematical Theory of Plane Water Lines." By Professor 
Rankine. 

"On a certain class of Mathematical Symbols." By Mr W. H. 
Russell. 

" On a Mercurial Air-Pump. " By Mr J. Swan. 

L'Abbe Moigno exhibited the following instruments : — A Free Air 
Barometer, by the Abbe Jeannon ; a Metallic or Holosteric Barometer, 
by M. Naudet; a New Micrometer, by M. H. Soleil. 

L'Abbe Moigno also exhibited Specimens of Telegraphic Facsimiles, 
produced by Casselli's method. 

L'Abbe Moigno communicated a paper by M. Oudry on Galvanic 
Copper and its Applications. 

" On a New Marine Barometer, and on a Maximum Thermometer with 
a New Scale." By Mr W. Symons. 

"Interim Report on the Vertical Motion of Currents of Air." By 
Professor Henessy. 

u On the Proof of the Dioptric and Actinic Quality of the Atmosphere 
at a High Elevation." By Professor Piazzi Smyth. 

Section B.— CHEMICAL SCIENCE. 
President — Professor A. W. Williamson. 

" On Fire-Clay Goods." By Mr J. Cowen, jun. — Fire-clay is obtained 
in large quantities in the two counties of Durham and Northumberland. 
It usually lies beneath the Coal Measures in layers, varying in thickness 
from twelve inches to five or six feet. It is found in most abundance, 
and in the best quality, beneath the coal used for coking and manufactur- 
ing purposes. Silica and alumina are the two substances of which fire- 
clay is" chiefly composed. 

The trade in fire-clay goods is of comparatively recent origin. Its 
progress at first was slow, but during the last forty years it has extended 
rapidly, and is still on the increase. The extension during the last 
twenty-five years has been especially marked and important. Fire-bricks 
were first made on the Tyne about one hundred years ago. 

For many years all that were made were consumed in the manufactories 
in the neighbourhood. Slowly but gradually the trade increased, and the 
goods made were sent in larger or smaller quantities to different parts of 
the United Kingdom, and to some of the chief ports in Europe and the 
British colonies. The extent of the trade in 1838 was as follows : — The 
number of bricks manufactured at that time per annum was about 
7,000,000. The local consumption then was about 2,500,000. The 
quantity sent to other parts of the United Kingdom was about 3,000,000, 
and the quantity exported was about 1,500,000. The extent of the trade 
at the present time is as follows : — 

Number of Fire-bricks made per annum about 80,000,000 

The local consumption is estimated at 4 3,000,000 

The quantity sent to other parts of the United King- \ ot7 - nn nnn 

dom is estimated at j ^7,oUU,OOU 

And the quantity exported 9,500,000 



290 Proceedings of Societies. 

" On Glass." By Mr R, W. Swinburne. — The art of casting plate 
glass by throwing the molten material on an iron or copper table, and 
rolling it into a sheet of equal thickness, was first adopted in England, 
in Lancashire, in 1771; but there is abundant - proof that plate glass 
of smaller dimensions was made before that time at South Shields, 
where is situated the only manufactory of plate glass in this district. 
In the early part of the seventeenth century, an article called blown 
plate glass was made at that place, and the manufacture was con- 
tinued by the family who originally established it until 1845, when the 
process was abandoned, being entirely superseded by the cast plate. In 
this is aiforded an instance of the superiority of machinery over manual 
labour. Blown plate glass, which was the great original of the art in all 
countries, depended entirely in its manipulation on the strength of lungs 
and dexterity of muscle of the individual operator, whose chef-d'oeuvre 
was about four feet long and two and a half feet wide, whereas the cast 
is made by the co-operative efforts of twenty men, who move from the 
furnace the crucible in which the material is melted, and by means of 
powerful machinery roll it into a plane of any required dimensions. The 
record of the daily manufacture of blown plate glass at South Shields, in 
1750, is still extant, and affords a curious proof of the infancy of the art 
and of the difficulties of the operator. Up to the year 1845, the returns 
of the Excise duty show that there was more plate glass made at South 
Shields than at any other manufactory in the kingdom. In that year the 
Excise duty on glass was abrogated, and in consequence the produce of 
this manufactory has been quadrupled. Previously to 1845, the quantity 
of unpolished plate glass blown and cast at South Shields was 312,000 
feet per annum : now its capability of produce is 1,240,000 feet per 
annum. A new kind of plate glass, called rolled plate, has been for some 
time manufactured at Sunderland, by the spirited firm of Messrs 
Hartley & Co. The invention is due to Mr James Hartley, who has had 
the honour of establishing a new branch of manufacture of great public 
utility. This new article somewhat resembles unpolished plate glass, but 
is lighter in substance and eminently fitted for roofing and other pur- 
poses of construction where translucency only is required. 

" On Earthenware." By Mr C. T. Maling. — The manufacture of white 
earthenware was introduced into this district by Mr Warburton, at Carr's 
Hill Pottery, near Gateshead, about 1730 or 1740. Those works were 
very successfully carried on for seventy years, when they gradually de- 
clined, and in 1817 were closed; a small portion of the building is still 
used as a brown-ware pottery. The next manufactory was built by Mr 
Byers, at Newbattle, in the county of Durham, about 1755, where brown 
and white earthenware still continue to be made. There are now about 
twenty-five potteries in this district, of which, on the Tyne, six manufac- 
ture white and printed ware ; four, white, printed, and brown ware ; and 
three brown ware only — employing 1200 people, and manufacturing, 
yearly, about 12,000 tons of white clay, and 3000 tons of brown clay, and 
consuming in the process of manufacture about 34,000 tons of coals. On 
the Wear, there are two potteries manufacturing white and printed ware ; 
two white, printed, and house ware ; and two brown ware only — employing 
about 500 people, manufacturing yearly about 4000 tons of white clay, 
1500 tons of brown clay, and consuming in the manufacture about 14,000 
tons of coals. On the Tees there are four potteries, manufacturing white 
and printed ware, employing 60 ) people, manfacturing 5000 tons of 
white clay, and consuming 13,000 tons of coals. The description of goods 
manufactured in this district is that used by the middle and working 



British A sso c iation. 29 L 

classes, no first-class goods being made here. The principal markets, in 
addition to the local trade, arc the Danish, Norwegian, German, Mediter- 
ranean, and London, for exportation to the colonies. The trade to the 
United States being so very small from here, the American war has affected 
this district less than any other. 

" On the Presence of a Salt of Baryta in Colliery Water." By Dr T. 
Richardson. 

" On the Oxidation of (/3) Hexylic Alcohol." By Professor Wanklyn. 

" On some Results of Experiments on Lucifer Matches and others 
ignited by Friction." By Professor Abel. — Having mentioned the com- 
ponents, which chiefly consisted of ordinary phosphorus and gum or glue 
as a binding material, he went on to notice the possible causes of accident 
in the transport of matches. The result of experiments proved that no 
degree of heat to which, under all ordinary circumstances, matches were 
likely to be exposed in their transport or otherwise, would suffice to lead 
to their spontaneous ignition. It was quite within the range of possibility, 
however, that on board ship continuous concussion, combined with a 
degree of heat, might bring about accidental ignition of matches, while it 
might be granted that the accidental ignition of one or two boxes in 
securely-closed cases might frequently occur almost without a possibility 
of fear of it spreading to other boxes. A knowledge of the causes of the 
accidental ignition of gunpowder and other explosives rendered it advisable 
that such precautionary measures as were obvious and easily observed 
should be attended to in the shipment of matches, with the view of reduc- 
ing such occurrences to the minimum extent. Some of those steps he 
specified. The first was the appropriation of a place for the reception 
of such packages, distinct from all other merchandise. Secondly, The 
efficient ventilation of that part of the vessel in which matches were 
stowed. Thirdly, The enforcement of rules to prevent fire being brought 
by sailors within the vicinity of the matches. Fourthly, The carefully 
packing of the match-boxes into cases, so as to prevent any independent 
motion. And, fifthly, The bestowal of more uniform attention on the pro- 
duction "of stout and sufficiently stable match-boxes. 

Dr Paul believed a considerable proportion of the matches now used 
were dipped with parafine — a substitute for the sulphur that was origi- 
nally used, and the resinous coating that had been applied to them. The 
effect was very advantageous. Parafine matches ignited readily. There 
was no smell from them, and they were otherwise preferable. 

" On a New. Gas Furnace for Scientific and Practical Purposes." By 
Mr G. Goke. 

" On Disinfectants." By Mr H. B. Condy. 

" Report of the Committee on Gun-Cotton." — Dr Gladstone read the 
chemical portion of the report. It stated that during the year the com- 
mittee had been put in possession of the fullest information on the 
subject, by Baron William Von Leuk, Major-General of the Austrian 
Artillery, who was the inventor of the system by which gun-cotton was 
made available for warlike purposes ; and Professor Abel, chemist of 
the War Department, by permission of the Secretary of State for War, 
had communicated to them the information given by the Austrian 
Government to the Government of this country. The committee had 
made no experiments themselves. The subject might naturally be di- 
vided into two conditions — the chemical and mechanical. Taking the 
chemical first, that department included the manufacture of the gun- 
cotton itself, its liability or non -liability to spontaneous combustion, and 



292 Proceedings of Societies. 

the nature and effects of the products into which it was resolved on ex- 
plosion. As to the chemical nature of the material itself, the gun-cotton 
differed from the gun-cotton generally made, in its complete conversion 
into a uniform chemical compact. General Leuk secured the production 
of his gun -cotton by several precautions. Of these the most important 
were, the cleansing and perfect dessication of the cotton as a preliminary 
to its immersion in the acid; the employment of the strongest acids 
obtainable in commerce ; the steeping of the cotton in a fresh strong 
mixture of acids, after its first immersion and consequent imperfect con- 
version into gun-cotton ; the continuance of this steeping for forty-eight 
hours. Equally necessary is the thorough purification of the gun-cotton 
so produced from every trace of free acid. There is one part of the pro- 
cess of the manufacture, the value of which is not open to doubt — viz., 
the treatment of the gun-cotton with a solution of silicate of potash, com- 
monly called water-glass. The chief advantages of the material were 
set forth in the mechanical report, but it was here stated that the fact 
that gun-cotton is not injured by damp like gunpowder, is one of its re- 
commendations, while a still greater chemical advantage which it pos- 
sesses arises from its being perfectly resolved into gases on explosion, so 
that there is no smoke to obscure the sight of the soldier who is firing, 
or to point out his position to the enemy, and no residue left in the gun 
to be get rid of before another charge can be introduced. 

Mr Scott Russell, F.R.S., submitted the mechanical report. After 
a long and careful examination, the committee were able to understand 
and reconcile themselves to the fact that greater mechanical effects are 
produced from gases generated by gun-cotton than by those generated 
by gunpowder. The same quantity of gases and the same number of 
atmospheres seemed to be produced from both materials, and it did not 
appear to mechanical men that there was a greater advantage in gun- 
cotton in that respect. The next inquiry was into the distinctive nature 
between the action of these gases in gunpowder and the action of those 
gases in gun-cotton. The great waste of force in gunpowder constituted 
an important difference between it and the gun-cotton, in which there 
was no waste. Gunpowder consisted of about 68 per cent, of solid matter, 
only 32 of which was useful gases. It might be seen, therefore, that one- 
third of gunpowder is not directly useful in producing gases. There was 
another peculiar feature of gun-cotton — it could be exploded in any 
quantity instantaneously. General Leuk had discovered the means of 
giving gun-cotton any velocity of explosion that is required by merely 
the mechanical arrangement under which it is used. Gunpowder in his 
hands had any speed of explosion, from one foot per second, to one in 
1000th of a second, or to instantaneity. The spontaneous explosion of a 
large quantity of gun-cotton is made use of when it is required to produce 
destructive effects, and it is found that the condition necessary to pro- 
duce instantaneous combustion is the absolute perfection of the closeness 
of the chamber containing the gun-cotton. On the other hand, if they 
desired gun-cotton to produce a different effect, they must provide for its 
slower combustion. It must be opened out mechanically, so as to occupy 
a large space, and in this state it can be made to act even more slowly 
than gunpowder, and the limits for the purposes of artillery. In general 
it is found that the proportion of lllbs. of gun-cotton occupying one 
cubic foot of space, produce a greater force than gunpowder, and a force 
of the nature required for ordinary artillery. But each gun and each 
kind of projectile requires a certain density of cartridge. Practically, 
gun-cotton is most effective in guns, when used as a quarter to one-third 



British Association. 293 

weight of powder, and occupying a space of one and one-tenth of the 
length of the powder cartridge. In regard to safety, it was a fact that 
during the ten years of the manufacture of General Leuk's gun-cotton at 
the imperial factory at Kirtenberg, and during ten years' storage of that 
material in the imperial magazines at Steinfeldt, in which thousands of 
cwts. were deposited, not one single accident occurred. The best tem- 
perature for gun-cotton was 136 centigrade, or between 277 and 338 
Fahrenheit — a temperature sufficiently high to ensure safety for all prac- 
tical purposes. The cost of production was considerably less than that 
of gunpowder, the price and quantities being compared which will pro* 
duce equal effects. As to the mechanical purposes of the cotton, it is 
used for artillery in the form of gun-cotton thread or spun-yarn. In this 
simple form, it would conduct combustion slowly in the open air at the 
rate of not more than one second. This thread was woven into a texture 
or circular web. These webs were made of various diameters, and out of 
them cotton rifle cartridges were made by cutting them into the proper 
length. The cotton web was generally enclosed in India-rubber tubes, 
in which form it is most convenient. For the explosion of mines it is 
used in the form of ropes. Conveyance and Storage of Gun-Cotton. — One 
pound of gun-cotton produces effects somewhat exceeding 3 lbs. of gun- 
powder in artillery.. This is a material advantage, whether it be carried 
by men, by horses, or in waggons. It may be placed in a store and 
preserved with great safety. The danger from explosion does not arise 
until it is confined. It may become damp, and even perfectly wet, and, 
without injury, may be dried by mere exposure to the air. Practical 
Use in Artillery. — The gun keeps clean, and requires less windage, and 
therefore performs much better in continuous firing. In gunpowder there 
is 68 per cent, of refuse, or the matter of fouling. In gun-cotton there 
is no residuum, and therefore no fouling. Experiments made by the 
Austrian committee proved that 100 lbs. could be fired w r ith gun-cotton 
against 30 lbs. of gun-powder. From the low temperature produced by 
gun-cotton, the gun does not heat. Experiments showed that 100 lbs. 
were fired with a 6-pounder in thirty -four minutes, and the heat was 
raised by gun-cotton to only 122 degrees of Fahrenheit ; whilst 100 lbs. 
of gunpowder took 100 minutes, and raised the temperature to such a 
degree that water was instantly evaporated. The firing with the gun- 
powder was therefore discontinued, but the rapid firing with the gun- 
cotton was continued up to 180 lbs. without any inconvenience. The 
absence of fouling allows the mechanism of a gun to have more exactness 
than where allowance is made for fouling. The absence of smoke 
permits rapid firing and exact time. The fact of smaller recoil from a 
gun-charged with gun cotton is established by direct experiments. Its 
value is two-thirds of the recoil from gun-powder, the projectile being 
equal. Practical Application to Destructive Explosion. — It is ascer- 
tained that the same shell is exploded by the same volume of gas gene- 
rated from gun cotton and gun-powder into more than double the num- 
ber of pieces ; and it is a startling fact, that the stronger and thicker the 
shell the smaller and more numerous are the fragments. Mining Uses. — 
The fact that the action of the gun-cotton is violent and rapid in exact 
proportion to the resistance it encounters, tells us the secret of the far 
higher efficacy of gun-cotton in mining than gun-powder. The stronger 
the rock, the less gun-cotton comparatively with gun-powder is found 
necessary for the effect — so much so that while gun-cotton is stronger than 
gun-powder, weight for weight, as three to one in artillery, it is stronger in 
the proportion 6"27 to that of strong solid rock, weight for weight. It is 

NEW SERIES VOL. XVIII. NO. II. OCTOBER 1863. 2 P 



294 



Proceedings of Societies. 



the hollow rope form which is used for blasting. Its power in splitting 
up material is exerted exactly as you wish. With regard to the mili- 
tary and submarine explosion, it is a well-known fact that a bag of gun- 
powder nailed on the gates of a city will blow them open. A bag of 
cotton exploded in the same way produces no effect. To blow up the gates 
of a city with gun-cotton, it must be confined before explosion. Twenty 
pounds of gun-cotton carried in the bands of a single man would be suffi- 
cient, only he must know its value. 

" On Chemical Manufactures on the Tyne." By Mr J. C. Stevenson. 
— The manufactures included Salt, Soda Ash, Caustic Soda, Hyposul- 
phite of Soda, Manganese, French Limestone, Bleaching Powder, Soap, 
Prussiate of Potash, Alum, Epsom Salts, Carbonate of Magnesia, Super- 
phosphate of Lime, Pearl Hardening, Sulphate of Iron, Venetian Red, 
Sulphate of Copper, Resin Size, Lamp Black, Grease. 



QUANTITIES AND PRICES. — RAW MATERIALS. 



Tons. 

Sulphur (included as Pyrites). . . 72,800 

(Copper value not included.) 



Price. 
£0 10 



Salt, 

Nitrate of soda, 

Chalk, . 

Coals, 

Manganese, 

Rough Epsom salt, . 

Magnesian limestone, 

French limestone, . 

Resin, 

Tallow. . 



90,000 
. 2,500 
. 144,000 
. 323,000 
. 11,400 
. 1,500 
700 
. 14,000 



15 
14 15 



Value. 

£169,200 

67,500 O 

36,875 

18,000 

60,562 10 

45,600 

3,375 

122 10 

3.150 



FINISHED PRODUCTS. 



Alkali, . 
( Irystala of soda, 
13i-carbonate of soda, 
Caustic soda, . 
Hyposulphite of soda, 
Oil of vitriol, . 
Epsom salts, . 
Hydrochloric acid, . 
Sulphuric acid, used in 

manufacture of soda, 
Bleaching powder, . 
Soap, 

Yellow prussiate of potash 
Red ditto, 
Alum, 

Carbonate of magnesia, 
Superphosphate of lime, 
Pearl hardening, 
Sulphate of iron, 
Venetian red, . 
Sulphate of copper, . 
Resin size, 
Lampblack, . 

o, . 
Cements, 



the 



43,500 

51,300 

7,450 

580 

400 

6,440 

1,500 

180,000 

86,320 

11,200 

6,000 

105 

40 

4,000 

250 

15,000 

2,000 

2,000 

4,000 

100 

100 

1,200 

2,800 

12,000 



£8 10 

4 15 

12 

18 

25 

6 

7 5 



9 

34 

1 

2 

7 



5 
10 



£369,750 

243,675 

89,400 

10,410 

10,000 







3 

5 

35 

7 

7 

8 
2 



100,800 

204,000 

11,760 

11,200 

28,000 

7,500 
75,000 
20,000 

6,000 
20,000 

3,500 
700 

8,400 
22,400 
24,000 



38,640 
10,870 













On Fractional Distillation." By Professor Wanklyn. 



British Association. 



295 



" On the Constitution and Rational Formula of Narcotine." By Dr 
Matthiessen, and G. C. Foster. 

" Report on the Metallurgy of the District." By Mr I. L. Bell, Mr 
T. Sopwith, Dr Richardson, and Mr T. Spencer. 

"On the Separation of Lead and Antimony." By Dr Richardson. 

"On Titanium in Iron." By Dr Riley. — Titanium appeared in small 
cubical crystals, and had long "been observed in the hearts of blast 
furnaces, being always found in those that were used for making the 
best grey iron. Titanium ought no longer to be considered one of the 
rarer elements. It occurred very generally, and was a universal con- 
stituent of ail clays. Stourbridge bricks contained 1*05 per cent, of 
titanium, and that estimation was much too low, because it was a diffi- 
cult substance to determine. In mining shales he had found titanium — 
in some up to 3 or 4 per cent. The object of the paper, however, was to 
prove that under certain conditions it formed a constituent part of pig- 
iron, and appeared to have some beneficial effects in the manufacture of 
iron and steel. It acted somewhat similarly to manganese. 

" On Thallium." By Mr I. L. Bell. 

" On the Analysis of Chinese Iron." By Dr Stevenson Macadam. 

"On Deposit in Blast Furnaces." By Mr J. Pattinson. — The deposit 
was of a dark grey colour, and was impalpably fine powder. On analysis, 
it was found to contain as follows : — 



Protoxide of iron, 






14*22 per cent 


Oxide of zinc, 




10-08 „ 


Sulphide of zinc, . 






13-70 ,, 


Alumina, 






8-20 „ 


Lime, . 






12-32 ,, 


Magnesia, 






5-03 „ 


Chloride of sodium, 






4-74 „ 


Ammonia, . 






0-70 „ 


Thallium, . 






trace 


Sulphuric acid, 






3-18 „ 


Free sulphur, 






0-17 „ 


Silica, 






22-60 ,, 


Carbonaceous matter, 






4-50 ,, 



99-84 „ 

"On Zinc, Nickel, and Cobalt in Cleveland Ironstone." By Mr J. 
Pattinson. — The author has estimated the amounts of nickel and cobalt 
cont lined in pig-iron, malleable iron, and puddling furnace cinder, all of 
which were produced from Cleveland ironstone, without any admixture of 
other ores. The samples were kindly supplied by Messrs. Bolckow and 
Vaughan, of Middlesbro'. In each case, four ounces of the sample were 
operated upon. They contained as follows 

Pig Iron. 

. 1-88 
. 0-32 

. 0-027 

. 004 



Grains of nickel per lb , 
Grains of cobalt per lb., 
Per-centage of nickel, . 
Per-centage of cobalt, . 



Malleable 
Iron. 

1-56 
0-24 
0-022 

8-003 



Puddling Furnace 
Cinder. 

0-313 

0-062 

0-0045 

0-0009 



" On the Manufacture of Aluminium." By Mr Isaac L. Bell.-— The 
author gave an account of the usual mode of manufacture of aluminium, 
and pointed out the presence of impurities which materially interfered 



2UL> 1 J i vceet lings of Societies. 

with the manufacture of aluminium-bronze. These considerations have 
led manufacturers both here and in France to adopt the use of another 
raw material for the production of aluminium, which either does not 
contain the impurities referred to as so prejudicial, or contains them in 
such a form as to admit of their easy separation. This material is 
Bauxite, so called from the name of the locality where it is found in 
France. It contains — 



Silica, 
Titanium, 

Sesqui-oxide of iron 
Alumina, 
Carbonate of lime, 
Water, . 



2-8 

3-1 

25-3 

57*4 

04 

10'8 



The Bauxite is ground and mixed with the ordinary alkali of commerce, 
heated in a furnace. The metal is so extensively used in the arts as to 
keep the only work in England, namely, that at Washington, pretty 
actively employed. As a substance for works of art, when whitened by 
means of hydrofluorine and phosphoric acid, it appears well adapted, as 
it runs into the most complicated patterns, and has the advantage of 
preserving its colour from the absence of all tendency to unite with 
sulphur, or become affected by sulphuretted hydrogen. A large amount 
of the increased activity in the manufacture referred to is due to the 
exceeding beauty of its compound with copper, which is so like gold as 
scarcely to be distinguishable from that metal, with the additional valu- 
able property of being nearly as hard as iron. 

" Report on the Chemical Nature of Alloys." By Dr Mattiiiesen. 

" On the Extraction of Thallium from the Flue Dust of Pyrites 
Burners." By W. Crooks, F.R.S. 

" On the Impurities contained in Lead, and their Influence on its 
Technical Uses." By W. Baker, F.C.S. 

11 On the Slaking of Quick-Lime." By Dr John DAvy. 

" On Molecular Motion." By Dr Zenner. 

" On the Analysis of Chinese Iron." By Dr Stevenson Macadam. 

" Dinner par la vegetation l'etat moleculaire des corps. Analyser la 
force vegetale par des cssais raisonnds de culture." By M. Geo. Ville. 

" Report on Synthetic Researches on the Formation of Minerals." By 
Mr Alpiion.se Gages. 

" On a New Method of Measuring the Chemical Action of the Sun's 
Rays." By Dr F. L. Phipson. — The writer happened to notice, lately, 
that a solution of sulphate of molybdic acid (that is, a solution of molybdic 
acid, or molybdic ammonia, in excess of sulphuric acid) standing in his 
laboratory upon a shelf which is partly exposed to the sun for about three 
hours each day, became bluish-green in the daytime and colourless at 
night. He repeated the experiment several times, and found that the 
saline solution when exposed to the sun was reduced, but when withdrawn 
from its influence, it gradually became colourless again by oxidation. No 
evolution of gas, however, was observed. During the insolation a certain 
amount of the molybdic acid loses one equivalent of oxygen, which com- 
bines with the water and forms oxygenated water, and during the night, 
the latter gives back its oxygen to the molybdic acid produced ; the whole 
being in presence of an excess of sulphuric acid. Nothing is easier than 



British Association. 297 

to measure with the greatest accuracy the amount of reduction which takes 
place by the action in a given time. 

" On Musical Sounds produced by Carbon." By Dr F. L. Pbipson. — 
The author has found that a fragment of homogenous wood charcoal, 
about a foot long and an inch thick, suspended by a string, and struck 
with a hammer, emits a beautiful musical sound, resembling that given 
out by glass and aluminium. 

" On New Zealand Lignites." By Dr Murray Thomson. 

" On the Chemical and Physical Principles in Connection with the 
Specific Gravity of Liquid and Solid Substances." By Dr Otto Richter. 

Mr W. Symons exhibited a new form of Gas Battery. 

" On Oxidation by Ozone." By Dr T. Wood. 

" On the Manufacture of Superphosphates, and Dissolved Bones." By 
Dr S. Macadam. 

"Recent Applications of the Hydrocarbons derived from Artificial and 
Natural Sources." By Dr B. H. Paul. 

" On the Uses of Fuel in Marine Boilers." By Dr Richardson and 
Mr T. W. Bunning. — It being understood that mixtures of Hartley and 
Welsh coal were being burnt on board the Imperial navy in France, some 
experiments were recently tried in the Government Yard in this country 
upon those mixtures. Dr Richardson and Mr Theo. W. Bunning were 
deputed to be present on the occasion. In order to register the amount 
of the smoke, which had hitherto been considered the chief disadvantage 
in the use of the Hartley coal, they adopted a series of figures to repre- 
sent the different intensities of the smoke. Under this arrangement, it 
was found that while the " Hartley" made 340 marks of smoke and the 
" Welsh'' 40, an equal mixture of the Hartley and the Welsh made only 
one mark. That was, there was only smoke of the lightest description 
issuing from the chimney for one minute, during the whole of the experi- 
ments, which lasted six hours. The coal was burnt in an ordinary boiler, 
used for making experiments on the different cargoes of coals applied to 
trie yard; the coals were stoked by an ordinary Government stoker with- 
out any precautions, and the doors were of the usual closed description 
employed in Her Majesty's Navy. The result of this application would 
be to furnish a remedy for the great nuisance of smoke which existed in 
all ocean-going steamers, and a great saving would at the same time be 
effected. 

" On Impurities in Lead." By Dr Zenner. 

" Sur les procedes de gravure du verre a l'aide de l'acide fluor- 
hydrique par impression de la reserve." By M. L. Kessler. 

" Sur des appareils nouveaux evaporant a multiple effet et a air 
libre nommes tirorateurs." By M. L. Kessler. 

u Sur les avantages commerciaux d'un nouveau sel de soude cristallise." 
By M. L. Kessler. 

" On Photelectric Engraving, and Observations upon Sundry Processes 
of Photographic Engraving." By Mr Duncan C. Dallas. 

" Are Nitrogen and Carbonic Oxide the Oxide of Carbon in different 
Allotropic or Isomeric states?" By Mr H. Kilgour. 

" Report on Synthetic Researches on the Formation of Minerals." 
By Mr Alfhonse Gages. 

" On the Minerals and Salts found in Coal Pits." By Messrs R. C. 
Clapham and J. Daglish. 



2 ! 1 8 Proceedings of Societ ies. 

"Researches on the Manufacture of Prussiate of Potash by the late 
John Lee and T. Richardson." By Dr Richardson. 

••On the Constant Increase of Organic Matter in Cultivated Soils." 
By Dr F. L. Phipson. 



Section C— GEOLOGY. 
President — Professor Warrington W. Smyth. 

'* On Coal, Coke, and Coal Mining in Northumberland and Durham." 
By Messrs N. Wood, J. Taylor, J. Marley, and J. W. Pease. 

" On the Fossil Teeth of a Horse found in the Red Clay at Stockton." 
By J. Hogg, M.A. 

" On the Coal Measures of Sydney, Cape Breton." By Mr J. P. 
Lesley. 

" On the Magnesian Limestone of the County of Durham." By Messrs 
G. B. Forster and J. Daglish. 

" On the Skiddaw Slate Fossils." By Professor Harkness. 

" On the Hornblendic Greenstones and their relations to the Meta- 
morphic and Silurian Rocks of the County of Tyrone." By Professor 
Harkness. 

" On Two New Coal- Plants from Nova Scotia." By Dr Dawson. — One 
of the plants, L. Acadianus, belonged to the genus Lepidophloios of 
Sternberg ; the other was an example of a type of Lepidodendron, very 
characteristic in Nova Scotia of the lower coal measures associated with 
the lower carboniferous limestone. The author concluded that the original 
species of Sternberg, L. caricinum, was founded on the fragment of the 
bark of an old trunk, having the leaf bases flattened, and hence described 
as scales. It was evidently, in short, closely allied to the specimen de- 
scribed. The genus Ulodendron was, he thought, identical with Lepi- 
dophloios, but apparently founded on specimens having the leaf bases 
preserved, with the cone scars, but wanting vascular scars ; but he was in 
doubt as to the claims of the name Ulodendron on the ground of priority. 
It appeared to him that the generic names Ulodendron, Lomatophloios, 
Leptoxylum, Pachyphloeus }i and BotJirodendron should be abolished 
in favour of Lepidophloios, unless indeed it should appear that any of these 
names had priority in date. The second plant described was the Lepido- 
dendron corrugatum, which was one of the most abundant in the lower 
coal measures of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. The species was 
remarkable for its variability, and also for the dissimilar appearances of 
old stems and branches occasioned by the separation of the areoles in the 
growth of the bark, instead of the areoles themselves increasing in size, 
as in some other Lepidodendra. 

'' On Models illustrating the Contortions in Mica Schist and Slate." 
By Mr H. C. Sorby. 

" On a Deposit of Sulphur in Corfu." By Professor Ansted. 

" On the Metamorphic Origin of the Porphyritic Rocks of Charnwood 
Forest." By Professor Ansted. — The part of England referred to is a 
small district in the county of Leicester, east of the various other develop- 
ments of igneous rock in England. The object of this paper was to show 
that the rocks, consisting of syenites, granites, and others of the ap- 
pearance and character generally regarded as igneous, were really of the 
same date as the slates with which they seem to alternate. 



British Association. 299 

" On the Laurent ian Rocks in the Malvern Hills." By Mr E. Holl. 

" On the Equivalents of the Cleveland Hill Ironstones in the West of 
England." By Mr C. Moore. 

" On the Organic Contents of the Lead Veins of Allenheads and of 
Yorkshire." By Mr C. Moore. 

" Report on the Distribution of the Organic Remains of the North 
Staffordshire Coal-field." — Read by Mr Mullins. 

"On the Chronological Value of the Triassic Rocks of Devonshire." 
By Mr William Pengelly. — The red rocks of Devonshire are eminently 
detrital, and consist of conglomerates, sandstones, and marls, and belong 
to the Bunter or Lower Trias. They occupy the whole of the country 
east of a line from Torbay to Porlock in West Somerset. The general 
dip is about 15% degrees in the direction N. and 44^ degrees E. (true), 
so that, judging from this horizontal extension in this direction, their 
volume must be enormous. The conglomerates and sandstone, in every 
layer, afford evidence of their littoral origin, and of their having been 
deposited on a tidal strand undergoing slow subsidence. 

"On the Causes of Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions." By Mr 
J. Alexander Davies. 

"On the Physical Condition of the Earth in the Earlier Epochs of its 
History." By the Rev. James Brodie. 

" On a Help to the Identification of Fossil Bivalve Shells." By Mr 
Harry Seeley. 

"On the Penine Fault." By Mr W. Bainbridge. 

" On Coal in the Red Measures." By Matthias Dunn, Government 
Mine Inspector. — After noticing generally the Cumberland Coal-fields and 
the New Red Sandstone, Mr Dunn said — I have been led to form the idea 
that the Red Sandstone is but the superior strata of the coal field, and 
that the neighbouring coal seams will be found underneath; and judging 
from the flatness of the country around Silloth Harbour, I have assumed 
that the bottom of the basin will exist in that quarter, for appear- 
ances of a coal outcrop exist in the neighbourhood of the Oriffle moun- 
tains in Kirkcudbright. In pursuance of this theory, I assume that the 
coal-field of Canobie is similarly circumstanced, for the Red Sandstone 
there crops out contiguous to the pits, and the nature of the various seams 
of coal assimilate closely upon those of Cumberland. Another corre- 
sponding fact attends the colliery of Kirkhouse belonging to the Earl of 
Carlisle, although a portion of it also contains coals belonging to the 
Limestone formation. 

" On the Recent Discovery of Gold near Bala Lake (Llyn Tegd), 
Merionethshire." By T. A. Readwin, F.G.S. 

"On the Origin of Granite." By Mr Alexander Bryson. 

"On the Deposit of the Gravel, Sand, and Loam, with Flint Imple- 
ments at St Acheul." By Professor Phillips. — One of the remarkable 
fruits of geological investigation was to invest almost every point on the 
earth's surface with anew interest. The small French village named had 
long been remarkable for the school of the Jesuits established there ; but 
antiquarians had discovered that it was near a burial ground of great 
antiquity. In the course of excavation there were discovered the graves 
of people far more ancient than any known to have been buried there. 
Other memorials were also discovered ; and on one he had obtained from 
the workmen he read the name of Constantius. A stone coffin was found, 



300 Proceedings of Societies. 

and also an armlet which had been placed on the arm of a buried person. 
When they looked in front of the great face of excavation and saw over- 
head the Jesuit College, the ancient Cemetery, and the Roman and Pre- 
Roman graves, the question arose, '* What could be the antiquity of the 
sand and gravel- deposit at the lower level?" In Sir Charles Lyell's 
recently published volume the situation was fully described. Concerning 
the deposits, there was no difference of opinion ; they were to be 
reckoned among the later deposits of the geological time, and in the lower 
parts of these deposits a great number of interesting implements had 
been obtained, and some of these he exhibited. He described the deposits 
in detail, from illustrations, stating that fresh-water and land shells were 
found in sand, and splintered flints in an argillaceous deposit over it. 
For the fresh-water and land shells in the grarvel it was not necessary to 
appeal to the action of the sea, which, however, was seen in the lower 
part of the level. There were, in different levels, cases of great agita- 
tion of water, comparative agitation, and comparative tranquillity. They 
might imagine a lacustrine deposit, against which there would be the 
objection that it would not produce gravel in such a form, it being twisted 
about in all ways. There ought to have been found lying parallel to 
the surface of the lake a great number of lacustrine shells ; but that was 
not the case, and the explanation would not apply to the mixture of fresh- 
water and land and amphibious shells. * The more ordinary explanation 
was to suppose the action of a river which had changed its position, so 
that the flint instruments found near the bottom might formerly have 
existed near the top. The arrangement of the sands was obviously of 
such a kind that they floated over the pebbles and covered all below. The 
whole question came finally to this : — Could they determine the age of 
the gravel beds ? They could not escape the conviction that the flint instru- 
ments were of the same age as the gravel beds. Upon the supposition of 
strata having been deposited by river action, the upper surface of the 
deposits would continually tend to become level, and would be so when 
the deposits were of an argillaceous nature. In this case the slope varied 
from 2-h to 1} degrees. In order to account for the present condition of 
things, it would be necessary to suppose that the country had been dis- 
turbed, and that there had been an elevation affecting the valley of 
Somme. On an examination of the locality, they would speedily arrive 
at the impression that it was requisite to remember that there was no 
period of geological history from which it was safe to exclude a move- 
ment of the earth's crust. The map of France showed the causes of the 
elevation. The rivers ran in parallel lines across the chalk, and it was 
impossible to separate the circumstance from the similar fact in this 
country where these phenomena had been discovered. As there was 
reason to think that the valley had been subject to upheaval, accepting 
the supposition, they would not be able to determine the question of age 
by the excavation of the river. If they followed the suggestion of Sir C. 
Lyell, and took their measure from Scandinavia, they might come to 
some determination as to time ; but this was a case of a local disturbance 
of the earth's crust, affecting certain lines of country in a given direc- 
tion, and apparently ceasing beyond that. As it would be to some pur- 
pose to ascertain the antiquity of these deposits, he trusted Sir C. 
Lyell would not think it otherwise than a compliment to hear an opinion 
differing from his own. 

" On the Drift Beds at Mundesley, Norfolk." By Professor Phillips. 
— Professor Phillips made a statement respecting the drift beds at Mun- 
deeley, Norfolk, remarking that he did so to confirm some views which 



British Association. 301 

were of the greatest importance in reasoning with regard to the antiquity 
of mankind, and at the same time of suggesting a mode of consideration 
which he hoped could be followed up. The district on the coast of Norfolk, 
where the cliffs belong to the glacial, postglacial, and preglacial periods, 
1 ad become famous owing to the investigations of Mr Taylor a few years 
ago. Some thirty years ago in Yorkshire, below the boulder clay, there 
was found a quantity of flint and chalk gravel which contained the bones 
of elephants, horses, and other creatures. Soon afterwards he became 
acquainted with this similar discovery in Norfolk. Having described 
these deposits, the Professor said he was inclined to think they must not 
venture to apply to this country any argument drawn from Scandinavia. 
They must have each country studied for itself, and then they might 
possibly arrive at a satisfactory conclusion. It was far better to take 
each class of glacial deposits by itself. He thought it possible to account 
for these deposits by the introduction of the tide at different levels, and 
that it was not at all necessary to suppose that the coast had been dis- 
turbed in order to account for the level of the marine shells. He was 
inclined to think that all those strata were to be put together as the 
deposit of one period ; and he thought Norwich Crag was too local a 
name to apply to so remarkable a set of deposits. 

" On the Alluvial Accumulations in the Valleys of the Somme and 
Ouse." By Mr R. A. Godwin-Austen. 

Sir C. Lyell said he had expected to hear Professor Phillips and Mr 
God win -Austen express a wider divergence from his own conclusions 
than they had done. He took it for granted that Professor Phillips 
agreed with him in the important point, that not only the flint implements 
which he mentioned in the case of St Acheul were of the same age as the 
old river gravel, but also the extinct mammalia. It therefore appeared 
that they agreed in the important point of the co-existence of man with 
those extinct animals. The new view which he had attempted to explain 
was, that the upper valley gravel, some 80 or 100 feet above the level of 
the sea, was not now in the position it was when the river flowed there 
and formed this extensive deposit of sand and gravel. If he understood 
the argument, there was such a slope of the gravel covered with loam 
towards the Somme as there would not be if it was the deposit of a con- 
siderable river in its original state ; in that case the slope would be the 
other way, from the river towards the bluffs, as in the case of the Rhine 
and the Mississippi. He was not prepared to say whether it was possible 
to calculate on the identity of the present state of that surface with what 
it was at the very remote period when it was formed, and since which it 
must have had so many washes by rain during many thousand years. 
He was not prepared to say whether they could reason in that manner as 
to a change of position. What he said was, that there was nothing in 
his speculations on the river gravels hostile to the conclusions which 
Professor Phillips had proposed, of there having been possible local move- 
ments, or, at any rate, a considerable movement of that country since the 
old river flowed. He thought it was almost impossible that that should 
not be the case. Indeed, when he found two levels of river gravel, one 
higher and the other lower, it generally appeared to him that that must 
be in consequence of some great movement, that there must have been 
probably some stationary period, when great accumulations took place, 
and that there must have been a period of movement, the waters eroding 
and cutting away the country, until they settled down at a lower level, 
and there was a formation of gravel there. This was a most probable 
thing ; but they must bear in mind that though they talked of these 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. II. — OCTOBER 1863. 2 Q 



^U2 / '/ •occcdinys of Societies. 

appearances at two different levels, there were occasionally intermediate 
levels and deposits of gravel even higher than St Acheul. It would be 
difficult to suppose that it was always strictly at two levels that these 
gravel beds occurred ; but there was a prevalence of them at a higher 
level and at a lower level, that lower level being necessarily higher than 
that of the present Somme. He therefore had no objection to suppose 
that, after the country had been for some time in that state at which the 
gravels and sand were formed, there was some movement or elevation 
during which the river was able to cut the land down, and then form the 
inferior or lower level gravels ; and it did not appear to him that if that 
view were adopted it made any very essential difference. Professor Phillips 
thought it made this difference — that the time would be much shorter if 
there were such a movement, and certainly it would ; but he could hardly 
conceive any movement would enable the river to destroy so much older 
strata, as it must have destroyed to produce such reiterated river beds. 
If Professor Phillips could bring evidence of such a movement it would be 
a great assistance ; but that would not alter at all any views at which Mr 
Prestwich and himself had arrived with regard to the manner in which the 
higher and the lower levels were formed. There were other proofs besides 
the fresh-water shells and the absence of marine animals of the fluviatile 
origin of the St Acheul gravels. The gravel in the Somme, the Seine, 
and their tributaries was composed of rock that belonged to the hydro- 
graphical beds of those rivers. In addition there was the presence of 
fluviatile shells as well as of land animals. He could receive the views 
of Mr Prestwich that these gravels were remains of an old river ; and 
he could admit that there might have been such a movement as Professor 
Phillips had supposed. Mr Austen, in speaking of the Bedford section, 
had endeavoured to do away with the argument in favour of the antiquity 
of man by supposing that the remains of extinct lions, rhinoceroses, and 
other animals, taken out of the gravel, which was about thirty feet above 
the level of the sea, were derived from an older gravel. He supposed 
some pre-existing formation, out of which the bones were taken, and then 
deposited in the present, so that that formation which contained the flint 
instruments would not be proof of the co-existence of man with those 
extinct mammalia, and that the mammalia existed before and were washed 
out into the beds containing the flint instruments. Such an objection 
might be made to almost every river bed, because rivers were constantly 
ploughing up their channels — doing and undoing. Therefore, if any animal 
remains had sunk in the channel, the chances were that they would be 
torn out again and rolled on before they got to their final resting-place. 
It was perfectly true that in some of our valleys, such as the Severn, the 
old drift containing distinct animals will be undermined, and occasionally 
bones in a state of integrity will be thrown down into the new river bed 
There were such cases, and they were guarded with respect to them ; but as 
a general rule, if they found remains buried in gravel, the inference was 
that they were formed during that long period when that ancient growth was 
deposited, bed after bed, and sometimes partly destroyed and re-deposited. 
If a geologist wished to draw a contrary conclusion, he was bound to show, 
first of all where was the old formation out of which these extinct bones 
were derived. To make out his theory, he would be bound to show that 
such a formation was under the drift of that country ; which, however, 
was not the case. Under the circumstances, the hypothesis seemed a 
violent one, formed to get rid of a violent conclusion, to suppose that 
these bones had been derived from some other formation that existed in 
the neighbourhood, without a shadow of evidence of there having been 
such a one, and with all the existing evidence against it. lie hoped the 



British Association. 303 

conclusion, was one which, on reconsideration, Mr Austen would not con- 
tinue to maintain. 

" On certain Markings on the Horns of Megaceros Hibernicus." By 
Mr J. B. Jukes. 

" On the Discovery of Elephant and other Mammalian Remains in 
Oxfordshire." By Mr G. E. Roberts. — Part of the bones have been 
submitted to Dr Falconer, who has recognised Elephas primigenius of 
the Siberian tribe, teeth and other remains rather abundant ; Elephas 
antiquus ; a large species of Bos — {primigenius ? or priscus ?) top of 
radius, tibia, and horn core ; many bones and teeth of Equus cabalhis 
fossilis, including a finely preserved tibia of great size, and a portion of 
another still larger; and some good fragmentary specimens of the horns 
of Cervus elephas. 

" Some Facts relating to the Hydrography of the St Lawrence, and 
the Great Lakes." By Dr Hurlburt. 

" Report on the Chemical and the Mineralogical Composition of the 
Granite of Donegal." By a Committee, consisting of Mr Scott, Sir R. 
Griffith, and Professor Houghton. 

" On the Origin of the Jointed Prismatic Structure in Basalts and other 
Igneous Rocks." By Professor James Thomson. 

" On a Synopsis of the Bivalved Entomostraca of the Carboniferous 
Strata of Great Britain and Ireland." By Professor T. Rupert Jones 
and Mr J. W. Kirkby. 

" Notes on some Fossil and recent Foraminifera, collected in Jamaica, 
by the late Lucas Barrett, F.G.S." By Professor T. Rupert Jones and 
Mr W. K. Parker. 

" On some Fossil Fishes from the Permian Limestone of Fulwell, near 
Sunderland." By Mr J. W. Kirkby. 

11 Report of the Shetland Dredging Committee, in its Geological bear 
ings." By Mr J. Gwyn Jeffreys. 

" A List of the Upper Tertiary Fossils of Uddewalla in Sweden." By 
Mr J. Gwyn Jeffreys. 

" On the Upper Tertiary Strata of the Bohuslan District." By Dr A. 
W. Malm. 

" On a Wash or Drift through the Coal-Field of Durham." By Mr 
Nicholas Wood and Mr Edward F. Boyd 

" Observations on the Permians of the N.W. of England." By Sir 
Roderick I. Murchison and Professor Harkness. 

" On a Salamander in the Rothegendes." By Dr Geinitz. 

" On the Reptiliferous and Footprint Sandstones of the N.E. of Scot- 
land." By Professor Harkness. 

tl On some Remains of Bothriolepis from the Upper Old Red Sandstone 
of Elgin " By Mr G. E. Roberts. 

" On the Occurrence of Rock Salt at Middlesbro." By Mr John 
Marley. — He stated that a bed of salt, 100 feet thick, had been already 
bored. 

'" Description of a Sea Star (Cribettites carbonarius) from the Moun- 
tain Limestone of North nmhprlancl, with a Notice of its association with 
Carboniferous Plants." By Mr George Tate. — Previously no species of 
Asteroidea had been recorded from this formation. The specimen exhi- 
bited, found by Mr W. Wilson of Shilbottle, was an impression of the 



304 Proceedings of Societies. 

upper surface only of the organism, in a yellow, fine-grained micaceous 
sandstone, and, although imperfect, yet being doubtless a sea star, and 
the first discovered in the formation, it deserved the attention of palae- 
ontologists. The following characters could be observed : — Rays five, 
rounded, lanceolate, five times as long as the disk, ridged in the centre, 
covered with longitudinal rows of reticulating tubercles ; disk small and 
tuberculated. The disk was only -3 of an inch in diameter, whilst the 
rays were 1*5 inch in length. The sandstone from which this asteroid 
was obtained was about twenty feet above the Shilbottle coal, and about 
ten feet below the " 18-foot limestone," which was the fifth limestone sill 
in the mountain limestone of Northumberland ; it was, he estimated, 
about 600 feet below the base of the mill-stone grit ; and as the forma- 
tion was about 3000 feet in thickness, it was in the upper part of this 
series of beds. 

" Some Facts observed in Weardale." By Mr Charles Attwood. 

"Ona Section of the Strata from Hownesgill to Cross Fell." By Mr 
T. Sopwith. 

" On the Neanderthal Skull, or Reasons for believing it to belong to 
the Clydian Period, and to be specifically distinct, from Man." By Pro- 
fessor William King. 

" On some Fish Remains that have occurred in the Coal Measures of 
Durham and Northumberland." By Mr Thos. Atthey and Mr James 

W. KlRKBY. 



Section D.— ZOOLOGY AND BOTANY. 

President — Professor Balfour. 

Mr J. G. Jeffreys read the " Report of the Committee appointed for 
Exploring the Coast of Shetland by Means of the Dredge." — After ex- 
plaining the nature of such researches, as well as their utility in a zoolo- 
gical and geological point of view, the author gave a short history of the 
marine invertebrata of the Shetland seas during the last half-century. 
He described the result of the expeditions which he had undertaken to 
this remote district since 1841. Several zoological problems of real in- 
terest were then discussed ; viz. the colour of animals living at great 
depths,' — the condition and composition of the sea-bed , — the idea that cer- 
tain species were now u dying out," which the author opposed, — the distri- 
bution of certain species, — the absence of the Gulf Stream on the eastern 
and northern coasts of Shetland, — the gradual sinking of the sea-bed since 
the glacial epoch, — the lively state of mollusca taken from the deep, and 
kept in a shallow vessel filled with sea-water from the beach, — and also 
the improbability of any marine strata being unfossiliferous except when 
they have been subjected to chemical action. 

" On the Cultivation of Cinchona in India." By Mr C. R. Markham. 

" On the Zoology of Hylton Dene, near Sunderland." By Mr G. S. 
Brady. 

" On the Marine Cyclopoid Entomostraca (Calanida?), with Notices of 
some Species new to Britain." By Mr G. S. Brady. 

" Descriptions of New British Polyzoa, with Remarks on some imper- 
fectly known Species." By Mr J. Alder. — The species forming the 
subject of this communication belong chiefly to the branched calcareous 
forms of the genera Ccllepora and Eschara. The new species described 
wen named Cellepora laevigata, Eschara ligulata, and Palmicellaria 



British Association. 305 

elegans, the latter also a new genus, proposed for a beautiful little coral, 
dredged this year in Shetland by the Rev. A. M. Norman. The species 
remarked upon included the Eschara Icevis of Fleming, a species lost 
sight of by British naturalists for many years ; Eschara Landsborovii, 
now first ascertained to be an Eschara, but the imperfect state of which 
had been described by Dr Johnston as a Lepralia : this was found on the 
coast of Northumberland by Mr Embleton ; Quadricellaria gracilis of 
Sars, previously described from an imperfect specimen under the name 
of Onchopora borealis, by Professor Busk ; Scrupocelaria Delilii, a species 
new to Britain, got on the Northumberland coast ; and Horner a borealis, 
Busk, now introduced as British for the first time. 

" On the Colour of the Salmon." By Dr Davy. — This paper appears 
in the present Number of this Journal. 

" On the Structure of the Fruit of Clerodendron Thomsons (Balf.)." 
By the President. 

" On some Elucidations of the Geological History of North Africa, 
supplied by its Lacustrine Fauna." By the Rev. H. B. Tristram. 

The Rev. A. M. Norman read the second part of the " Report of the 
Committee appointed to Dredge the Shetland Seas." — The first part of 
the Report, which was read on the previous day, had reference solely to 
Mollusca, while the second treated of Crustaceans and their Parasites. Mr 
Norman added a description of a great number of caves in a firth called 
Burrough Firth, to the extreme north of Shetland. These caves, which 
are the most beautiful in the British islands, possess the greatest interest 
to the naturalist. They are situated in rocks, shelving at an angle to the 
south-west, and marked by regular strata of various colours, and the in- 
terior of the caves is rendered brilliant by millions of zoophytes of every 
colour. 

Captain Woodall gave Reports of the Results of a Three Weeks' 
Dredging Cruise off Scarborough in 1863, by Mr Leckenby, which was 
undertaken upon the promises afforded by an examination last year, that 
it might be possible to define more satisfactorily than had yet been done, 
the area, extent and description of the invertebrates on the north-east 
coast of England. The examinations were made within ten miles of the 
shore, in from twenty to twenty-five fathoms, and near Flamborough Head, 
and the cost of the expedition was only about L.30. Cannon-balls were 
carried to weight the dredger in case the weather freshened, and the 
author recommended that the same precaution should be adopted in other 
similar expeditions. 

" An Account of the Attempts to Transport Salmon to Australia." By 
Mr T. Johnson. — It was shown that ova might be kept in ice for ninety 
or more days, and afterwards produce young salmon. 

" On the Roman and Imperial Crested Eagles." By Mr J. Hogg. 

" On a New Species of lone." By Mr C. S. Bate. 

" Note on certain Influences regulating the Forms of Leaves," &c. 
By Dr M. T. Masters. 

" Notes on Canadian Forests." By Dr Hurlburt. 

" On the Syndactylous Condition of the Hand in Man and the Anthro- 
poid Apes." By Mr C. Carter Blake. 

" Notes on the Occurrence of Foraminifera new to the British Seas." 
By Mr H. B. Brady. — After some preliminary remarks on the various 
methods of separating recent foraminifera from bulky material, the 



306 Proceedings of Soc ieties. 

author proceeded to road notes upon the following forms not hitherto 
recorded as British, which had, with one exception, resulted from the 
examination of sands dredged by Mr Gwyn Jeffreys and Mr Waller 
round the Shetland Islands — the exceptional case, Pulvinulina Menardii, 
D'O., having been found in soundings from the Irish Sea: — 

Biloculina splwra, D'O. ; Bilocidina contraria, D'O. ; Triloculina 
tricarinaia, D'O.; Quinqueloculina pulcheUa, D'O.; Lituola scorpi- 
unis, Mont fort ; Lagena distoma, P. and J. ; Glandulina Iceviagta, 
D'O. ; Bigenerina digitata, D'O. ; Bolivina punctata, D'O. ; Planor- 
bulina Haidingerii, D'O. ; Planorbulina Ungeriana, D'O. ; Pulvinu- 
lina concentrica, P. and J. ; Pulvinulina Karsteni, R. ; Rotalia orbi- 
cularis, D'O. ; Discorbina Berchelotiana, D'O.; Anomalina coronata, 
P. and J.; Polystomella crispa var. arctica, P. and J.; Nonionina 
stellifcra, D'O. ; and Pulvinulina Menardii, D'O. 

" Notes on some recent Foraminifera, dredged at Jamaica by the late 
Lucas Barrett, F.G.S." By Professor T. Kupert Jones and Mr W. K. 
Parker. 

"Notes on the Homologies of the Trilobites." By Mr. C. Spence 
Bate. 

"On the Geographical Distribution of Animal Life." By Mr A. R. 
Wallace. — The author called attention to the six geographical regions 
established by Dr Sclater (Proc. Lin. S., Feb. 1856) for ornithology, — 
viz., 1st, The Neotropical, comprising South America and West Indies; 
2d, The Nearctic, including the rest of North America; 3d, The Palse- 
arctic, composed of Europe, Northern Asia to Japan and Africa, north of 
the Desert; 4th, The Ethiopical, which contains the rest of Africa and 
Madagascar ; 5th, The Indian, containing Southern Asia and the western 
half of the Malay Archipelago ; and 6th, The Australian, which comprised 
the eastern half of the Malay Islands, Australia, and most of the Pacific 
Islands. It was stated that these regions would apply almost equally 
well to mammalia, reptiles, land shells, and insects, — excepting some 
exceptional cases, which it was thought would render these regions in- 
applicable to zoology generally. These exceptional cases were — 1st, 
That the Batrachians of Japan were Palaearctic, agreeing with the birds, 
&c, but the snakes were altogether Indian, as pointed out by Dr Gunther 
in his paper on the geographical distribution of reptiles (Proc. Zool. Soc. 
1858, p. 373); 2d, That the mammalia of North Africa were not Euro- 
pean like the birds ; 3d, That the insects of the Moluccas and New Guinea 
were generally of Indian forms, while the birds and mammals were Aus- 
tralian ; and 4th, That the insects of Chili were of North Temperate and 
Australian forms, while the birds and mammals were mostly of true South 
American groups. These cases were treated successively ; and it was 
shown that the statement as to the mammals of North Africa was incorrect, 
and that they really very strongly confirmed the evidence of the birds 
and reptiles as to that country being Palaearctic. In the other cases, the 
anomalies of distribution were explained as being due to special excep- 
tional circumstances, which should not invalidate the general accuracy 
and usefulness of these divisions. The discrepancies in the distribution 
of plants, which, while often agreeing with those of insects, were much 
greater, were supposed to be in a great measure due to the adventitious 
action of the glacial epoch and of floating ice. 

" A Few Facts on the Variation of Species pointing to Western Asia 

the Centre of the Palaearctic Area of Creation." By the Rev. H. B. 

Tristram. — No one would suppose that the creation or development of 



British Association. 307 

animals had gone on simultaneously all over one region, so as to exclude 
the idea of animals or insects first appearing in some particular centre 
under certain circumstances, and thence gradually extending themselves 
wherever the situation was best adapted to their habitation. His idea 
was, that they could trace through the whole of the Palsearctic region, 
from Iceland to Japan, some predominant forms, varying in greater or 
less degrees, and that whilst the variations were generally longitudinal, 
the identical forms were preserved latitudinally. Amongst the instances 
he quoted were the grey wagtail, trie yellow wagtail, the green wood- 
pecker, and the azure-winged magpie. The universality of some species 
did not, he thought, tell much against his theory, because those which did 
occur universally, or almost universally, as the snipe and osprey, had 
such powers of locomotion that they could from one centre disperse them- 
selves in all directions. In regard to land shells, the same rule appeared 
to apply. Of course, in shells it was very difficult to ascertain the whole 
of the species to be discovered in the Caucasian and North Persian district, 
because it had not been much worked ; but taking the western region, 
there was not a single shell in Ireland which was not to be found in 
England, and not one in England that was not, with some few excep- 
tions, to be found in Germany ; but the number of species in England 
more than doubled the number in Ireland, and the number in Germany 
more than doubled the number in England. Thus they found the species 
largely increasing as they went towards the East, wherever there was 
sufficient lime for the creatures to form their shell ; and while very few 
of our English species were lost, new ones were continually found. What 
he wished to submit was, that the variation of species, taking the instances 
of some of our most familiar birds, the general geography of zoology 
pointed out, that in the Pala3arctic region, Central Asia was the centre 
from which they had passed eastward and westward. 

■ * Description of a New Plant-house." By Mr James Bewley. 

" A Brief Account of the Vegetation of the Cliffs of Mohir, County 
Clare." By Mr N. B. Ward. 

" On the Occurrence of the Sperm Whale (Physeter macrocephalus) at 
Wick." By Mr Charles W. Peach. 

" Notice of a Monstrosity in a Whiting." By Mr C. W. Rose. — The 
whiting had three eyes, two in their natural position and one between 
the two. 

" On the Physical Geography of the Malay Archipelago." By Mr A. R. 
Wallace. — It first becomes necessary to define accurately the limits of 
the Archipelago, pointing out exactly what islands we include within it ; 
for, though ''all the islands between south-eastern Asia and Australia" 
seem pretty definite, yet to the eastward this region blends insensibly 
into the vast extent of the Pacific Islands. According to my views, the 
Malay — or, as I should prefer to name it, the Indo- Australian — Archi 
pelago extends from the Nicobar Islands on the north-west to St Chris- 
toval, one of the Solomon Islands, on the south-east, and from Luzon on 
the north to Rotti, near Timor, on the south. The eastern boundary is 
drawn at this particular point for reasons which will be explained further 
on. Though not geographically correct to include any part of a con- 
tinent in an archipelago, it is necessary for our purpose to consider the 
Malay peninsula as not only almost but quite an island, since it cannot 
be physically separated from the region of which we are now treating. 
Thus limited, the Archipelago is of a somewhat triangular form, with an 
extreme length of about 5000, and breadth of rather more than 2000 



308 Proceedings of Societies. 

English miles. Looking at a map on which the volcanic regions 
of the Archipelago are marked out — those which are subject to earth- 
quakes which are of volcanic origin, and which abound more or less in 
extinct as well as active volcanoes, — we see at a glance that the great 
islands of Borneo and Celebes form the central mass around which the 
volcanic islands are distributed, so as rudely to follow their outline 
and embrace them on every side but one in a vast fiery girdle. Along 
this groat volcanic band (about 5000 miles in length) at least fifty 
mountains are continually active, visibly emitting smoke or vapour; 
a much larger number are known to have been in eruption during the 
last 300 years; while the number which are so decidedly of volcanic 
origin that they may at any moment burst forth again, must be reckoned 
by hundreds. It is not now my object to describe the many fearful erup- 
tions that have taken place in this region. In the amount of injury to 
life and property, and in the magnitude of their effects, they have not 
been surpassed by any upon record. Forty villages were destroyed by 
the eruption of Papandayang in Java, where the whole mountain was 
blown up by repeated explosions, and a large lake left in its place By 
the great eruption of Tomboro in Sumbawa, 12,000 people.were destroyed, 
and the ashes darkened the air, and fell thick upon the earth and sea for 
300 miles round. Even quite recently, since I quitted the country, a 
mountain which has been quiescent for more than 200 years suddenly 
burst into activity. The island of Makian, one of the Moluccas, was rent 
open in 1646 by a violent eruption which left a huge chasm on one side, 
extending into the heart of the mountain. It was, when I last visited it, 
clothed with vegetation to the summit, and contained twelve populous 
Malay villages. On the 29th of December 1862, after 215 years of perfect 
inaction, it again suddenly burst forth, blowing up and completely altering 
the appearance of the mountain, destroying the greater part of the in- 
habitants, and sending forth such volumes of ashes as to darken the air 
at Ternate, 40 miles off, and almost entirely to destroy the growing crops 
on that and the surrounding islands. The island of Java contains more 
volcanoes, active and extinct, than any other known district of equal ex- 
tent. They are about forty-five in number, and many of them exhibit 
most beautiful examples of the volcanic cone on a large scale, single or 
double, with entire or truncated summits, and averaging 10,000 feet high. 
It is now well ascertained that almost all volcanoes have been slowly 
built up by the accumulation of the matter — mud, ashes, and lava — ejected 
by themselves. The openings or craters, however, frequently shift their 
position ; so that a country may be covered with a more or less irregular 
series of hills in chains and masses, only here and there rising into lofty 
cones, and yet the whole may be produced by true volcanic action. In 
this manner the greater part of Java has been formed. The great island 
of Sumatra exhibits in proportion to its extent a much smaller number of 
volcanoes, and a considerable portion of it has had probably a non- volcanic 
origin. Going northward, Aniboyna, a part of Bouru, and the west end 
of Coram, the north part of Gilolo and all the small islands around it, the 
northern extremity of Celebes, and the islands of Siau and Sauguir are 
wholly volcanic. The Philippine Archipelago contains many active and 
extinct volcanoes. In striking contrast with this region of subterranean 
fires, the island of Celebes in all its southern peninsulas, the great mass 
of Borneo, and the Malay peninsula, are not known to contain a single 
volcano, active or extinct. To the east of the volcanic band is another 
quiescent area of 1000 miles wide, the great island of New Guinea being 
free from volcanoes and earthquakes. Towards its eastern extremity, 



British Association. 309 

however, these re-appear in some small islands off its coast, and in New 
Britain, New Ireland, and the Solomon Islands, which contain active vol- 
canoes. The contrasts of vegetation and of climate in the Archipelago 
may be best considered together, the one being to some extent dependent 
on the other. Placed immediately upon the Equator, and surrounded by 
extensive oceans, it is not surprising that the various islands of the Archi- 
pelago should be almost always clothed with a forest vegetation from the 
level of the sea to the summits of the loftiest mountains. This is the 
general rule. Sumatra, New Guinea, Borneo, the Philippines, and the 
Moluccas, and the uncultivated parts of Java and Celebes, are all forest 
countries, except a few small and unimportant tracts, due perhaps, in 
some cases, to ancient cultivation or accidental fires. To this, however, 
there is one important exception in the island of Timor, and all the 
smaller islands opposite, in which there is absolutely no forest such as 
exists in the other islands, and this character extends in a lesser degree to 
Floris, Sumbawa, Lombock, and Bali. The changes of the monsoons 
and of the wet and dry seasons in some parts of the Archipelago are very 
puzzling ; and an accurate series of observations in numerous localities is 
required to elucidate them. Speaking generally, the whole south-western 
part of the Archipelago, including the whole range of islands from Sumatra 
to Timor, with the larger half of Borneo and the southern peninsula of 
Celebes, have a dry season from April to November, with the south-east 
monsoon. This same wind, however, bends round Borneo, becoming the 
south-west monsoon in the China Sea, and bringing the rainy season to 
Northern Borneo and the Philippines. In the Moluccas and New Guinea 
the seasons are most uncertain. In the south-east monsoon from April to 
November, it is often stormy at sea, while on the islands it is very fine 
weather. There is generally not more than two or three months of dry 
hot weather about August and September. This is the case in the northern 
extremity of Celebes and in Bouru, whereas in Amboyna, July and August 
are the worst months in the year. In Tern ate, where I resided at inter- 
vals for three years, I never could find out which was the wet and which 
the dry season. The same is the case at Banda, and a similar uncertainty 
prevails in Menado, showing probably that the proximity of active vol- 
canoes has a great disturbing meteorological influence. In New Guinea 
a great amount of rain falls more or less all the year round. On the 
whole, the only general statement we can make seems to be, that the 
countries within about 3° on each side of the Equator have much rain 
and not very strongly contrasted seasons ; while those with more south 
or north latitude have daily rains during about four months in the year, 
while for five or six months there is almost always a cloudless sky and a 
continual drought. He next considered the Malayan Archipelago in its 
geological and zoological relations to Asia and to Australia, mentioning 
the well-established fact, that one portion of it is almost as much Asiatic 
in its organic productions as the British Isles are European, while the 
remainder bears the same relation to Australia that the West India 
Islands do to America. 

" On the Irruption of Syrrhaptes paradoxus." By Mr A. Newton. — 
These birds, which are commonly known as Pallas' sand grouse, and 
which are of Chinese origin, have made recent visits to this country, but 
have been rapidly exterminated or driven away. It appeared that about 
109 of these rare birds had been killed in the British Isles, of which 63 
were shot in Norfolk and Suffolk. 

" On the Generic Characters furnished by the different Modes of Mining 

NEW SERTES. VOL. XVIII. NO. II. OCTOBER 1863. 2 R 



310 Proceedings of Societies. 

Leaves adopted by the Larvae of Micro- Lepidoptera." By Mr H. T. 
Stainton. 

u On British Holothuriadse with reference to New Species." By Rev. 
A. Merle Norman. 

" On the Morphology of the Echinodermata of the Family Ophiuridae." 
By Rev. A. Merle Norman. 

"Report on the Natural History of the Island Formosa." By Mr 
Robert Swiniioe. 

"Report on the Mollusca of California." By Mr P. P. Carpenter. — 
This consisted of corrections of the first report, and a resume of the fresh 
sources of information which had accumulated since its date. The most 
important results of recent investigation were the geological evidence of 
a recent connection between the waters of the West Indies and the Pacific, 
and also of the comparatively recent elevation of many parts of the Rocky 
Mountains, and the probable connection of the North Pacific and North 
Atlantic during the Eocene and probably the Miocene periods. 

" On the Great Division of the Pacific Ocean Fauna." By Mr W. 
Harper Pease. — The connection of the Hawaiian Islands with the 
northern part of Japan by a series of sunken islands, identical in fauna 
with the Hawaiian, and the non-existence of certain islands appearing on 
the charts between that group and the coast of America, were dwelt upon 
with reference to the peculiarities of the existing fauna. 

" On the Proliferous Cones of the Common Larch." By Mr John 
Hogg. 

" List of Rarer Phasnogamous Plants in the South-east of Durham dis- 
covered since 1829." By Mr John Hogg. 



Sub-Section D.— PHYSIOLOGY. 

President — Professor Rolleston. 

" Notes on certain Parts of the Anatomy of a young Chimpanzee." 
By Dr Embleton. 

" Observations on the Eggs of Birds." By Dr Davy. 

11 On the Investigation of Instinctive Actions." Dr W. Murray. 

" On the Ventilation of Barracks and other Public Buildings in India." 
By Mr S. Clark. 

" Report on the Physiological Effects of the Bromide of Ammonium." 
By Dr G. D. Gibb. — The general conclusions may be stated as follow : — 
1. In small doses more or less long continued, bromide of ammonium acts 
as a tonic and absorbent, and exerts its peculiar properties upon the skin 
and mucous membrane. 2. It diminishes the weight of the body in poly- 
sarcia, causing the absorption of fat, when combined with a regulated 
diet ; and this is effected with greater certainty than by any other known 
substance. 3. It improves the intellectual powers, increases the bodily 
capacity, and promotes healthy function. 4. Locally, it possesses a sooth- 
ing influence on the mucous membrane, and, according to the strength 
and mode of its application, so does it diminish sensibility. 5. In large 
frequently repeated doses, or given at intervals, it influences the entire 
mucous tract ; it affects all the special senses, and produces anaesthesia 
or impaired sensibility of the various mucous outlets. 6. All the poison- 
ous effects are produced by very large doses, as from the bromide of 
potassium, but in smaller doses it is more certain and reliable, causes no 



British Association. 311 

diarrhoea or diuresis, nor anaphrodisiasis, and its special properties are 
exerted sooner and with less inconvenience. 

" On the Physiological Properties of the Nitrate of Amyle." By Dr 
B. W. Richardson. — The nitrate when inhaled produces an immediate 
effect on the heart, increasing the action of the organ more powerfully 
than any other known agent. As the action of the heart rises, the sur- 
face of the skin becomes red, and the face assumes a light crimson colour. 
Carried to an extensive degree, the nitrate excites the breathing, and 
produces a breathlessness like that caused by sharp running or rowing. 
On animals, when the agent is given in large doses, it produces death. 
The most remarkable effect produced by the nitrate was, that in the 
lower animals and frogs it led to suspended animation, which could be 
maintained for so long a time as nine days with perfect after-recovery. 

" On the Blood in Relation to the Question, Is Ammonia one of its 
Normal Constituents?" By Dr Davy. — The conclusions he arrived at 
are the following : — »1. That they are confirmatory of the inference that 
the coagulation of the blood is not owing to the escape of ammonia. 2. 
That they are favourable to the conclusion that the blood generally con- 
tains a small proportion of ammonia. 3. That the ammonia which is 
found in the air, respired in respiration and in insensible cutaneous per- 
spiration, is derived from the blood, and is yielded in union with carbonic 
acid. 4. That the proportion of the volatile alkali is greater in venous 
than in arterial blood. 5. That in the blood of the Batrachians, and of 
other animals in which the aeration of this fluid is less perfect than in 
birds and mammalia of higher temperature, the quantity of the alkali is 
Ijroportionally greater. 

" On the Reason why the Stomach is not Digested by its own Secre- 
tion during Life." By Dr Pavy. — How is it that the stomach, composed 
as it is of digestible materials, escapes being digested itself, whilst diges- 
tion is being carried on in its interior ? The question here raised must 
be admitted to be one of the utmost interest and importance to us all, 
because it touches upon the means by which we escape after every meal 
we consume from the occurrence of an event which would inevitably 
prove fatal to life. Hunter noticed that the stomach was susceptible of 
being attacked by the digestive liquid after death, and accounted for its 
power of resisting destruction during life by reference to the "living 
principle." This statement, however, fails to stand the test of actual 
experiment. The "living principle" must be discarded, as insufficient 
to account for the state of security under which the living stomach exists. 
To replace the refuted influence of the " living principle," it has been 
suggested that it is the epithelial lining which gives to the stomach the 
immunity from destruction it enjoys during life. This view, however, 
like Hunter's "living principle," fails to stand when submitted to the 
test of experiment ; for I have found that a considerable-sized patch of 
mucous membrane may be removed, and food will afterwards be digested 
without the slightest sign of attack being made upon the deeper coats of 
the organ. The problem, therefore, as to why the stomach is not suscep- 
tible of attack during life, as it is after death, still remains open for solu- 
tion ; and the view that I have to offer refers the immunity observed to 
the circulation within the walls of the organ of an alkaline current of 
blood. It will not be disputed that the presence of acidity is one of the 
necessary circumstances for the accomplishment of gastric digestion. 
Now, alkalinity is a constant character of the blood, and as, during life, 
the walls of the stomach are everywhere permeated by a current of this 
alkaline blood, we have here an opposing influence, the effect of which 



312 Proceedings of Societies. 

would be to destroy, by neutralizing its acidity, the solvent properties of 
the digestive fluid tending to penetrate and act upon the texture of the 
organ. The blood being stagnant after death, the opposing influence is 
lost that is offered by the circulating current. Should life happen to be 
cut short at a period of digestion, there is only the neutralizing power of 
the blood actually contained in the vessels of the stomach, to impede the 
progress of attack upon the organ itself; and the consequence is, that 
digestion of its parietes proceeds, as long as the temperature remains 
favourable for the process, and the solvent power of the digestive liquid 
is unexhausted. There is therefore no want of harmony between the 
effect that occurs after death, and the explanation that refers the protec- 
tion afforded during life to the neutralizing influence of the circulation. 

" On the Renal Organ — the so-called Water System — in the Nudibran- 
chiate Molluscs." By Mr Albany Hancock. 

" On the Renal Organ of the Aplysia." By Professor Rolleston. 

"On Cranial Deformities, more especially on the Scaphocephalic Skull." 
By William Turner, M.B. 

" On Life in the Atmosphere." By James Samuelson. — The author 
described the occurrence of living germs in great quantity in the dust 
conveyed by the atmosphere and in distilled water, and showed that these 
germs retained their vitality for a long time under various vicissitudes. 
He opposed the theory of spontaneous generation ; and he suggested 
whether the great rapidity with which these germs are multiplied might 
not account for the spread of epidemic diseases. 

"On the Means of Passing Unharmed through Noxious Gases or 
Vapours." By Dr White. — Dr White remarked — The apparatus which 
I have had constructed for " enabling a person to breathe in noxious 
gas" differs essentially from any heretofore used. If any person will 
keep his mouth closed, and by closing and opening either nostril so that 
he shall inhale by one alone, and exhale by the other alternately, and then 
insert a pipe into the nostril by which he inhales, he will understand the 
method of breathing with my apparatus as soon as it is described. It 
consists of two pipes fixed in a metal covering, which is placed over the 
nose and mouth. Each of these pipes is furnished with a valve of vul- 
canised india-rubber, one of which is fixed so that it can be moved only 
inwards, and the other only outwards. These valves are elastic, and of 
so light a material that they are opened and shut by the force of the air, 
moved to and fro in the act of breathing ; and, therefore, when the air 
passes through these pipes the person inhales only through one pipe, and 
exhales through the other. Having the end of that by which he breathes 
in a pure atmosphere, the air which enters the lungs is pure, though the 
person is surrounded by noxious vapour. This inhaling pipe may draw 
its supply from the open air at any distance from the body, or it may be 
supplied from a bag carried on the body. By this plan the supply is 
limited to the size of the bag ; by the other the supply is only limited by 
the length of his inhaling pipe. Sometimes one method and sometimes 
the other will be most convenient. The exhaled air passes through its 
pipe into the surrounding foul atmosphere. The flexible valve of the 
exhaling pipe completely prevents ingress of the surrounding gas ; and 
therefore the pipe is short ; it need not be more than half an inch in 
length. The part of the apparatus which I have described, and which I 
will call the "orinasal cover" and air pipes, is fixed in that part of a 
hood which covers the face. A tippet, made of water- proof cloth, is joined 
to the hood. Two circular pieces of glass are fixed in the hood for 



British Association. 313 

enabling the man to see. Every part of this air-proof hood where the 
metal is fixed is water-tight. When this apparatus is about to be used, a 
soft, thick kerchief is to be wrapped smoothly round the neck. The hood 
and tippet is then put on. A band having been bound round the head and 
face over the hood, to keep the orinasal cover in its place, with a kerchief 
bound round the neck over the tippet, to prevent any foul air passing 
under it, the waistcoat and coat should then be buttoned and secured over 
the tippet for the same purpose. The means are so simple, and seem so 
slight, that a man may naturally hesitate to enter a poisonous gas with 
such protection ; but if the apparatus be water-tight (which should be 
tested by trial with water, just before using it) he need not fear ; for I 
have tried it repeatedly in the fumes of burning sulphur, in the sight of 
many witnesses, and it has never failed me. "When the apparatus is used 
with an inhaling pipe extending into the pure air, the end may be fixed 
there, or held by an assistant, and conversation at the same time can be 
carried on between the wearer and his assistant through the pipe. . When 
it is used in this manner a cord may be fastened round the person using 
the apparatus, and the other end held by the assistant outside, so that the 
man may be hauled out, if, through any accident, such a proceeding should 
be necessary. When the apparatus is used with an air-bag, it is attached 
to the back, and one end of the inhaling pipe communicates with it. A 
smaller air-bag is also connected by means of its own pipe, having a stop- 
cock, with the common inhaling pipe. The use of this small air-bag is, 
that the man may have its contents in reserve as soon as his larger store 
is exhausted ; that he may know it is time to replenish his bags when his 
larger bag is empty. It might be useful to have one or more bags of air 
furnished with stop-cocks, and proper unions kept in reserve in places 
such as coal mines, where they may be required, so that a man using the 
apparatus could attach a full bag to it when necessary. I again state that 
it is necessary to examine the apparatus before using it, and to fix it on 
carefully; for if a man should enter carbonic acid gas with it, and through 
any imperfection of the apparatus shall inhale for some time a poisonous 
gas (though only a small quantity), he may fall down insensible, and may 
lose his life, unconscious of his danger. 

"On the Practicability of Arresting the Development of Epidemic 
Diseases by the Internal Use of Anti-zymotic Agents." By Dr Robinson. 

"On the Physiological Effect produced by several apparatuses con- 
trived for the purpose of causing a Vacuum upon the entire body, or a 
part thereof." By Dr Junod. — Several important effects had been pro- 
duced, and among them the power of occasioning syncope at will, and 
thereby producing the condition most likely to arrest inflammation without 
the loss of power consequent upon the abstraction of blood. Besides the 
apparatus for an exhausting effect, Dr Junod proposed the converse of 
this remedial influence, and applied compressed air. For this purpose a 
large air-tight chamber is used, having the form of a diving-bell. The 
patient is seated within, and air forced in until the necessary amount of 
pressure is produced — say of two, three, or more atmospheres. In the 
numerous experiments made of this treatment, it would appear that in 
the proportion that the powers of vitality are diminished in the method of 
exhaustion, they are increased and rendered more active by that of com- 
pressed air. The kind of maladies which have been relieved or cured by 
the latter process are precisely those in which an atonic condition of the 
system exists. 

" On the Dietary of the Lancashire Operatives." By Dr Edward 
Smith. 



314 Proceedings of Societies. 

" On the Coal Miners of Durham and Northumberland, their Habits 
and Diseases." By Dr Wilson. 

" On the Dietaries of the Labouring Classes." By Dr Edward Smith. 

" On the Calabar Bean." By Mr Thomas Nunnelly. 

41 On a Parasitical Acarus of the Anodon." By Mr R. Garner. 

"On a Miners' Safety-mask for supporting Life in Fire-Damp and 
other Noxious Vapour." By Mr B. W. Richardson. 

" On How to restore Drowned Persons, Patients in Chloroform Acci- 
dents, &c." By Dr Kidd. 

" On the Normal Position of the Epiglottis." By Dr George D. Gibb. 

"On Voluntary Closure of the Glottis, independently of the Act of 
Breathing." By Dr George D. Gibb. 

" Note on the Change of Attitude which takes place in Infants 
beginning to Walk." By Dr Cleland. 

" On the Reciprocal Action between Plants and Gases." By Mr R. 
Garner. — In this paper the author brought forward the subject of the 
natural inhalations and exhalations of plants, and of the effects on vegeta- 
tion of certain non-natural contaminations of the atmosphere, such as occur 
in coal and mining districts, consisting for the most part of sulphurous and 
hydrochloric acids, and of ammonia. Different plants have different 
susceptibilities for such influence, and a kind of rude metrical table may be 
constructed, in which the greater or less impurity of the atmosphere may 
be shown from the effects on plants. Thus the rhododendron, or yucca, 
or aucuba will flourish in an air fatal to the common laurel ; wheat will 
luxuriate when a holly or oak will die. Annuals suffer least, evergreens 
much. The paper gave the result of many experiments on plants by 
means of gases, &c, applied to the leaves and roots. Some plants which, 
appear naturally to luxuriate in the coal strata, as the oak, holly, or some 
ferns, soon die, he stated, when the mines began to be worked. Trees 
lose their leaves earlier than in other districts, and, as a rule, evergreens 
suffer much. One thing was fortunate : annuals suffer less, for instance, 
corn and wheat do well when nothing else could, and perhaps the exhala- 
tions in question might even tend to ripen them. 

"On the Physiological Action of the Uterus in Parturition." By 
Dr Donkin. 

11 On the Condition of the Uterus after Delivery in Certain of the 
Mammalia." By Professor Rolleston. 

" On the Ligamentous Action of the long Muscles in Man and other 
Animals." By Dr Cleland. 



Section E.— GEOGRAPHY AND ETHNOLOGY. 

President — Sir R. I. Murchison. 

"Proposed Inter-Oceanic and International Transit Route across Central 
America." By Captain Bedford T. Pim. 

" Journey from Tientsin (North China) to the Capital of Mantchu 
Tartary." By Captain G. Fleming. 



British Association. 315 

" On the Commixture of the Races of Man as affecting the Progress of 
Civilisation in the New World." By Mr J. Crawfurd. 

" On Anthropological Classification." By Dr J. Hunt. 

rt A few Notes on Sir Charles Lyell's Antiquity of Man." By Mr John 
Crawfurd, F.R.S. — While the author agrees with Sir Charles Lyell as 
to the great antiquity of the appearance of man on the earth, he objects 
to his view of the unity of the human race and his doctrine of transmu- 
tation. He also differs from him as to the origin of languages. In 
speaking of Professor Huxley's views, he expresses his conviction that 
whatever actual resemblance there may be between man and apes, 
they are completely removed from each other in most important par- 
ticulars. 

" Geographical Notes on the Island of Formosa." By Mr Robert 
Swinhoe, Vice- Consul at Taiwan. 

" Some Facts respecting the Great Lakes of North America." By Mr 
J. A. Lapham, of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S. 

"On the Physical and Mental Characters of the Negro." By Dr 
James Hunt. — The general deductions which he attempted to draw 
were — 1st, That there is as good reason for classifying the Negro as a 
distinct species from the European, as there is for making the ass a 
distinct species from the zebra. 2d, That the Negro is inferior intellec- 
tually to the European. 3d, That the analogies are far more numerous 
between the Negro and apes, than between the European and apes. 

No man, he said, who investigates with an unbiassed mind, can doubt 
that the Negro belongs to a distinct type of man from the European. This 
word species, in the present state of science, is not satisfactory ; but we 
may safely say that there is in the Negro that assemblage of evidence 
which would, ipso facto, induce an unbiassed observer to make the Euro- 
pean and Negro two distinct types of man. My second and third propo- 
sition must be equally patent to all who have examined the facts. 

We must, for the present, leave apart all questions of the origin of the 
Negro, and simply take him as he exists, and not as poets or fanatics 
paint him. We shall then learn, that it is only by observation and 
experiment that we can determine the exact place in nature which the 
Negro race should hold, and that it is both absurd and chimerical to 
attempt to put him in any other. 

Mr Craft said that though he was not of pure African descent, he was 
black enough to attempt to say a few words in reference to the paper 
which had just been read. With regard to the origin of the Negro, he 
for one believed that black and white men were all descended from a 
common parent. As Africans were very dark, and the inhabitants of 
Northern Europe very fair, and as, moreover, the nations of Southern 
Europe were much darker than those of Northern Europe, it was per- 
fectly fair to suppose that climate had a tendency to bleach as well as to 
blacken. The thickness of the skull of the Negro had been wisely 
arranged by Providence to defend the brain from the tropical climate in 
which he lived. The woolly hair was not considered by Africans as a 
mark of inferiority, though some of them shaved it off, but it also 
answered the purpose of defending the head from the sun. He had 
recently been to Africa on a visit to the King of Dahomey. He found 
there considerable diversities even among the Africans themselves. 
Those of Sierra Leone had prominent, almost Jewish features. Their 
heels were quite as short, on the whole, as those of any other race, and 
upon the whole they were well formed. Persons who had any knowledge 



316 Proceedings of Societies. 

of Africans knew that, when they enjoyed advantages, they were capable 
of making good use of them. He might refer to the instance of the little 
girl brought to this country by Captain Forbes. This child was pre- 
sented to the Queen, who had her carefully educated. When she grew 
up, she mingled in good society, and interested every one by her pro- 
ficiency in music, and recently she had been married to a commercial 
gentleman of colour at Lagos. Another case was mentioned by Mr 
Chambers in one of his works, and another case was that of Mr Crowther, 
who was well-known to many gentlemen in this country. One word 
with reference to the ancient Britons. When Julius Caesar came to this 
country, he said of the natives that they were such stupid people that 
they were not fit to make slaves of in Rome. It had taken a long time 
to make Englishmen what they now were, and therefore it was not 
wonderful if the negroes made slow progress in intellectual development. 
It was, however, proved that they made very rapid progress when placed 
in advantageous circumstances. He pointed to Hayti as furnishing an 
instance of independence of character and intellectual power on the part 
of the Negro ; and contended that in America the degraded position which 
he was forced to occupy gave him no chance of proving what he really 
was capable of doing. He was sorry that scientific and learned men 
should waste their time in discussing a subject that could prove of no 
benefit to mankind. He spoke with great deference to their opinions, 
but, for his own part, firmly agreed with Cowper, that 

Fleecy locks and black complexion 
Cannot alter nature's claim ; 
Skins may differ, but affection 
Dwells in white and black the same. 

Professor Wilson claimed for the author of the paper and those gentle- 
men who supported him, the credit of being influenced by a desire to 
search out facts which could throw light on the important subject under 
discussion. At the same time he differed considerably from them in 
some of their conclusions. It was very important to have sufficient data 
before forming a theory, and he thought that Sir Charles Lyell and others, 
who contended that the intellectual progress of the Negro stopped at the 
age of fourteen, had fallen into the error which a person would who went 
into a workhouse among the most degraded and wretched of its occupants 
to find intellectual culture and capacity. The fact was that very few, if 
any, black children had any opportunity of pursuing their education after 
the age of fourteen ; and in addition to that drawback, they had the mis- 
fortune to belong to a degraded and oppressed class, which was crushed 
and held down in the social world. The wonder was, that any of these 
unfortunate people had energy enough to make their escape and to acquire 
knowledge sufficient to enable them to carve a way for themselves through 
life, as not many of them did. The English character was made up of 
many elements, but a few hundred years ago the inhabitants of this 
island were cruel, unlettered, barbarous people. When put under good 
training and subjected to certain influences, the Anglo-Saxon proved 
capable of remarkable development, owing chiefly to the native energy 
of his character. The same quality was observable in some tribes of the 
present day, such as the New Zealander ; and it was not wise, therefore, 
to argue as though the absence of combination denoted a natural and 
primary inferiority of race. 

"On the Indian Tribes of Vancouver's Island." By Captain Eustactc 
\\ . Jacob. 



British Association. 317 

" On some Curiosities of Physical Geography in the Ionian Islands." — 
By Professor Ansted. 

" On a Central Argentine Railway from Rosario to Cordova, and across 
the Cordillera of the Andes." By W. Wheelwright. — The Central 
Argentine Railway commences at the city of Rosario, in the province of 
Santa Fe, on the right bank of the La Plata, in the latitude of 32° 56' 
southward, the longitude of 61° 30' west, and about 250 miles above 
Buenos Ayres by the channel route, which is navigable for ships of a large 
size, and has a depth of 16 feet of water ; it possesses a very fine harbour, 
and all the elements of prosperity, and is the great commercial entrepot 
of the interior provinces. Here the steamers which ply between Monte 
Video, Buenos Ayres, and Paraguay, and those engaged in commerce with 
Corrientes and other commercial points, stop, while almost a daily inter- 
course by steamers is kept up between this port and Buenos Ayres. From 
Rosario the railway will pursue its course in a north-west direetion over 
those vast and fertile plains to Cordova, the central city of the plains, 
247 miles, and thus will form the great trunk line, having upon its south 
and west the provinces of Mendoza, San Juan, San Luis, and the interior 
of the province of Buenos Ayres, whose high roads all concentrate upon 
the line of railway about midway ; on the north are the provinces of 
Tucuman, Santiago del Estero, Jujury, Catamarca, and Rioja, with all 
their roads concentrating at Cordova, and thus forming one of the most 
extraordinary combinations to be found in the annals of railways. 

" On the Physical Geography of Guatemala." By M. Osbert Salvin. 

" On the Manganza in Africa." By the Rev. L. J. Proctor. 

'* On the so-called Celtic Languages in Reference to the Question of 
Race." By Mr John Crawfurd. 

" On Celtic Languages." By Mr R. S. Charnock. 
Mr Crawfurd argued that the Gaelic and Welsh languages were 
quite distinct, while Mr Charnock took an opposite view. 

" On some Points in the Cranioscopy of the Nations of South America." 
By Mr C. Carter Blake. 

" On the Gulf Stream and the Influence of Atmospheric Currents." By 
Captain Maury. 

" On his Travels with Captain Speke from Zanzibar to the Sources of 
the Nile." By Captain Grant. 

" A short Account of old Maps of Africa, placing the lakes (Nyanza 
and Tanganzika) nearly in their true positions." By Mr John Hogg. 

" An Account of his Disasters in ascending the Nile." By Vice-Consul 
Petherick. 

" On his Travels towards the Sources of the Nile." By Signor Miani. 

" On his Exploration of certain Affluents of the Nile." By Baron von 
Heuglin. 

" The Ethnology of Ceylon, referring especially to its Singhalese and 
Tamil Inhabitants." By Mutu Coomara Swamy. 

" On the Varieties of Man in the Malay Archipelago." By Mr Alfred 
Wallace. — In the Malay Archipelago are found two very strongly con- 
trasted races — the Malays and the Papuans. The former inhabit the 
great Western Islands — Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes ; the latter, 
New Guinea and the adjacent small islands. The typical Malays are of 
a light brown colour, resembling cinnamon or lightly roasted coffee ; they 
have constantly straight black and rather coarse hair, little or no beard, 

NEW SERTES. VOL. XVIII. NO. II.— OCTOBER 1863. 2 S 



318 Proceedings of Societies. 

and generally smooth hairless bodies ; they are of a low stature, rather 
strongly made, with short thick feet, and small delicate hands. The face 
is broad, the eyebrows flat, the nose small, well formed, with the nostrils 
somewhat exposed ; the lips broad and well cut, the moutli large but not 
projecting. In character, the Malay is impassive, reserved, and bashful. 
His feelings of surprise, admiration, or fear, are not readily manifested, 
and he has little appreciation of the sublime or beautiful. He is some- 
what taciturn, is deliberate when he speaks ; he but seldom laughs, nor 
does he openly express his gratitude for a favour. He revenges an in- 
sult more quickly than an injury. He is honest and trustworthy in many 
matters, but prides himself upon his capacity of lying. His intellect is 
but mediocre, he is deficient in the energy necessary to acquire knowledge, 
and his mind seems incapable of following out any more than the simplest 
combinations. He is quick in acquiring mechanical arts, and therefore 
makes a good servant for simple routine duties. The Papuan is in many 
respects the opposite of the Malay. In colour he is a deep sooty-brown or 
black ; his hair is very peculiar, being harsh, dry, and frizzly, growing in 
little tufts, which in youth are short and compact, but which in adults often 
grow out so as to form a compact frizzly mop, nearly a yard in diameter. 
He is bearded, and his arms, legs, and breast, are more or less hairy. 
The Papuan is taller than the Malay, and perhaps equal to the average 
of Europeans; the face is elongate, and the hands and feet rather large; 
the forehead is flat, the brows very prominent, the nose large, long, and 
arched, with the nostrils hidden by the overhanging tip. The face has 
thus a Semitic character, which is perceptible even in the children. The 
moral characteristics of the Papuan separate him widely from the Malay. 
He is impulsive and demonstrative in speech and action. His emotions 
and passions are expressed in shouts and laughter, in yells and frantic 
leapings. He is noisy and boisterous in speech and action, both at home 
and before strangers. Of his intellect less is known, but it seems at least 
equal and probably superior to that of the Malay. He has a love of art, 
decorating his canoe, his house, and almost every domestic article with 
elaborate carving. It must be granted, therefore, that these two races 
are most strongly contrasted ; and if mankind can be classed at all in 
distinct varieties, the Malay and the Papuan must certainly be kept sepa- 
rate. Besides these well-marked races, are the inhabitants of the inter- 
mediate islands of the Moluccas and Timor, which, though differing in 
some degree from both, may yet, in almost every case, be classed with one 
or the other of them. The Negritos of the Philippines and the Lemangs 
of Malacca differ in most important characters from the Papuan races 
with which they have hitherto been classed, and must be considered to 
have Asiatic rather than Polynesian affinities. The recent evidence of 
the antiquity of man, and his having survived geological changes and the 
extinction of many species of mammalia, introduces a new element into 
ethnographical researches, and enables us to speculate more freely on the 
distribution and origin of races. Mr Darwin's researches on the structure 
and origin of the coral reefs of the Pacific, render it highly probable that 
great islands, or even continents, have recently sunk beneath its waters. 
The present distribution of animals in the Pacific islands leads us to con- 
clude that this subsidence is geologically recent. The inhabitants of all 
the Pacific islands as far west as New Guinea and Australia have much 
in common, while they differ greatly from other races. Combining these 
facts, and boldly following their indications, we may divide the Malay 
Archipelago by a virtual waving line through the Moluccas, so that all 
the tribes to the west of the line will be Malayan and of Asiatic origin, 
and all to the east Papuan or of Polynesian origin. This division is in 



British Association. 319 

harmony with that which has been shown to exist in the animal produe 
tions of the same regions, and obviates the difficulties attending every 
theory hitherto proposed as to the affinities and derivation of the Malayan 
and Polynesian races. 

"On the Recent Discovery of Lacustrine Human Habitations in Wig- 
tonshire." By Lord Lovaine. 

" Two Ascents of the Volcano of Misti." By the Hon. R. Marsh am. 

" On the Rivers of the Interior of Australia." By Rev. J. E. Wood. 

"Ethnology of Eastern Mantchuria." By Captain Fleming. 

" On the Human Cranium found at Amiens." By Mr Henry Duckworth, 

"On the Anatomical Characters of the Human Cranium found at 
Amiens." By Mr William Turner. 

" On the Tribes, Trade, and Resources around the Shore Line of the 
Persian Gulf." By Colonel Pelly. 

" On the Commixture of the Races of Man as affecting the Progress of 
Civilisation in Eastern Asia and the Polynesian Islands." By Mr J. 
Crawfurd. 

"On his Visit to Dahomey." By Mr Craft (an African Gentleman). 

"On the Aboriginal Occupation of North Tynedale and Western 
Northumberland. An Illustration of the Social Life of the North- 
umbrian Celts." By Rev. G. R. Hall. 

" The Origin of Gipsies." By Mr J. Crawfurd. 

" Antiquities of the Orkneys." By Mr George Petrie. 

" Notice of the Discovery of Three additional Runic Inscriptions in St 
Molio's Cave, Holy Island, Argyleshire." By Professor Daniel Wilson. 

"On Ethnographical Casts." By Hermann de Schlagintweit. 

"Ethnology of the Island of Formosa." By Vice-Consul Swinhoe, 

" The Extinction of Races." By Mr Richard Lee. 

""Note upon the Opening of a Cist of the Stone Age near the Coast of 
the Moray Firth." By George E. Roberts and Professor Busk. 



Section F.— ECONOMIC SCIENCE AND STATISTICS. 
President — Mr W. Tite. 

" On the Vital and Sanitary Statistics of our European Army in India, 
compared with those of the French Army -under like Conditions of Climate 
and Locality." By Dr J. Btrd. 

" On the Coventry Freehold Land Society." By Mr C. H. Bracebridge. 

" On the Decrease of the Agricultural Population of England, a d. 
1851-61." By Mr Purdy. 

" On the Effects of the Recent Gold Discoveries." By Mr H. Fawcett. 

"On the Opening and Extension of Durham University Academical 
Endowments." By Mr Hey wood. 

" On the Sanitary Condition of the Troops in India." By Dr Camps. 

"On Transportation in connection with Colonisation." By Colonel 
Torrens. 

" On Mortality in Lancashire." By Mr Frederick Purdy. 

" Remarks on Native Colonial Schools and Hospitals, from the Sanitary 
Statistics of Miss Florence Nightingale." By Mr James Heywood. 



320 Proceedings of Societies. 

" statistics of the Tanning Trade of Newcastle- on-Tyne (communicated 
by Mr Jambs Potts). By the late Mr T. C. Angus. 

" Military Budgets of English and French Armies, for 1863-4, Statisti- 
cally compared." By Colonel Sykes. — He showed by a series of elaborate 
returns that the total effective English army was 147,118 ; that of the 
French, 355,187: the cost per head of the effective and non-effective 
English, numbering 147,118 men, was £94, Is. l&d, a while the French 
effective and non-effective forces, of 400,000, was £43, 9s. 4d. per head. 
The cost of the British manufacturing department was £6, 10s. per head, 
against £2, 15s. lOd. ; military stores (British) per head, £5, 14s., 
French, ,£3, 0s. 2d. ; purchase of small arms (British), 14s. 4Jd., against 
5s. 8d. ; British military education, ,£1, 3s. 5d., French, 7s. Id. ; adminis- 
tration of the British army (Secretary of State and Commander-in-Chief's 
department), £1, 8s. lid., French, 6s. ll^d. ; Government staff (British) 
per individual, £304, 5s., French, £390 ; clothing (British), £4, 0s. 2d., 
against £1, 19s. lid. French. 

"Report of the Committee on Technical and Scientific Evidence in 
Courts of Law." By Mr Thomas Webster. 

" A Statistical Account of the Parish of Belingham." By Mr William 
Henry Charlton. 

"On the Difference between Irish and English Poor Law." By 
William Neilson Hancock, LL.D. 

" The Statistics connected with the Architectural Improvements in the 
City of Paris." By Mr William Tite. 

' k The Volunteer Force; its Comparative Cost, Development, present 
State, and Prospects." By Mr Henry C. Allhusen. 

" On the Origin of the Stockton and Darlington Railway." By Mr W. 
Fallows. 

" Observations on Criminals." By Mr Thomas Robins. 

" On the Reduction of the Death-rate in Gateshead by Sanitary 
Measures." By Mr John Lamb. 



Section G.— MECHANICAL SCIENCE. 
President — Rev. R. Willis. 

Mr C. T. Porter read a paper describing " Rimards's Indicator for 
Steara-Engines." 

Mr P. Westmacott read a paper, prepared by himself and Mr J. H. 
Spencer, " On the Engineering Manufactures of the Tyne and Neigh- 
bouring Districts." 

Mr J. Jamieson described a new form of Air-Engine of his invention. 

A paper by Messrs Hawthorn, describing their new method of working 
railways by stationary engines, was read. 

" On a New Plan for Hanging Dock- Gates." By Mr R. A. Peacock. 

Mr G. Fawcus described a plan for building boats so that any number 
may be packed one within the other, thus enabling a larger number of 
boats to be carried on board ship, and effecting a great economy of room. 

Mr D. Puseley read a paper descriptive of Thompson's Universal 
Stopper lor bottles, casks, &c, — an ingenious and effective mechanical 
arrangement for this purpose, by which many of the inconveniences from 
the use of corks are obviated. 



British Association. 321 

Mr W.'H. Richardson read a paper " On the Paper Manufacture of 
Northumberland and Durham." 

Mr C. W. Siemens then described his Regenerative Gas Furnaces for 
Iron Works. 

Mr D. D. Main described the Newcastle and Gateshead Water-supply. 

Admiral Sir E. Belcher described a Spirit-level Telescope for observing 
altitudes and obtaining latitudes independently of natural or artificial 
horizons, and exhibited a telescope thus constructed. — This telescope 
carries within itself a spirit-level, the bubble of which is brought to the 
level wire to which the object is brought. 

The Abbe Moigno exhibited and explained an instrument invented by 
Messrs Bourdon and Salleron, termed " Injecteur des Corps solides." 
The instrument is well adapted for the lecture -table, and illustrates in a 
remarkable manner the apparently paradoxical action of Gifford's Injector, 
now so largely used as a self-acting fuel- supplier for steam-engine boilers. 

" On Extinguishing Fires." By Mr C. B. King. 

" On the Prevention of Fouling of Ships' Bottoms." By Dr White. 
— The composition proposed for the covering of iron ships' bottoms is 
made of equal parts of powdered quick lime, of fat, and of oil, mixed and 
rubbed together. It is laid on the first time, when cold, by means of a 
short-haired painter's brush, on the surface, while high and dry ; but 
when afloat it must be applied by means of a diver's hand, either naked 
or covered with a glove. This composition is a kind of soap, which is 
insoluble in water, and which undergoes a slow chemical change, the 
result of which is that, after a few months, it has become rather less soft, 
and more easily separable in the form of flakes or scales from the sub- 
merged surface of the ship than it was when fresh applied. 

" Self-acting Valve Motion for Steam-Hammers." By Mr John 
Sturgeon. 

" Iron Ship-Building on the Tyne and Neighbouring Districts." By 
Mr CM. Palmer. 

" Description of the large Gyroscope used by Sir William Armstrong 
in the invention of Rifled Projectiles." By Professor Pole. 

" On Skin Resistance as Affecting the Speed of Ships." By Professor 
Rankine. 

" An Investigation of Plane Water Lines for Ships." By Professor 
Rankine. 

" The Diagonal Principle of Iron Ship-Building," By Mr Robert 
Taylerson. 

" A Mode of rendering Timber-built Ships impregnable and unsinkable 
under moderate Crew-power, as in a leaky vessel." By Admiral Sir 
Edward Belcher. 

" On an Improved Caisson Gate." By Admiral Sir E. Belcher. 

The Abbe Moigno exhibited the " Ventilateur a reaction" of Mons. 
Perigault de Rennes, and the " Balance aerostatique" of Mons. Seiler. 

11 Improvements in Waggons and Gun- Carriages." By Mr George 
Fawcus. 

" On Bridge Foundations." By Mr Thomas Page. 

" An Improved Valve and Apparatus for Atmospheric Railway Pro- 
pulsion." By Mr W. Smith. 

" A novel method of covering Boilers, Pipes, and Cylinders of Steam 
Engines, for preventing the Radiation of Heat." By Mr W. Smith. 



322 Proceedings of Societies. 

" On Boiler Explosions." By Professor Airy. 

" On the Improvements now being carried out in the River Tyne." Bv 
Mr J. F. Ure. 

" On Targets for Gunnery Experiments." By Captain Douglas 
Galton. 

11 On Rifled Ordnance." By Mr George Richards." 

" On the Decortication of Cereals." By Mr Robert Davidson. 

11 On Improvements in Machinery and Apparatus for Cleansing and 
Purifying Casks." By Mr Robert Davidson. 

" The Application of Machinery to Coal-Cutting." By Mr Samuel 
Firth. 

" Caselli's Auto -Telegraph from Paris to Marseilles." By the Abbe 
Moigno. 

V Oudry's Galvano- Copper and Galvano-Copper Paint applicable to 
Buildings, Armour Plates for Ships, &c." By the Abbe Moigno. 

" Report of the Committee on Steam-Ship Performances." By Mr W. 
Smith. 

11 Portable Machinery Apparatus for Rivetting, Chipping, &c." By Mr 
W. Smith. 

11 Novel Arrangement of Direct Acting Steam-Engines." By Mr W. 
Smith. 

" Bown's Tyre Fastening." By Mr Benjamin Fothergill. 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 

Thursday, l^th May 1863. — Professor Maclagan, President, 
in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 

1 . Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Diatoms from the South 
Pacific. Part I. By R. K. Greville, LL.D., F.R.S.E. With Plate. 

(This paper appears in this volume of the Journal, p. 34.) 

2. Experiments on the Fertilisation of Orchids in the Royal Botanic 
Garden of Edinburgh. By Mr John Scott. 

After some introductory remarks on hybridisation, and on Darwio's 
experiments, the author says : — " Having occasion to require a few 
capsules from the Vandea) tribe, 1 carefully fertilised for some time 
various species which flowered in the Royal Botanic Garden here. From 
certain of these I had the following somewhat singular and anomalous 
results. On different plants of the Oncidium sphacelatum, I fertilised a 
number of flowers with their own pollen, yet in no case did I ever succeed 
even in causing the capsule to swell. The only external signs the flowers 
afforded of being affected by the pollen were the closing of the stigmatic 
orifice twenty -four hours or so after its application, and the slightly earlier 
withering of the flower. On the large and vigorous plant of 0. sphacela- 
/ ii in, which, along with others subsequently noticed, Mr M'Nab has 
kindly permitted me to place before the Society, I impregnated between 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 323 

100 and 200 flowers, yet every capsule aborted. I dissected the column 
of many of these flowers as they dropped off, and invariably observed an 
abundance of pollen-tubes, which in most cases I traced into the ovary. 
Thus if the function of the stigma be simply to excite the emission of 
pollen-tubes, and that of the style their conduction to the ovary, we have 
evidence of its accomplishment, and might then attribute abortion to 
some inappreciable change in the sexual elements preventing normal 
conjunction. 

" Having thus failed in fertilising 0. sphacelation with its own pollen. 
I determined to try crosses with other species. With this end in view, I 
first crossed it reciprocally with the neighbouring species, 0. altissimum, 
under the impression that the probabilities for successful results would 
be inversely proportionate with the more or less immediate systematic 
affinities of the plants. In this my experiments have somewhat disap- 
pointed me ; and the results of the above were the unexceptional abortion 
of every capsule. I next tried 0. graminifolium with the pollen of 
O. sphacelatum, and succeeded in producing a capsule, which contained 
about one-fourth of embryonated seeds. I did not succeed vice versa. All 
the flowers thus treated dropped early. I may state that 0. gramini- 
folium does not appear from my experiments to be very susceptible of 
fertilisation with its own pollen. 

" From four flowers of 0. ornithorynchum, impregnated with the 
pollen of O. sphacelatum, I got one fine seed-capsule, though I had never 
before succeeded in fertilising this species with its own pollen ; I have 
now a single capsule thus produced. On dissection of the crossed capsule, 
I was disappointed to find that it contained few seeds, and of these a 
great majority presented only a loose transparent testa, entirely destitute 
of the embryo. The capsule, on the other hand, fertilised with its own 
pollen, though not quite so large as the above, was quite filled with seeds, 
of which about three-fourths presented an embryo. I did not succeed in 
impregnating O. sphacelatum with pollen of O. ornitliorynchum, though 
the capsules thus treated at first showed symptoms of swelling. 

" The most successful experiments which 1 have made were with 
O. divarication var. cupreum, and O. sphacelatum. I impregnated 
six flowers upon the latter with pollen from the former ; and I have 
now four fine capsules, nearly mature, as the result. I failed, however, 
in my attempts at crossing them reciprocally. I made also numerous 
attempts to impregnate O. divaricatum with its own pollen, and this as 
well upon those plants growing in baskets suspended in the hot-houses as 
those growing in pots. On one of the plants in the latter condition I 
have now, after many failures, succeeded in fertilising four flowers ; the 
capsules, however, are very abnormal-looking productions. In one of 
them which I cut off for dissection, I did not find a single perfect seed. 
On the other hand, the results of experiments on plants growing in 
baskets, though the more natural mode of cultivating them, was, singu- 
larly enough, the abortion of every capsule thus impregnated. The only 
indications of pollinic influence were an earlier fading of the flowers, and 
the closing of their stigmatic orifices, which I may remark is in this case 
effected by a gradual depression of the clinandrium, instead of a simple 
incurvation of the wings of the orifice, as occurs in 0. sphacelatum, men- 
tioned above. 

" Thus, in the above experiments, I have failed in crossing recipro- 
cally any two species ; nevertheless, I think I have satisfactorily shown 
an individual impotence of the sexual organs, in their mutual action, con- 
joined with a capability of normally performing their functions by the 
action of other species — and this in comparative disregard of recognised 



324 Proceedings of Societies. 

systematic affinities. I have yet, however, another case to state, in which 
we are afforded an illustration of this reciprocal action of species. It 
occurred with the Maxillaria atro-rubens and M. squalens. On the 
former of these I had made numerous attempts to fertilise flowers Avith 
their own pollen, yet in every case they proved abortive. I was thus 
induced to try pollen from another species. I accordingly took a few 
pollen-masses from flowers of M. squalens — certainly a very dissimilar 
species, but the only one in flower at the time — with which I fertilised 
eight flowers of M. atro-rubens. These have afforded me very successful 
results, as six out of the eight have produced well-formed capsules. I 
next tried pollen from M. atro-rubens upon a flower of M. squalens, and 
have now succeeded in fertilising a capsule on the latter also. I may 
remark, however, that I have found this species perfectly productive when 
fertilised with its own pollen. 

III. On some New British Lichens. By the Rev. T. Salwey, B.D., 
Vicar of Oswestry, and formerly Fellow of the Linnean Society. 

The following is a list of the Lichens described : — 

1. Aspicilia aquatica, Koerber. 2. Lecidia fusco-rubens, Nyl. 3. Le- 
cidea lecanorina, Nyl. (Mischoblastia lecanorina, Massalongo.) 4. 
Lecidea lithophila, Ach. ; Nyl. Lich. Scand., p. 226. 5. Lecidea tes- 
sellata, Florke. 6. Lecidea Pho?ops, Nyl. 7. Squamaria galactina, 
Pers. 8. Verrucaria ruderum, DC. ; Fl. Fr., p. 318. 9. Verrucaria 
aithiobola, Wahl. (V. margacea, var. 1, cethiobola, Nyl.) 10. Verru- 
caria virens, Nyl. in Bot. Notes, 1853, p. 180. 11. Calicium trajectum, 
Nyl., nov. sp. 

IV. Synopsis of the Canadian Species of Equisetum. By George 
Lawson, LL.D., Professor of Chemistry and Natural History in the 
Queen's University of Canada. 

The author gave descriptions of the species and their localities under 
the following sections : — 

Section I. Stems annual, the sterile ones bearing verticils of soft 
green herbaceous branches ; the fertile stems either evanescent and 
naked, or permanent and ultimately clothed with similar verticil- 
late branches. 

1. E. sylvaticum. 2. E. umbrosum. 3. E. arvense, and /3. granulatum, 
4. E. Teimateja. 5. E. limosum. 

Section II. Stems perennial, silicious, not verticillately branched. 
6 E. hyemale. 7- E. variegatum. 8. E. scirpoides, and /3. minor. 

V. Register of Plants in Slower in the Open Air at the Royal Botanic 

Garden (4«/i List). By Mr James M'Nab, Curator. 

The following shrubs and trees were in flower on the 20th day of April 
JM;:;. and they have not been enumerated in any of the previous lists laid 
before the Society at the above date : — 



Pyrus Malus 
Primus Padus 
Syringa vnlgarii 



Svringa pcrsica 
Crataegus prnecox 
Sarabacufl racemosa 



Forsythia viridissiraa 
Medicago arboroa 
Kalmia glauca 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 



325 



Fagus sylvatica 
Alnus glutinosa 

cordifolia 

Viscum album, mas 
Lonicera Xylosteum 
Cydonia japonica 
Buxus serapervirens 
Ilex Aquifolium 
Euonymus europaeus 
Acer Pseudo-platanus 



Acer rubrum 

platanoides 

Azalea pontica 
Daphne pontica 
Ribes aureum 

speciosuni 

Berberis Jaraesoni 
Viburnum vestitum 
Weigela rosea 



Pittosporum Tobira 
Genista elongata and 

Wistaria sinensis — 

(wall) 
Caragana frutescens 
Ulmus montana 
Fraxinus excelsior 
Double flowering 

cherry 



Thursday, 11th June 1863. — T. C. Archer, Esq., Vice-President, 
in the Chair. 

The following Communications were read : — 

I. — On the Nature of the Perigynium or Utriculus of the Genus Carex. 
By A. Wesmael of the School of Horticulture of Vilvorde in Belgium. 

The author remarks that Saint Hilaire and Lindley compare the 
utriculus of carices to the superior glumella or palea of grasses, and 
adopt the views of Brown, who considers the palea formed of two coherent 
bracts. Lemaout and Adrien Jussieu entertained the same opinion. 
The point to be determined is whether the axis bearing the secondary 
flower takes its origin laterally — and in that case either to the right or 
left, and opposite one of the two teeth which surmount the utriculus, and 
which correspond to the two median ribs of the two perigonial divisions 
of Lindley ; or whether that axis is inserted in front of the ovary. After 
careful examination, M. Wesmael finds that the latter view is the 
correct one — viz., that the secondary axis is produced in front of the 
ovary* This is the view taken also by Kunth, Gay, Roper, and 
Schlechtendal. 
The following are the conclusions at which he has arrived : — 
" 1. The utriculus which envelopes the ovary of the carices has been 
considered in two diiferent ways. 

2. According to the theory of Lindley, this utriculus is formed by the 
cohesion of two bracts, whilst, according to Kunth, it is formed by a 
single bract. 

3. Lindley believes in the presence of two bracts, from the existence of 
the two ribs in the utriculus, which he thus regards as analogous to the 
two-keeled palea of grasses. 

4. Lindley looks on the utriculus as being developed on an axis, which 
gives origin both to it and the ovary. 

5. This theory does not give a true view of the nature of the racheole. 

6. The racheole is a prolongation of the secondary axis, which, in an 
abnormal inflorescence of Carex acuta, after having given origin to the 
normal utriculus, is prolonged, and comes out in company with the stigma 
at the orifice of the utriculus ; it then gives origin to the bract, and 
afterwards to the secondary utriculus ; and on the axil of this is developed 
a very short axis, terminated by the ovary. 

7. The racheole is not developed to the right or left of the ovary, — 
that is to say, in front of the one or the other of the two principal ribs of 
the utriculus, — but is prolonged in front of the ovary, and consequently 
between it (the ovary) and the parent bract. 

NEW SERIES. VOL. XVIII. NO. IT. OCTOBER 1863. 2 T 



;>26 Proceedings of Societies. 

8. The inode of development of the racheole does not favour the view of 
Lindley ; according to which it ought to have for its point of origin the 
axil of one of the two bracts constituting the utriculus. 

9. The utriculus is an organisation analogous to that of the vaginiform 
bract which we observe at the base of the axis of inflorescence. 

10. All the observations I have made are in favour of the theory of 
Kunth, and contrary to that of Lindley." 

II. — Photoglyphic Engraving of Ferns ; with Remarks. 
By H. Fox Talbot, Esq., LL.D. (Plate VI.) 

Dr Talbot remarked — This plate, representing a fern leaf, is done by 
the process which I have called photoglyphic engraving, and which was 
published a few years ago in the various photographical journals. It 
consists in covering a plate of steel or copper with a film of gelatine 
mixed with bichromate of potash, placing the object, in this instance a 
fern leaf, upon the plate, and exposing it to sunlight for a minute, then 
removing the object, dusting the plate with finely powdered resin, to give 
a grain to the engraving, melting the resin, and when the plate is cold 
brushing it withacamel's-hair brush dipped in perchloride of iron, which 
speedily penetrates the parts upon which the light has not acted, and 
effects an etching, while the parts exposed to sunshine are thereby ren- 
dered impermeable to the etching liquid. Such a plate (steel), thus pre- 
pared, is capable of yielding at least five thousand impressions. It 
will be remarked that the leaf exhibits no venation. This arises from 
its being a dried specimen from the herbarium ; but recent specimens, 
especially of Adiantum, Trichomanes, Hymenophyllum, &c. yield en- 
gravings with a very beautiful venation. Grasses also succeed remark- 
ably well, and one of the most curious objects when engraved is the 
feathery achenes of Leontodon Taraxacum (the common dandelion), 
which are so well given as sometimes to be almost deceptive, except that 
the achenes themselves are apt to come out too black to be natural. If 
printed in pale brown ink, I think they would have a strong resemblance 
to nature. I wished to have shown a plate of this description to the 
Botanical Society, but the occurrence of cloudy weather for several days 
in succession has prevented my doing so on the present occasion. 

If this art had been invented a hundred years ago, it would have been 
very useful during the infancy of botany, when communications with dis- 
tant countries were so difficult. It would have been easy for botanical 
travellers such as Thunberg, Aublet, Loureiro, &c, to have taken with 
them a small printing-press, and to have worked off a small edition of 
fifty copies of each engraving they made, and sent the copies home to 
Europe whenever an occasion presented itself. Some of the copies would 
doubtless have escaped shipwreck and come to the knowledge of European 
botanists. Supposing the engraving only represented a leaf and a flower 
of each plant described in the works, it would have greatly aided modern 
botanists in determining the plants intended by those authors, whose de- 
scriptions are frequently so incorrect that they are like so many enigmas, 
and have proved a hindrance and not an advantage to science. 

I II. — List and Localities of Rare Plants found in the vicinity of Perth. 
By Mr John Sim, A.B.S. Ed. 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 



327 



IV. — List of Plants found near the Rumbling Bridge. By Professor 
Balfour and Mr F. B. W. White. 



Ranunculus aquatilis. 

auricomus. 

Trollius europaeus. 
Aconitum Napellus. 
Cardamine amara. 
Stellaria nemorum. 
Dianthus barbatus. 
Geranium pratense. 

lucid urn. 

sylvaticum. 

Trifolium medium. 
Vicia sylvatica. 
Spiraea salicifolia. 
Rubus saxatilis. 
Epilobium angustifolium. 
Circaea alpina. 
Saxifraga hypnoides. 

umbrosa. 

Sedum reflexum. 
Archangelica officinalis. 
Viburnum Opulus. 
Lonicera Periclymenum. 
Hieracium prenanthoides. 
Eupatorium cannabinum. 
Petasites fragrans. 
Matricaria Parthenium. 
Carduus heterophyllus. 
Campanula latifolia. 
Ligustrum vulgare. 
Symphytum officinale. 
Veronica Anagallis. 
Mentha sylvestris, /3. velutina. 
Calamintha Clinopodium. 
Rumex aquatieus. 

sanguineus, /3. viridis. 

Salix cinerea, /3. aquatica. 
Populus nigra. 
Castanea vulgaris. 
Paris quadrifolia* 



Listera ovata. 
Neottia Nidus-avis. 
Sparganium ramosum. 
Carex remota. 
Carex sylvatica. 
Milium effusum. 
Melica uniflora. 
Poly podium Phegopteris. 

Dryopteris. 

Lastrea Oreopteris. 

dilatata. 

Polystichum aculeatum. 



Cystopteris fragilis. 
Atbyrium Filix-fcemina. 
Asplenium Trichomanes. 
Blechnum boreale. 
Equisetum umbrosum. 
Weissia verticil] ata. 
Trichostomum flexicaule. 
Zygodon Mougeotii. 
Pogonatum urnigerum. 
Polytrichum juniperinuin. 

piliferum. 

Mnium rostratum. 



(3. lobatum, 



punctatum. 



Bartramia fontana. 

poiniformis. 

Anomodon viticulosas. 
Isothecium myurum. 

alopecurum. 

Hypnum striatum. 

ruscifolium. 

■ stellatum . 

cupressiforme, /3. com- 

pressum. 
Endocarpon miniatum. 
Peltidea scutata. 
Ramalina fastigiata. 



Professor Balfour exhibited a collection of dried plants sent by the 
Rev. W. C. Thomson, Old Calabar, and read a letter which he had re- 
ceived from him, dated 28th March 1863, in which he says: — By this 
mail I send you some fire-dried specimens of our Flora, which I trust will 
be acceptable and prove interesting. For this simple and easy method of 
preparing them, such as they are, I am entirely indebted to my friend 
MrG. Mann, who has been spending some time on the coast collecting ior 
Kew. He visited us lately, and spent a few days with us ; but unfor- 
tunately for us he leaves the coast by this mail, so that our Flora is not 
likely to figure so largely as it may deserve in the forthcoming volume 
on the Botany of Western Africa. I trust the specimens being sent will 
enable Edinburgh friends to contribute towards filling up the gap. 

In the case are two parcels of Ndam. It is the epidermis of the 1 af of the 



328 



Iroceedings of Societies. 



Merabo palm , All are dyed by boiling, — the black with the bruised leaves 
of Mucuna Balfouriana, the red with the bruised wood of a tree called 
Ukpa, and the yellow with the bruised bark of a tree called Auniau. 

Mr W. W. Evans recorded the occurrence of Helminthia echioides, a 
rare Scotch plant, by the side of a field at Tynefield, near Tynningham, 
where it has probably been introduced. 



Thursday, 9th July 1863. — Professor Balfour, Vice-President, 
in the Chair. 
The following Communications were read : — 

I. Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Diatoms from the South 

Pacific By R. K. Greville, LL.D., F.R.S.E., &c. Part II. 
(The paper appears in the present Number of this Journal, p. 181.) 

II. Description of the Fruit and Seed of Clerodendron Thomsonae. By 

Professor Balfour. 
(The paper appears in the present Number of this Journal, p. 258). 

III. Notice of a Botanical Excursion to Kielder and Deadwater Fell, 

Northumberland, on 4oth July 1863. By Professor Balfour. 

Professor Balfour gave an account of a botanical trip to Kielder on 
Saturday, 4th July, with eighty pupils. The party went by the North 
British Railway to Riccarton, and thence by the Border Counties Railway 
to Kielder. They visited the woods near Kielder Castle, and proc. eded 
by the Kielder Water to the mountains in the neighbourhood, ascending 
Deadwater Fell, which rises to the height of 1800 or 2000 feet. The 
numbers of species gathered were as follows : — 



Flowering plants, . 


176 


Ferns, Lycopods and Equisetums, .... 


Mosses, .... 


66 


Jungermanniae, 


10 


Lichens, 


38 




308 


Among the plants collected were the following : — 


Carduus heterophyllus. 


Salix herbacea. 


Aquilegia vulgaris. 


Vaccinium Vitis-ida i a. 


Spiraea salicifolia. 


Botrychium Lunaria. 


Trollius europaeus. 


Scolopendrium vulgare. 


Rubus Chamaemorus. 


Hymenophyllum Wilsoni. 


Listera cordata. 


Cryptogramme crispa. 


Habenaria viridis. 


Polypodium Phegopteris. 


Melampyrum pratense car. mon- 


Lastrea Oreopteris. 


tanum. 


L. spinulosa. 


Veronica scutellata. 


L. dilatata var. alpina. 


Solid ago Virgaurea. 


Asplenium Ruta-muraria. 


Corydalis olaviculata. 


Exidia auricula. 


Sedum villosum. 





Among Die Musci, Hepaticee, and Lichenes, which were determined by 
Mr John Siidler, wore the following: — 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 329 



Andraea Rothii. 

Sphagnum cuspidatum var. plu- 

mosum. 
Gjmnostomum curvirostrum. 
Campy lopus longipilus. 
Cinclidotus fontinelloides. 
Racomitrium aciculare. 
Pogonatum alpinum. 
Bryum nutans. 
Splachnum sphaericum. 
Bartramia fontana. 
Fegatella conica. 
Jungermannia sphagni. 



Boeomyces roseum. 
Lecanora tartarea. 
Sticta pulmonaria. 
S. sylvatica. 
S. scrobiculata. 
Peltidea scutata. 
Cetraria glauca. 
Alectoria jubata. 
Sphaerophoron compressum. 
Stereocaulon paschale. 
Cladonia uncialis. 
Scyphophorus squamosus. 
S. cocciferus. 



IV. Notice of Mosses found in Fifeshire. By Mr Charles Howie. 

Communicated by Mr John Sadler. 

The author remarked that he had gathered 248 species and varieties of 
mosses in Fifeshire, some of them being very much restricted in their 
distribution. 

Bankhead Moss, situated a few miles south of Ceres, is one of the few 
remaining portions of peat formation from which the country people cut 
peat for domestic purposes. It contains pools filled with water. In the 
larger and deeper pools we have Sphagnum cuspidatum var. plumosum 
in fruit, floating freely, bearing its fruit generally on lateral pedicels ; 
Sphagnum contortum var. subsecundum, bearing fruit more sparingly. 
Sphagnum cuspidatum var. recurvum is generally associated in more 
dense masses in water of less depth. Hypnum molluscum is found by 
the sides of some of the deep ditches in fruit, and Sphagnum cymbifolium 
occurs with various tints of colour. Sphagnum acutifolium, S. rubellum, 
and Hypnum jiuitans occur in fine fruit, in a pool of deep water, asso- 
ciated with Sphagnum cuspidatum var. plumosum. Hypnum irriguum 
grows in one of the small streams of the neighbourhood, and Splachnum 
sphaericum, on the naked peat soil. The Tents Muir is a station of peculiar 
interest in a Bryological point of view. Bryum Marratii, B. calophyllum, 
Catoscopium nigritum and Distichium inclinatum cover large patches 
of the Muir. Amblyodon dealbatus, with Meesia uliginosa, occurs densely 
covered with fruit. Hypnum albicans, H. salebrosum, H. polygamum 
and H. lutescens are also found in fruit. We also find Bryum pseudo- 
triquetrum, B. pollens, and various other species more generally distri- 
buted, as well as Climacium dendroides and Tortula vinealis in fruit. 

At Largo we come upon the basalt and trap which produce abundance 
of Orthotrichum anomalum, with a few examples of 0. saocatile, O. 
diaphanum, and other species; Grimmia leu c oplioza and G. Doniana 
are also found. On Largo Law, Grimmia apocarpa is associated with 
Pterogonium filiforme, Leucodon sciuroides, and Bryum crudum. At 
Kilconquhar Loch specimens of Mnium affine var. rugicum occur in 
fruit ; also Hypnum cordifolium in fruit. In the parts of the Links 
which are occasionally flooded by stream tides we meet with Distichium 
inclination, also Hypnum abietinum and H. nitens, Enculypta rhabdo- 
carpa in considerable quantity and in dense fruit ; further inland from 
the sea, Tortula intermedia, with Orthotrichum anomalum and Hypnum 
lycopodioides. 

V. Notice of some of the Woods used for Economical Purposes in New 

Zealand. By Dr Tuke. 



330 Proceedings of Societies. 

VI. Notice of the Cinchona Cultivation on the Neilgherry Hills. 
By Dr Hugh Cleghorn. 

The cultivation of Cinchona, or the Peruvian bark plant, is likely to 
supply a new produce for the trade of India. Mr Vincent, an enterpris- 
ing planter, has secured 5000 Cinchona plants for the land he has pur- 
chased, and M. de Facien, an enterprising planter, has secured as many 
more. Altogether, the orders on record exceed the number of plants Mr 
M'lvor (the superintendent of the Ootacamund garden) will be able to 
supply at the close of the current official year, which we understand will 
be 34,000. The plants available in the course of the next year, or from 
May 1863 to April 1864, are estimated at 100,000. This will be out of 
the Government nurseries, but the settings from their own stock, which 
planters in the meantime will have been able to rear, will be something 
considerable, for a single plant, some six feet high, in the public garden 
here, has given Mr M'lvor no less than 900 cuttings, each the 
. nucleus of a healthy sapling now, with the promise of a gigantic forest 
tree hereafter. The enormous source of wealth to which the Cinchona 
points, is actually derived from bricks. When a shoot is taken off a 
plant, it is immediately placed in a pot filled with brick dust. Hundreds, 
nay thousands of these pots may be seen in Mr M'lvor' s conservatories, 
covered with what look like nothing more than diminutive leaves thrust 
into them. Here the shoots are allowed to remain till they recover from 
the shock attending their severance from the parent stem. They are 
then transferred to pots charged with a mixture of decomposed felspar 
and garden mould, in which the process of rooting goes on. Several 
acres of shola land in the vicinity of the Government garden have been 
planted, and there can be no doubt that wherever the shade of a forest 
tree has fallen upon the interesting suckling below, it has pined and 
withered, or been stunted. The instances of this effect in a romantic 
glen to which Mr M'lvor will cheerfully lead visitors are very remarkable. 
At a few yards from the umbrage of a group of trees, the plants look ex- 
ceedingly flourishing, but their healthfulness, size, and vigour diminish 
in proportion to their approximation to shade. Some plants, which were 
put out in the Government garden in various positions a year ago, fully 
bear out this result. Those in the shade look sickly, and those subjected 
to drippings look worse. Mr M'lvor does not consider the Ootacamund 
plantation a complete demonstration of his principles, that at Neddiwattum 
being more corroborative of his views; but any one knowing the difference 
between a healthy and a sickly plant, must at once acknowledge that 
shade is not the condition for the active development of the Cinchona. 
There are, of course, other important particulars connected with the ulti- 
mate success of the Cinchona in India which must be left to time and ex- 
periment to establish. We might mention the earliest period of growth 
at which the alkaloids begin to show themselves, — the efficacy of decoctions 
and infusions made from dry bark and leaves compared with their virtue 
when prepared with fresh specimens, — and the possibility of dispensing in 
a large measure, if not entirely, with the expensive manufactured article, 
quinine, in the event of bark and leaf possessing sufficient curative pro- 
perties to be exhibited in most forms of fever disease. One or more ot 
these points, accompanied with the requisite materials for arriving at cor- 
rect results, will, we believe, be shortly submitted for decision in England. 
A very interesting feature in the habitude of the Cinchona plant is its 
power of reproducing its bark, when deprived of it, to a greater thickness 
than tho original formation. This peculiarity, we learn, has been noticed 
by Mr M'lvor, after covering the denuded parts with moss for a month 



Botanical Society of Edinburgh. 331 

or two ; but whether the larger volume of the bark thus produced will con- 
tain a proportionate excess of alkaloids, is a subject which at present rests 
in obscurity. 

Professor Balfour read a letter which he had received from John Allan 
Broun, F.R.S., of the Trevandrum Observatory, Madras, in which he 
says : — " I used to botanise when in Scotland, and have always felt 
anxious to do something in that way among our unknown mountains, but 
my other pursuits have always prevented me. I tried to make a collec- 
tion of a few plants, chiefly orchids, ferns, and mosses, but I had no good 
drying paper, only old newspapers, and it was very cloudy and damp, so 
that most of the flowering plants are spoiled. Could I have made out a 
collection worth anything, I would have sent you a set of the specimens. 
The finest palm of these mountains is the Bentinckia Condapana. I 
think it is the most graceful palm in Northern India. It grows chiefly 
in the clefts of precipices and among rocks not easily reached ; but there 
are such forests of it on some slopes that we were kept from starving by 
cutting it down for the cabbage (young shoot), which is delicious. Haw, 
it is like the finest walnut ; but we had it cooked as a vegetable and as a 
curry, when we had nothing else to eat. Its effect in the foreground in 
groups, and even in the distance of the landscape, is very fine. I have 
no book on palms, but I believe it is not found in the Neilgherries, nor do 
I know if it exists in Ceylon. It is found at a height of from 2500 to up- 
wards of 5000 feet at the place where I have been, but I have no doubt 
it would grow at higher stations. I have brought down a few young 
plants to try to make it grow here. We have a museum here, of which 
I am honorary superintendent, and I tried to get up a botanic garden, 
but nothing has been done as yet. This climate is almost exactly that of 
the country of the Victoria regia, and I have a fine tank in which I 
could put it. 

Mr F. Naylor presented specimens of Briza maxima, collected, ap- 
parently in a wild state, in Jersey. 



SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. 



Report on the Bark and Leaves of Cinchona Succirubra grown in 
India. By J. E. Howard, Esq. — In order to make the best analysis of 
the small quantity of bark at my command, I commenced with 500 grains 
of that of the second year's growth, and was able to obtain therefrom a 
first and second crystallisation of white sulphate of quinine. By thus 
specifying the Avhiteness, I mean to imply that the bark had not the com- 
mercial disadvantage which frequently attends the " red bark" at a more 
mature stage of growth, resulting from the fact that the colouring matter 
has in these last become so much implicated with the alkaloids as to make 
the task of purification a difficult one. The crystallisations I obtained 
were mixed with some sulphate of cinchonidine, which is commercially 
(but not medicinally) a disadvantage, and one which always attends the 
products of " red bark." I also obtained cinchonine, and other usual 
products, of the process as from South American bark, viz., kinovic acid, 
kinate of lime, gum, cinchona red, &c. The product of alkaloid in a 
rough state was estimated at 4 30 per cent. A second trial of the same 
quantity enabled me to decide more accurately the per-centage product in 
purified alkaloids I found the total contents 3*30 to 340 per cent., and 
of this (soluble in ether) quinine and some cinchonidine, 2*40 per cent., 



332 Scientific Intelligence. 

leaving 'GO per cent, of cinchonine, which crystallised freely, and also 30 
or 10 loss chiefly ia water of the hydrated alkaloids. This result must 
be considered extremely favourable. 

I have noticed the product of some fine quills of South American red 
bark as 3*60 per cent.,* the larger bark of the same parcel producing 
3"91 of alkaloid. Dr Ricgel obtained from 1 oz. red bark, of best quality, 
416 per cent, by Rabourdin's process, or 3'90 by that of Buckner. Of 
this 2*65 per cent, soluble in ether, was reckoned as quinine, and the rest 
was set down as cinchonine. f I have obtained a much higher per-centage 
of alkaloid from large and peculiarly fine " red bark," but I see no reason 
to doubt that even this higher per-centage would be attained in the East 
Indies, if time were allowed for the growth. 

The exact period at which it would be advisable to cut the bark must 
be ascertained by experiment, but I think this should take place as soon 
as the bark attains to a thickness which would repay the cultivation. 
There would be positive disadvantage in allowing the bark to attain such 
an age as is indicated by many of the specimens from South America, if 
the object to be attained is the extraction of the alkaloids ; since there is 
a continual process of deterioration J of these after a certain period of the 
history of the bark, which is connected with the oxidation of the red 
colouring matter, and the production, in very old trees, of those fine de- 
scriptions of bright red bark which command, indeed, a high price in the 
market (as much at the present time as eight shillings per pound), but 
which would not, in many cases, be more valuable for the production of 
quinine than bark of one year's growth. 

I next examined the younger bark of one year's growth, taking care 
to select the most mature portion, and found that it yielded 2*59 of alka- 
loid, of which 2" 55 (soluble in ether) appeared to be quinine and cincho- 
nidine, and in part crystallised into tolerably white sulphate, which showed 
perhaps a rather larger proportion of cinchonidine than in the older bark. 
On the other hand, the proportion of cinchonine seemed notably less, viz., 
only 0*04 per cent., but it is possible that the separation was not exactly 
effected between the cinchonine and cinchonidine, which is not easily 
accomplished by ether in such small portions. 

The above result induced me to pay further attention to the leaves, 
concerning which the absence of any carmine sublimate by heat led me at 
first to an unfavourable conclusion. The decoctions and infusions made 
by Mr M'lvor, though in perfectly good condition, showed that the con- 
tents changed most rapidly under the influence of the oxygen of the 
atmosphere as soon as ammonia was added to the, at first, decidedly acid 
liquor. Fortunately, a good supply of several ounces of dried leaves had 
been sent over, and from these 1 succeeded in obtaining quinine,§ though 
in very small quantity, but presenting its usual characteristics, dissolving 
in acids and precipitated by alkalies as a whitish hydrate, soluble in ether, 
and left by this on evaporation as a resinous-looking body, having the 
usual bitter taste, also crystallising not only as a sulphate, but as an 
oxalate of quinine (the latter being the more critical test), but nevertheless, 
presenting a characteristic implication with resinous or extractive matter 
such as is usually met with in the very smallest quills or canutillos of 

* " Illustrations of Nueva Quinologia," under head C. succirubra, p. 15. 

t " Phann, Oentral-blat," for July 1852. 

J Described in my " Illustrations of Nueva Quinologia," under head C. 
succirubra, p. 14. 

\ [This had been previously done by Dr T. Anderson, Superintendent of 
the Botanic Garden, Calcutta. — Ed. Phil. Jour.'] 



Botany, 333 

South American bark, in analysing which it is frequently difficult to 
purify the quinine from this adhesion. I obtained first from these leaves 
to the extent of Oil of alkaloid, of which part was soluble in ether, the 
remainder in spirits of wine, and afterwards 0'19 of precipitate still more 
combined with astringent matter. From these data, it seems to follow 
that the leaves will not supply a material for the extraction of quinine, 
but that they will, nevertheless, be very useful when used fresh or in 
recently prepared decoction or infusion for the cure of the fevers of the 
country. To this end the abundance of kinovic acid they contain, equal 
(weighed in the rough state) to 4-20 per cent., may also conduce. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

Coagulation of the Blood.-— Professor Lister, from recent experiments, 
concludes that the ammonia theory, however plausible, and though sup- 
ported by many ingenious arguments and experiments, must be discarded 
as entirely fallacious. The coagulation is in no degree connected with 
the evolution of ammonia, any more than with the influence of oxygen or 
of rest. The real cause of the coagulation of the blood when shed from 
the body, is the influence exerted upon it by ordinary matter, the contact 
of which, for a very brief period, effects a change in the blood, inducing 
a mutual reaction between its solid and fluid constituents, in which the 
corpuscles impart to the liquor sanguinis a disposition to coagulate. 
This reaction is probably simply chemical in its nature ; yet its product, 
the fibrin, when mixed with blood-corpuscles in the form of an undisturbed 
coagulum, resembles healthy living tissues, in being incapable of that 
catalytic action upon the blood which is effected by all ordinary solids, 
and also by the tissues themselves when deprived of their vital properties. 
— Croonian Lecture, Royal Society, 1863. 

Sir William Armstrong on the Consumption of Coal in Britain. — 
The statistics collected by Mr Hunt, of the Mining Record Office, show 
that at the end of 1861 the quantity of coal raised in the United King- 
dom had reached the enormous total of 86 millions of tons, and that the 
average annual increase of the eight preceding years amounted to 2£ 
millions of tons. By combining the known thickness of the various 
workable seams of coal, and computing the area of the surface under 
which they lie, it is easy to arrive at an estimate of the total quantity 
comprised in our coal-bearing strata. Assuming 4000 feet as the greatest 
depth at which it will ever be possible to carry on mining operations, 
and rejecting all seams of less than 2 feet in thickness, the entire quantity 
of available coal existing in these islands has been calculated to amount 
to about 80,000 millions of tons, which, at the present rate of consump- 
tion, would be exhausted in 930 years, but, with a continued yearly in- 
crease of 2| millions of tons, w T ould only last 212 years. It is clear that 
long before complete exhaustion takes place, England will have ceased to 
be a coal-producing country on an extensive scale. Other nations, and 
especially the United States of America, which possess coal-fields thirty- 
seven times more extensive than ours, will then be working more accessible 
beds at a smaller cost, and will be able to displace the English coal from 
every market. The question is, not how long our coal will endure before 
absolute exhaustion is effected, but how long will those particular coal- 
seams last which yield coal of a quality and at a price to enable this 
country to maintain her present supremacy in manufacturing industry. 
So far as this particular district (Newcastle) is concerned, it is admitted 
that 200 years will be sufficient to exhaust the principal seams even at the 
present rate of working. If the production should continue to increase 

NEW SERTES. VOL. XVIII. NO. II. OCTOBER 1863. 2 U 



334 Scientific Intelligence. 

as it is now doing, the duration of those seams will not reach half that 
period. How the case may stand in other coal-mining districts I have 
•lot the means of ascertaining ; but as the best and most accessible coal 
will always be worked in preference to any other, I fear the same rapid 
exhaustion of our most valuable seams is everywhere talcing place. Were 
we reaping the full advantage of all the coal we burnt, no objection could 
be made to the largeness of the quantity, but we are using it wastefully 
and extravagantly in all its applications. It is probable that fully one- 
fourth of the entire quantity of coal raised from our mines is used in the 
production of heat for motive power ; but, much as Ave are in the habit of 
admiring the powers of the steam-engine, our present knowledge of the 
mechanical energy of heat shows that we realise in that engine only a 
small part of the thermic effect of the fuel. That a pound of coal should, 
in our best engines, produce an effect equal to raising a weight of a million 
pounds a foot high, is a result which bears the character of the marvellous, 
and seems to defy all further improvement. Yet the investigations of 
recent years have demonstrated the fact that the mechanical energy resi- 
dent in a pound of coal, and liberated by its combustion, is capable of 
raising to the same height ten times that weight. But although the power 
of our most economical steam-engines has reached, or perhaps somewhat 
exceeded, the limit of a million pounds raised afoot high per lb. of coal, 
yet, if we take the average effect obtained from steam-engines of the various 
constructions now in use, we shall not be justified in assuming it at more 
than one-third of that amount. It follows, therefore, that the average 
quantity of coal which we expend in realising a given effect by means of 
the steam-engine is about thirty times greater than would be requisite 
with an absolutely perfect heat-engine. 

Bones in Drift. — Sir Charles Lyell, in his last work, suggests that 
parts of the north of Europe had a climate of intense cold at the time of 
the supposed co-existence of several extinct quadrupeds with man (the 
maker of the much-discussed flint implements found in the valley of the 
Somme and elsewhere). Presuming that to have been the case, may not 
the same circumstances have prevailed as now occur in Siberia, where 
numerous extinct animals are perfectly preserved in the stratum of ice 
which covers parts of that country, and which probably, with its contents, 
is a remnant of our tertiary period ? This ancient stratum of ice is in 
summer undergoing a constant process of destruction by thawing ; and 
thus the animals imbedded in it are liberated, and their fleshy parts de- 
caying, the bones remain on the surface of the land, or fall to the bottom 
of the river channels, and, with gravel and mud, must necessarily become 
so mixed up with the remains of man and of his works, as well as with 
the bones of other animals now living in that country, that it would, I 
believe, be impossible for the most skilful observer, after the disappear- 
ance of the ice, to declare, either from their state of preservation or from 
their relative position, that they were not the remains of man and qua- 
drupeds which must have been contemporaneous inhabitants of the land, 
— leading to the same fallacies which may be observed in some of the con- 
clusions which have of late been too hastily drawn regarding the human 
remains found in the drift in connection with those of animals, the species 
of which were probably extinct long before the appearance of man upon 
the scene. — Athenaeum . 

Illuminating power of the Electric Light. — The following is a short 
notice of Observations made by Professor W. B. Rogers on the Illu- 
minating Power of one of the large batteries used by Mr Ritchie of 
Boston, United States, in the recent grand exhibitions of the Electric 
Light in that city : — " The battery in question, consisting of 2;*)0 Bunsen 



Miscellaneous. 335 

pairs of the largest size commonly used, was arranged in the dome of the 
State House, and the carbon light and the photometric apparatus pre- 
pared for the purpose were placed in line across the same apartment, com- 
manding a range of about 50 feet. In view of the immense power of the 
light as observed in the previous experiment, I substituted for the 20-candle 
gas-burner, used at that time as the standard of comparison, a unit ten 
times as great, formed by the flame of a Kerosene lamp placed in the 
focus of a small parabolic reflector, and throwing its concentrated light on 
a photometric screen of prepared paper fixed in front of it, at the dis- 
tance of five feet. Before the observation the lamp and reflector were so 
adjusted as to make the light cast on the near side of the screen equiva- 
lent by measure to the action of 200 candles. A platform supporting the 
standard lamp and screen at the assigned distance was arranged to slide 
on a horizontal graduated bar, extending directly towards the carbon 
point, so that the screen should receive the rays from the electric light, 
and from the reflector perpendicularly on its opposite faces. In making 
the observations, the platform was moved to and fro until the illumina- 
tion on the opposite sides of the screen was judged to be equal, and then 
the measured distances of the two antagonising lights from the screen 
gave by easy computation their relative illuminating power. By a series 
of such observations it was found that the carbon light had a force varying 
from 52 to 61 times that of the lamp with reflector, making it equivalent 
in illuminating power to the action of from 10,000 to 12,000 standard 
sperm candles pouring their light from the same distance upon the surface 
of the screen. This it will be remembered is the effect of the unaided 
carbon-light sending its rays equally in all directions from the luminous 
centre, and falls vastly short of the illuminating force of the cone of col- 
lected rays which was seen stretching like the tail of a comet from the 
surface of the great reflector. Judging from some recent experiments on 
the power of such a reflector to augment the intensity of the light emanat- 
ing from its focus, there can be no doubt that along the axes of the cone 
when brought to its narrowest limits — the illuminating force of the carbon 
light as displayed on the State House could be rivalled only by that of 
several millions of candles shining unitedly along the same line." 



PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 

1. Sur la Statistique Gene*rale des Differents Pays. Par M. Ad. 
Quetelet. — From the Author. 

2. Annuaire de l'Academie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres, et des 
Beaux Arts de Belgique, 1862-63. — From the Academy. 

3. Bulletin de l'Academie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres, et des 
Beaux Arts de Belgique, 30 me Anne'e, 2 de Serie, torn. XL et XII., 1861 ; 
32 de Annee, 2 de Serie, torn. XV., Parts 1-6, et 32 de Annee, 2 de Serie, 
torn. XVI., Part 7, 1863.— .Prom the same. 

4. Proceedings of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. 
Nos. 11 and 12, Session 1862-63. — From the Society. 

5. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 
Nos. 7-12, for 1862 ; Nos. 1 and 2, for 1863.— From the Academy. 



336 Publications Received. 

6. Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. New 
Series, Vol. V., Parts 2 and 3. — From the same. 

7. Journal of the Chemical Society. 2d Series, Vol. I., Nos. 3-5, 
and No. 9, for 1863. — From the Society. 

8. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, No. 5, for 1862, and 
No. 2, for 1863.— From the Society. 

9. Memoirs of the Geological Survey of India. 2d Series, Part 3. — 
From J. Oldham, Esq., Superintendent of the Survey. 

10. American Journal of Science and Arts for March, 1863. — From 
the Editors. 

11. Transactions of the Manchester Geological Society. Vol. IV., 
No. 5, Session 1862-63.— From the Society. 

12. A New Theory of Muscular Action. By the Rev. Samuel 
Haughton, M.D., F.R.S — From the Author. 

13. Report of the Proceedings of an International Congress on the 
Subject of Cruelty to Animals, and especially Vivisection. — From the 
Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. 

14. Holmes' Magneto-Electric Light as applicable to Lighthouses. — 
From the Proprietors. 

15. Palseontologica Indica. Parts 2-4 and 2-5. — From Dr Oldham. 

16. The Analogy of Thought and Nature. By E. Vansittart Neale, 
— From the Publishers. 

17. Comptes Rendus, from January 1859 to June 1862. — From the 
Ed /tors. 

18. Report of Lieut.- Colonel Graham, United States Topographical 
Engineer, on Mason and Dixon's Line. — From the Author. 

19. Transactions of the Academy of Science of St Louis. Vol. II. 
No. 1. — From the Academy. 

20. Report of the Superintendent of the United States Coast Survey, 
for the years 1859 and 1860. 2 Vols. — From the Smithsonian In- 
stitution. 

21. Catalogue of the Army Medical Museum, Washington, D.C. — 
From the same. 

22. Annual Report of the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian In- 
stitution. — From the same. 

23. Canadian Naturalist and Geologist, Nos. 1-3 (February, April, 
June), for 1863. 

24. An Inquiry into the Nature of Heat, and into its Mode of Action 
in the Phenomena of Combustion, Vaporization, &c. By Zeraji 
Colburn. — From the PuLlishcrs. 

t M £3 




INDEX. 



Abrus precatorius Seeds, Analysis of, 163 

Alder, Joshua, on New British Polyzoa, 304 

Allman, Professor, on a New Fossil Ophiuridan, from Post-pliocene Strata of 

the Valley of the Forth, 149 
Aluminium, on the Manufacture of, by Isaac L. Bell, 296 
Ammonia in the Blood, by Dr Davy, 311 
Animal Life, Geographical Distribution of, 306 

Armstrong, Sir William, on the Consumption of Coal in Britain, 333 
Balfour, Professor, Notice of Pandanus odoratissimus in Flower in Edinburgh 

Botanic Garden, 162 

on the Fruit and Seed of Clerodendron Thomsonce, 258 

on a Botanical Trip to Kieldcr and Deadwater Fell, 328 

Baxter, H. F., on Muscular Power, 194 

Bee-hive British Dwellings near Penzance, 187 

Bentinckia Condapana, 331 

Bewley, James, Description of a Plant-house at Eockville, Blackrock. near 

"Dublin, 240 
Blast Furnaces, Deposit in, 295 
Bones in Drift, 334 

Botanical Society, Proceedings of, 162, 322 
Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, Flowering of Pandanus odoratissimus in the, 162 

Register of Flowering of Spring Plants in the, 163, 165 

Boulder-clay (Till) of Caithness, Fossils of, 159 

Brady, H. B., on Foraminifera new to the British Seas, 305 

British Association, Proceedings of, 283 

Bromide of Ammonium, Physiological Effects of, by Dr G. D. Gibb, 310 

Brown, Rev. Thomas, on a Clay Deposit with Fossil Arctic Shells in the 

Basin of the Forth, 148 
Bryson, Alexander, on the Evidence of the Rise of the Shores of the Firth of 

Forth, 161 
Carex, Remarks on the Perigynium or Utriculus of, 325 
Chemical Manufactures on the Tyne, by J. C. Stevenson, 294 
Cinchona Bark in India, 168 

Cultivation in India, by Dr Cleghorn, 330 

Succirubra, grown in India, its qualities, 331 

Clerodendron Thomsonce, Fruit ai»d SeecT'of, 258 

Climate, Great Mixed Forests of North America in connection with, 244 

Coagulation of the Blood, by 'Professor Lister, 333 

Coal, Consumption of, in Britain, 333 

in the Red Measures, 299 

Cohn, F., on the Contractile Filament of the Stamen in Thistles 190 



33S Index. 

Colonisation, the Place and Power of Natural History in, 126 
Contractile Filament of Stamen in Thistles, 190 
Cribellites carbonarius, 303 
Davy, Dr John, on the Colour of the Salmon, 247 

on the Eggs of Birds, 249 

on the question, Is Oxide of Arsenic, being used in a very small 

quantity, injurious to Man ? 43 
Diatoms from the South Pacific described and figured, 34, 181 
Dickson, Dr Alexander, Abstract of Cohn's Observations on the Contractile 

Filaments of the Stamens in Thistles, 190 
Dredging Keports, 304, 305 

Drift-beds at Mundesley, Norfolk, by Professor Phillips, 300 
Earth-Currents during Magnetic Calms, 158 
Earthenware, on the Manufacture of, by C. T. Maling, 290 
Edmonds, K., on St Michael's Mount and the Phoenicians, 173 

on the Bee-hive British Dwellings near Penzance, 187 

Eggs of Birds, Contents of, 249 

Electric Light, Illuminating power of, 334 

Electrical Standards, 283 

Equisetum, Canadian species of, by Professor Lawson, 324 

Fingers, Toes, and Phalanges in Man, Variation in the Number of, 83 

Fireball observed near Auchterarder, 160 

Fire-Clay Goods, on the Manufacture of, by J. Cowen, 289 

Firth of Forth, on the Evidence of the Rise of the Shores of, 161 

Flint Implements at St Acheul, by Professor Phillips, 299 

Flowering of Fruit-trees as in April 1863, 166 

Spring Plants in the Open Air in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, 

163, 165, 324 
Foraminifera new to the British Seas, 305 

Forests, Great Mixed, of North America in connection with Climate, 244 
Fossil Arctic Shells in the Basin of the Forth, 148 
Glass, on the Manufacture of, by R. W. Swinburne, 290 
Greville, Dr, Description of New Genera and Species of Diatoms from the 

South Pacific, 34, 181 
Gun-Cotton, Report of Committee on, 291 
Hector, Dr James, Exploration of New Zealand, 168 
Herring, Trawling for, on the Coasts of Scotland, Report on, 112 
Howard, J. E., on the Bark and Leaves of Cinchona Succirubra grown in 

India, 331 
Hurlburt, J. B., LL.D., on the Great Mixed Forests of North America in 

connection with Climate, 244 
Huxley, Professor, on Trawling for Herring in Scotland, 112 
Jardine, Sir William, Contribution to Ornithology, No. V., 146 
Kielder, Plants in the vicinity of, 328 

Kjerulf, Theodore, on the Phenomena of the Scratched Rock Surfaces, 1 
Lawson, Professor George, on Lemania variegata of Agardh, 30 
Lemania variegata of Agardh, described, 30 
Lichens, New British, by Rev. T. Salwey, B.D., 324 
Lightning, Effect of, on Nelson's Monument, 152 

Lindsay, Dr W. Lauder, on the Place and Power of Natural History in Colo- 
nisation, 125 
Lucifer Matches, Experiments on, by Professor Abel, 291 
Lyell, Sir C, on the Drift-beds at St Acheul, 301 
Magnetic Changes and Earth-currents, 158 
Malay Archipelago, Physical Geography of, 307 
Man, Varieties of, in the Malay Archipelago, 317 
Maxwell, Lieut.-Colonel, on Trawling for Herring in Scotland, 112 
Military Budgets of English and French Armies for 1863-4, and statistically 

compared, by Colonel Sykes, 320 



Index. 339 

Mitchell, Dr Arthur, Collection of Popular Weather Prognostics of Scotland, 
212 

M'Nab, Mr James, Eegister of the Flowering of Spring Plants in the Open 
in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden, 163, 165, 324 

Moon, Researches on the, by Professor Phillips, 284 

Mosses of Fifeshire, by Charles Howie, 329 

Murphy, Joseph John, on Revolving Storms, 234 

Muscular Power, 194 

Musical Sounds produced by Carbon, 297 

Natural History, its Place and Power in Colonisation, 125 

Nature-printing, an Easy and Effective Style of, 164 

Negro, Physical and Mental Characters of, by Dr James Hunt, 315 

New Zealand, Exploration of, 168 

Nomenclature, Zoological, proposed Eeform of, 260 

Nitrate of Amyle, Physiological properties of, by Dr B. W. Richardson, 311 

Noxious Gases and Vapours, mode of passing Unharmed through, by Dr 
White, 312 

Ophiolepis gracilis (Allm.), 150 

Ophiuridan, a New Fossil from Post-pliocene Strata of the Valley of the 
Forth, 149 

Orchids, Fertilisation of, 322 

Ornithology, Contribution to, 146 

Otago, New Zealand, Place and Power of Natural History in the Colonisation 
of, 125 

Oxide of Arsenic, its Effects on Man when long used in a very small 
quantity, 43 

Pandanus odoratissimus in Flower in Edinburgh Botanic Garden, 162 

Peach, CharJes W., on the Fossils of the Boulder-clay of Caithness, 195 

Phoenicians and St Michael's Mount, 173 

Photoglyphic Engraving of Ferns, 326 

Plant-house at Rockville, Blackrock, near Dublin, 240 

Plants and Gases, reciprocal Action of, by R. Garner, 314 

— in Coal, Nova Scotia, by Dr Dawson, 298 

Playfair, Huxley, and Maxwell, Report on the Operation of the Act relating 
to Trawling for Herring on the Coasts of Scotland, 112 

Polyzoa, New British, by J. Alder, 304 

Post-pliocene Fossils of Southern Norway, 1 

Printing Telegraph, 287 

Rogers, Professor W. B., on the Illuminating Power of the Electric Light, 334 

Royal Physical Society, Proceedings of, 159 

Society of Edinburgh, Proceedings of, 148 

Rumbling Bridge, Plants in the vicinity of, 327 

Salmon, Colour of, 247 

Sars, Professor, on the Post-pliocene Fossils of Southern Norway, 1 

Scientific Intelligence, 331 

Scott, John, on the Fertilisation of Orchids in the Royal Botanic Garden of 
Edinburgh, 322 

Scratched Rock Surfaces, 1 

Skull Forms, Ancient British, Illustrations of the Significance of, 51 

Smith, Dr Alexander, on a Fireball observed near Auchterarder, 160 

Smyth, Professor Piazzi, Note as to Lead from the Roof of part of Nelson's 
Monument injured by Lightning on 4th February 1863, 152 

Societies, Proceedings of, 283 

St Acheul, Deposit of Gravel, Sand, and Loam, with Flint Implements, at, 299 

Star 95 Herculis, on the Changing Colours of, by Professor Piazzi Smyth, 285 

Stewart, Balfour, on Earth-Currents during Magnetic Calms, and their Con- 
nection with Magnetic Changes, 158 

Stirling, Mrs, of Kippenross, on an Easy and Effective Style of Nature- 
printing, 164 



o40 Index. 

St Michael's Mount and the Phoenicians, 173 

Stomach, as regards the Action of its own Secretion during Life, by Dr Davy, 

311 
Storms, Revolving, 234 
Struthers, Dr John, on Variation in the Number of Fingers and Toes, and in 

the Number of Phalanges, in Man, 83 
Sun Spots, and their connection with Planetary Configuration. By Balfour 

Stewart, 285 
Sun's Rays, Chemical Action of, by Dr F. L. Phipson, 296 
Syrrhaptes paradoxus, irruption of into Britain, by A. Newton, 309 
Talbot, H. Fox, on the Photoglyphic Engraving of Ferns, 326 
Tate, George, on Oribellites carbonarius, 303 
Tenebroscope noticed, 286 
Titanium in Iron, by Dr Riley, 295 

Toes and Fingers in Man, Variation in the Number of, 83 
Vacuum, Effect of, on the entire Body, or a part thereof, by Dr Junod, 313 
Wallace, Alfred R., on the Geographical Distribution of Animal Life, 306 

on the Physical Geography of the Malay Archipelago, 307 

on the Varieties of Man in the Malay Archipelago, 317 

Weather Prognostics of Scotland, Collection of, 212 

Wesmael, A., on the Perigynium or Utriculus of Carex, 325 

Wilson, Professor Daniel, Illustrations of the Significance of certain Ancient 

British Skull Forms, 51 
Zinc, Nickel, and* Cobalt, in Cleveland Ironstone, by J. Pattenson, 295 
Zoological Nomenclature, proposed Reform of, 260 




END OF VOLUME XVIII. NEW SERIES 



PRINTED BT NT.rr AND company, EDINBUItGl 



I